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(i)

CENTRE: Parc de la Tête d\'Or , Confluence district and the Vieux Lyon
Lyon
. BOTTOM: Pont Lafayette, Part-Dieu district with the Place Bellecour in foreground during Festival of Lights .

Flag Coat of arms

Motto: _Avant, avant, Lion le melhor._ (Old Franco-Provençal : Forward, forward, Lyon
Lyon
the best)

Lyon
Lyon

Location within Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region Lyon
Lyon

Coordinates: 45°46′N 4°50′E / 45.76°N 4.84°E / 45.76; 4.84 Coordinates : 45°46′N 4°50′E / 45.76°N 4.84°E / 45.76; 4.84

COUNTRY France
France

REGION Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes

METROPOLIS Metropolis of Lyon

ARRONDISSEMENT Lyon
Lyon

SUBDIVISIONS 9 arrondissements

GOVERNMENT

• MAYOR (2017–2020) Georges Képénékian (PS )

AREA1 47.87 km2 (18.48 sq mi)

• METRO (2010) 6,018.62 km2 (2,323.80 sq mi)

POPULATION (JAN. 2014 )2 506,615

• RANK 3rd in France

• DENSITY 11,000/km2 (27,000/sq mi)

• METRO (2014) 2,265,375

TIME ZONE CET (GMT +1) ( UTC+1 )

• SUMMER (DST ) CEST ( UTC+2
UTC+2
)

INSEE /POSTAL CODE 69123 /69001-69009

ELEVATION 162–349 m (531–1,145 ft)

WEBSITE lyon.fr

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

LYON (UK : /liːˈɒn/ or /ˈliːɒn/ ; French pronunciation: (_ listen ), locally: ; Arpitan : Liyon_ ), also known as LYONS /ˈlaɪənz/ , is a city in east-central France
France
, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region , about 470 km (292 mi) from Paris
Paris
, 320 km (199 mi) from Marseille
Marseille
and 55 km (34 mi) from Saint-Étienne . Inhabitants of the city are called _Lyonnais_.

Lyon
Lyon
had a population of 506,615 in 2014 and is France's third-largest city after Paris
Paris
and Marseille. Lyon
Lyon
is the capital of the Metropolis of Lyon and the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes . The metropolitan area of Lyon
Lyon
had a population of 2,237,676 in 2013, the second-largest in France
France
after Paris
Paris
.

The city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy and historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
. Lyon
Lyon
was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk.

It played a significant role in the history of cinema : Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematographe in Lyon. The city is also known for its famous light festival, Fête des Lumières
Fête des Lumières
, which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon
Lyon
the title of Capital of Lights.

Economically, Lyon
Lyon
is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries. The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, and in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon
Lyon
hosts the international headquarters of Interpol , Euronews
Euronews
, and International Agency for Research on Cancer . Lyon
Lyon
was ranked 19th globally and second in France
France
for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in France
France
and 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Administration

* 3.1 Mayors

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
* 4.2 Gastronomy * 4.3 Sport * 4.4 Street art

* 5 Economy * 6 Demographics

* 7 Main sights

* 7.1 Antiquity * 7.2 Middle Ages and Renaissance
Renaissance
* 7.3 17th and 18th centuries * 7.4 19th century and modern city * 7.5 Museums * 7.6 Parks and gardens

* 8 Education

* 8.1 Universities and tertiary education * 8.2 Primary and secondary schools * 8.3 Supplementary education

* 9 Transport

* 9.1 Public Transportation Statistics

* 10 International relations

* 10.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

* 11 Gallery * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 References * 15 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Lyon
History of Lyon
and Timeline of Lyon

According to the historian Dio Cassius , in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered Munatius Plancus and Lepidus , lieutenants of the assassinated Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and governors of central and Transalpine Gaul , respectively, to found a settlement for a group of Roman refugees. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne
Vienne
(a town about 30 km to the south) by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. Dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called _Colonia Copia Felix Munatia_, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as _ Lugdunum _ (and occasionally _Lugudunum_ ). The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century _Endlicher Glossary_. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus ('Light', cognate with Old Irish _ Lugh _, Modern Irish _Lú_), and _dúnon_ (hill-fort).

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
recognised that Lugdunum's position on the natural highway from northern to south-eastern France
France
made it a natural communications hub, and he made Lyon
Lyon
the starting point of the principal Roman roads
Roman roads
throughout Gaul
Gaul
. It then became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two navigable rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul. Two emperors were born in this city: Claudius
Claudius
, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet
Lyon Tablet
in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators, and Caracalla
Caracalla
. Today, the archbishop of Lyon
Lyon
is still referred to as "_Primat des Gaules_ " and the city often referred to as the "_capitale des Gaules_".

The Christians in Lyon
Lyon
were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Septimus Severus . Local saints from this period include Blandina (Blandine), Pothinus (Pothin), and Epipodius (Épipode), among others. In the second century AD , the great Christian bishop of Lyon
Lyon
was the Easterner, Irenaeus . Place Carnot, Lyon
Lyon

Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled by the military commander of the west, Aëtius , at Lugdunum . This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461.

In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun , Lyon, with the country beyond the Saône , went to Lothair I . It later was made part of the Kingdom of Arles . Lyon
Lyon
did not come under French control until the 14th century.

Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon
Lyon
are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris
Paris
and Lyon, which is a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon
Lyon
the economic countinghouse of France. (Even the Bourse (treasury), built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air.) When international banking moved to Genoa
Genoa
, then Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, Lyon
Lyon
remained the banking centre of France. In the later 1400s and 1500s Lyon
Lyon
was an key centre of literary activity, both of French writers (Maurice Scève, Antoine Heroet, Louise Labé) and of Italians in exile (Luigi Alamanni, Giorgio Trissinio), for book publishing and of protestant activity.

In 1572, Lyon
Lyon
was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew\'s Day Massacres .

During the French Revolution , Lyon
Lyon
rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins . In 1793 the city was assaulted by the Revolutionary armies and under siege for over two months before eventually surrendering. Several buildings were destroyed, especially around the Place Bellecour . Jean-Marie Collot d\'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people. After Lyons was defeated in October of 1793, the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City." A plaque was also erected which proclaimed" "Lyons made war on Liberty; Lyons no longer exists." A decade later, Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period.

During the Renaissance
Renaissance
, the city's development was driven by the silk trade , which strengthened its ties to Italy. (Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings.) Thanks to the silk trade, the city became an important industrial town during the 19th century. In 1831 and 1834, the _canuts _ (silk workers) of Lyon
Lyon
staged two major uprisings for better working conditions and pay. The 1831 uprising had one of the first recorded uses of the black flag as an emblem of protest.

In 1862, the world's first urban funicular railway was built between Lyon
Lyon
and La Croix-Rousse
La Croix-Rousse
.

During World War II, Lyon
Lyon
was a centre for the occupying German forces, as well as a stronghold of resistance . The _traboules _ (secret passages) through houses enabled the local people to escape Gestapo
Gestapo
raids. On 3 September 1944, the city was liberated by the 1st Free French Division and the Forces Françaises de l\'Intérieur . The city is now home to a resistance museum. _(See also Klaus Barbie .)_

*

The lion has been the symbol of the city for centuries and is represented throughout the city. *

Lyon
Lyon
in the 18th century *

Lyon
Lyon
under siege in 1793 *

Lyon
Lyon
in 1860 *

Lyon
Lyon
in 2007

GEOGRAPHY

The Rhône and Saône Rivers converge to the south of the historic city centre forming a peninsula or "_Presqu\'île _". There are two large hills, one to the west and one to the north of the city centre, as well as a large plain which sprawls eastward. West of the Presqu'île, the original mediaeval city ( Vieux Lyon ) was built on the west bank of the Saône river at the foot of the Fourvière hill. This area, along with portions of the Presqu'île and much of the Croix-Rousse is recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

To the west is Fourvière, known as "the hill that prays". This is the location for the highly decorated basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière , several convents, the palace of the Archbishop
Archbishop
, the Tour métallique (a highly visible TV tower, replicating the last stage of the Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
) and a funicular (a railway on a steep hill).

To the north is the Croix-Rousse , known as "the hill that works". This area is traditionally home to many small silk workshops, an industry for which the city was once renowned.

Place Bellecour is located on the Presqu'île between the two rivers and is the third-largest public square in France. The broad, pedestrian-only Rue de la République leads north from Place Bellecour. The second arrondissement has many of the finest old residential buildings in Lyon
Lyon
and the area is known for its concentration of old Lyonnaise Catholic families, particularly in the Ainay part of the arrondissement.

East of the Rhône from the Presqu'île is a large area of flat ground upon which sits much of modern Lyon
Lyon
and contains most of the city's population. Situated in this area is the urban centre of Part-Dieu which clusters the Tour Part-Dieu (affectionately nicknamed "The Pencil"), the Tour Oxygène , the Tour Swiss Life , La Part-Dieu (a shopping centre), and Lyon
Lyon
Part-Dieu (one of Lyon's two major rail terminals).

North of this district is the relatively wealthy sixth arrondissement, which is home to the Parc de la Tête d\'Or (one of Europe's largest urban parks), the prestigious Lycée du Parc to the south of the park, and Interpol 's world headquarters on the park's western edge. The park contains a free zoo that has recently been upgraded.. The zoo hosts animals from around the world. It covers more than 6 hectares. Panorama of the inner city of Lyon, taken from the basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière's roof

CLIMATE

Lyon
Lyon
has a humid subtropical climate (_Cfa_), albeit having some characteristics of the oceanic climate (_Cfb_). The mean temperature in Lyon
Lyon
in the coldest month is 3.2 °C (37.8 °F) in January and in the warmest month in July is 22 °C (71.6 °F), hence maintaining its subtropical classification. Precipitation
Precipitation
is adequate year-round, at an average of 830 mm (32.7 in), but the winter months are the driest. The highest recorded temperature is 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) on 13 August 2003 while the lowest recorded temperature is −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) on 22 December 1938.

CLIMATE DATA FOR LYON (1981–2010 AVERAGES)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 18.5 (65.3) 21.9 (71.4) 25.7 (78.3) 30.1 (86.2) 34.2 (93.6) 38.4 (101.1) 39.8 (103.6) 40.5 (104.9) 35.8 (96.4) 28.4 (83.1) 23.0 (73.4) 20.2 (68.4) 40.5 (104.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6.4 (43.5) 8.4 (47.1) 14.5 (58.1) 18.3 (64.9) 21.8 (71.2) 24.6 (76.3) 27.7 (81.9) 27.2 (81) 22.7 (72.9) 17.4 (63.3) 10.8 (51.4) 7.1 (44.8) 17.3 (63.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 3.4 (38.1) 4.8 (40.6) 8.4 (47.1) 11.4 (52.5) 15.8 (60.4) 19.4 (66.9) 22.2 (72) 21.6 (70.9) 17.6 (63.7) 13.4 (56.1) 7.6 (45.7) 4.4 (39.9) 12.5 (54.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 1.1 (34) 3.8 (38.8) 6.5 (43.7) 10.7 (51.3) 14.1 (57.4) 17.6 (63.7) 17.2 (63) 12.5 (54.5) 9.3 (48.7) 4.3 (39.7) 1.6 (34.9) 9.1 (48.4)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −23.0 (−9.4) −22.5 (−8.5) −10.5 (13.1) −4.4 (24.1) −3.8 (25.2) 2.3 (36.1) 6.1 (43) 4.6 (40.3) 0.2 (32.4) −4.5 (23.9) −9.4 (15.1) −24.6 (−12.3) −24.6 (−12.3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 47.2 (1.858) 44.1 (1.736) 50.4 (1.984) 74.9 (2.949) 90.8 (3.575) 75.6 (2.976) 63.7 (2.508) 62.0 (2.441) 87.5 (3.445) 98.6 (3.882) 81.9 (3.224) 55.2 (2.173) 831.9 (32.752)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 9.0 7.8 8.4 9.3 11.3 8.4 6.9 7.1 7.6 10.2 9.0 9.1 104.1

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 5.5 3.9 2.5 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 4.6 19.6

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 84 80 74 71 72 70 65 70 76 82 84 86 76.2

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 73.9 101.2 170.2 190.5 221.4 254.3 283.0 252.7 194.8 129.6 75.9 54.5 2,001.9

Source #1: Météo France
France

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)

ADMINISTRATION

Main article: Arrondissements of Lyon
Arrondissements of Lyon
Map of the City of Lyon divided into 9 arrondissements Map of the Metropolis of Lyon (the city of Lyon
Lyon
is in red)

Like Paris
Paris
and Marseille
Marseille
, the city of Lyon
Lyon
is divided into a number of municipal arrondissements , each of which is identified by a number and has its own council and town hall. Five arrondissements were originally created in 1852, when three neighbouring communes (La Croix-Rousse, La Guillotière, and Vaise) were annexed by Lyon. Between 1867 and 1959, the third arrondissement (which originally covered the whole of the Left Bank of the Rhône ) was split three times, creating a new arrondissement in each case. Then, in 1963, the commune of Saint-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe was annexed to Lyon's fifth arrondissement. A year later, in 1964, the fifth was split to create Lyon's 9th – and, to date, final – arrondissement. Within each arrondissement, the recognisable _quartiers_ or neighbourhoods are:

* 1st arrondissement : Slopes of La Croix-Rousse
La Croix-Rousse
, Terreaux , Martinière/St-Vincent * 2nd arrondissement : Cordeliers, Bellecour , Ainay, Perrache , Confluent * 3rd arrondissement : Guillotière (north), Préfecture, Part-Dieu , Villette, Dauphiné/Sans Souci, Montchat, Grange Blanche (north), Monplaisir (north) * 4th arrondissement : Plateau de la Croix-Rousse , Serin * 5th arrondissement : Vieux Lyon (Saint-Paul , Saint-Jean , Saint-Georges , Saint-Just , Saint-Irénée, Fourvière , Point du Jour, Ménival, Battières, Champvert (south) * 6th arrondissement : Brotteaux, Bellecombe, Parc de la Tête d\'Or , Cité Internationale * 7th arrondissement : Guillotière (south), Jean Macé, Gerland * 8th arrondissement : Monplaisir (south), Bachut , États-Unis, Grand Trou/Moulin à Vent, Grange Blanche (south), Laënnec , Mermoz, Monplaisir-la-Plaine * 9th arrondissement : Vaise
Vaise
, Duchère, Rochecardon, St-Rambert-l'Île-Barbe, Gorge de Loup, Observance, Champvert (north)

Geographically, Lyon's two main rivers, the Saône and the Rhône, divide the arrondissements into three groups:

* To the west of the Saône, the fifth arrondissement covers the old city (Vieux Lyon), Fourvière hill and the plateau beyond. The 9th is immediately to the north, and stretches from Gorge de Loup, through Vaise
Vaise
to the neighbouring suburbs of Écully, Champagne-au-Mont-d'Or, Saint-Didier-au-Mont-d'Or, Saint-Cyr-au-Mont-d'Or and Collonges-au-Mont-d'Or. * Between the two rivers, on the Presqu\'île are the second, first, and fourth arrondissements. The second includes most of the city centre, including Bellecour and Perrache railway station, and reaches as far as the confluence of the two rivers. The first is directly to the north of the second and covers part of the city centre (including the Hôtel de Ville ) and the slopes of La Croix-Rousse. To the north of the Boulevard is the fourth arrondissement, which covers the Plateau of La Croix-Rousse, up to its boundary with the commune of Caluire-et-Cuire. * To the east of the Rhône, are the third, sixth, seventh, and eighth arrondissements.

MAYORS

MAYOR TERM START TERM END

PARTY

Antoine Gailleton 1881 1900

Victor Augagneur
Victor Augagneur
1900 000000001905-10-30-000030 October 1905

PRS

Édouard Herriot 000000001905-10-30-000030 October 1905 000000001940-09-20-000020 September 1940

Radical

Georges Cohendy 000000001940-09-20-000020 September 1940 1941

Nominated and dismissed by Vichy

Georges Villiers 1941 1942

Nominated and dismissed by Vichy

Pierre-Louis-André Bertrand 1942 1944

Nominated by Vichy

Justin Godart 1944 000000001945-05-18-000018 May 1945

Radical

Édouard Herriot 000000001945-05-18-000018 May 1945 000000001957-03-26-000026 March 1957

Radical

Pierre Montel, interim 000000001957-03-26-000026 March 1957 000000001957-04-14-000014 April 1957

Radical

Louis Pradel 000000001957-04-14-000014 April 1957 000000001976-11-27-000027 November 1976

Centre-right

Armand Tapernoux, interim 000000001976-11-27-000027 November 1976 000000001976-12-05-00005 December 1976

Independent

Francisque Collomb 000000001976-12-05-00005 December 1976 000000001989-03-24-000024 March 1989

UDF

Michel Noir 000000001989-03-24-000024 March 1989 000000001995-06-25-000025 June 1995

RPR

Raymond Barre
Raymond Barre
000000001995-06-25-000025 June 1995 000000002001-03-25-000025 March 2001

UDF

Gérard Collomb 000000002001-03-25-000025 March 2001 000000002017-07-17-000017 July 2017

PS

Georges Képénékian 000000002017-07-17-000017 July 2017 _incumbent_

PS

CULTURE

HISTORIC SITE OF LYONS Lyon
Lyon
Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière on the hill.

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE

LOCATION Urban Community of Lyon , Metropolis of Lyon , Rhône , France
France

COORDINATES 45°45′32″N 4°50′29″E / 45.7589°N 4.8414°E / 45.7589; 4.8414

AREA 47.87 km2 (515,300,000 sq ft)

CRITERIA ii, iv

REFERENCE 872

INSCRIPTION 1998 (22nd Session )

WEBSITE www.lyon.fr

Location of Lyon
Lyon

Since the Middle Ages, the residents of the region have spoken several dialects of Franco-Provençal . The Lyonnais
Lyonnais
dialect was replaced by the French language as the importance of the city grew. However some "frenchified" Franco-Provençal words can also be heard in the French of the Lyonnais, who call their little boys and girls "gones" and "fenottes" for example.

* The Lumière brothers pioneered cinema in the town in 1895. The Institut Lumière , built as Auguste Lumiere's house, and a fascinating piece of architecture in its own right, holds many of their first inventions and other early cinematic and photographic artefacts. * 8 December each year is marked by the Festival of Lights (la Fête des lumières), a celebration of thanks to the Virgin Mary , who purportedly saved the city from a deadly plague in the Middle Ages. During the event, the local population places candles (_lumignons_) at their windows and the city of Lyon
Lyon
organises impressive large-scale light shows onto the sides of important Lyonnais
Lyonnais
monuments, such as the mediaeval Cathédrale St-Jean. * The church of Saint Francis of Sales is famous for its large and unaltered Cavaillé-Coll pipe organ, attracting audiences from around the world. * The Opéra Nouvel (New Opera House) is the home of the Opéra National de Lyon
Lyon
. The original opera house was re-designed by the distinguished French architect Jean Nouvel between 1985 and 1993 and is named after him. * Lyon
Lyon
is also the French capital of "_trompe l\'œil _" walls, a very ancient tradition. Many are to be seen around the city. This old tradition is now finding a contemporary expression, for example in the art of Guillaume Bottazzi. * The Brothers of the Sacred Heart , a Roman Catholic congregation that operates schools in Europe and North America, was founded in Lyon in 1821. * The African Museum of Lyon is one of the oldest museums situated in Lyon. * The Museum of Resistance and Deportation looks at the various individuals prominent in the Resistance movement in World War II. The building is strongly linked to Klaus Barbie . Lyon
Lyon
sees itself as the centre of the French resistance and many members were shot in Place Bellecour in the town centre. The exhibition is largely a series of mini-biographies of those involved. * The unusual project Lyon Dubai City , a reproduction of some districts of Lyon
Lyon
in Dubai, is a major point for tourism in Lyon. * Lyon
Lyon
is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE

The Historic Site of Lyons was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1998. In its designation, UNESCO cited the "exceptional testimony to the continuity of urban settlement over more than two millennia on a site of great commercial and strategic significance." The specific regions comprising the Historic Site include the Roman district and Fourvière, the Renaissance
Renaissance
district (Vieux Lyon), the silk district (slopes of Croix-Rousse), and the Presqu'île, which features architecture from the 12th century to modern times. Both Vieux Lyon and the slopes of Croix-Rousse are known for their narrow passageways (named _traboules _) that pass through buildings and link streets on either side. The first examples of traboules are thought to have been built in Lyon
Lyon
in the 4th century. The traboules allowed the inhabitants to get from their homes to the Saône river quickly and allowed the canuts on the Croix-Rousse hill to get from their workshops to the textile merchants at the foot of the hill.

GASTRONOMY

Main article: Lyonnaise cuisine

Lyon
Lyon
has a long and chronicled culinary arts tradition. The noted food critic Curnonsky referred to the city as "the gastronomic capital of the world", a claim repeated by later writers such as Bill Buford . Renowned 3-star Michelin chefs such as Marie Bourgeois and Eugénie Brazier developed Lyonnaise cuisine into a national phenomenon favoured by the French elite; a tradition which Paul Bocuse later turned into a worldwide success.

The "bouchon " is a traditional Lyonnais
Lyonnais
restaurant that serves local dishes such as sausages, duck pâté or roast pork; along with local wines. Two of France's best known wine-growing regions are located near the city: the Beaujolais region to the north and the Côtes du Rhône region to the south. Another Lyon
Lyon
tradition is a type of brunch food called "mâchons", made of local charcuterie and usually accompanied by Beaujolais red wine. Mâchons were the customary meal of the canuts , the city's silk workers, who ate a late-morning meal after they finished their shifts in the factories. Other traditional local dishes include Rosette lyonnaise and saucisson de Lyon (sausage); andouillette (a sausage of coarsely cut tripe); pistachio sausage; coq au vin ; esox (pike) quenelle ; gras double (tripe cooked with onions); salade lyonnaise (lettuce with bacon, croûtons and a poached egg); marrons glacés ; coussin de Lyon
Lyon
, sabodet and cardoon au gratin. Cervelle de canut (lit. silk worker's brains) is a cheese spread/dip, another Lyonnais
Lyonnais
speciality. The dish has a base of fromage blanc , seasoned with chopped herbs, shallots, salt, pepper, olive oil and vinegar.

SPORT

Parc Olympique Lyonnais
Lyonnais

Lyon
Lyon
is home to the Division 1 Féminine team Olympique Lyonnais Féminin , 14-time winners of the French women's first division championship and three-time winners of the UEFA Women\'s Champions League as well as to the Ligue 1 football team Olympique Lyonnais
Lyonnais
, seven-time winners of the French men's first division championship (2002–2008),. The team played until December 2015 at the 43,000-seat Stade de Gerland , which also hosted matches of the 1998 FIFA World Cup . Since 2016, the team has played at the Parc Olympique Lyonnais
Lyonnais
, a 59,000-seat stadium located in the eastern suburb of Décines-Charpieu
Décines-Charpieu
.

Lyon
Lyon
has a rugby union team, Lyon OU , currently in Pro D2 . In addition, Lyon
Lyon
has a rugby league side called Lyon Villeurbanne that plays in the French rugby league championship . The club's current home is the Stade Georges Lyvet in Villeurbanne.

Lyon
Lyon
is also home to the Lyon Hockey Club , an ice hockey team that competes in France's national ice hockey league. The Patinoire Charlemagne is the seat of Club des Sports de Glace de Lyon, the club of Olympic champions Marina Anissina and Gwendal Peizerat
Gwendal Peizerat
; and world champions Isabelle Delobel and Olivier Shoenfelder
Olivier Shoenfelder
(both pairs competed in ice dancing). Villeurbanne
Villeurbanne
also has a basketball team, ASVEL , that plays at the Astroballe arena.

STREET ART

Since 2000, Birdy Kids , a group of graffiti artists from the city, has decorated several random buildings and walls along the Lyon
Lyon
ring road. In 2012, the artist collective has been chosen to represent the city as its cultural ambassadors.

ECONOMY

La Part-Dieu , the city's central business district

The GDP of Lyon
Lyon
was 74 billion euro in 2012, and it's the second richest city in France
France
after Paris. Lyon
Lyon
and its region Rhône-Alpes represent one of the most important economies in Europe and, according to Loughborough University, can be compared to Philadelphia, Mumbai or Athens with regard to its international position. The city of Lyon
Lyon
is working in partnership to more easily enable the establishment of new headquarters in the territory (ADERLY, Chambre du commerce et d\'industrie , Grand Lyon
Lyon
...). According to the ECER-Banque Populaire, Lyon
Lyon
is the 14th favourite city in the European Union for the creation of companies and investments. High-tech industries such as biotechnology, software development, video game ( Arkane Studios ; Ivory Tower ; Eden Games ; EA France
France
; Bandai Namco Entertainment Europe), and internet services are also growing. Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Lyon
Lyon
is home to some of the most dangerous viruses in the world (class 4) in the Jean Merieux laboratory of research, like Ebola
Ebola
, Marburg , Nipah , Hendra , and Lassa .

The city is home to the headquarters of many large companies such as Groupe SEB , Sanofi Pasteur , Renault Trucks , Norbert Dentressangle , LCL S.A. , Descours "> The Roman-era Theatre on the Fourvière hill Lyon
Lyon
in the background with Fourvière on the left

* The Roman ruins on the hillside near the Fourvière Basilica with the Ancient Theatre of Fourvière , the Odeon of Lyon
Odeon of Lyon
and the accompanying Gallo-Roman Museum ; * Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls
Amphitheatre of the Three Gauls
, Roman ruins of an amphitheatre.

MIDDLE AGES AND RENAISSANCE

_ Cathedral of St. John

* Cathedral of St. John , a mediaeval church with architectural elements of the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, also the principal religious structure in the city and the seat of the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Lyon ; * Basilica of St-Martin-d\'Ainay , one of the rare surviving Romanesque basilica-style churches in Lyon; * Église Saint-Paul, Romanesque (12th and 13th century) and Gothic (15th–16th century) church; * Église Saint-Bonaventure , 14th- and 15th-century Gothic church; * Eglise Saint-Nizier , Gothic church from the 15th century, having a doorway carved in the 16th century by Philibert Delorme ; * Vieux Lyon (English: Old Lyon) area, Mediaeval and Renaissance quarter of the town, with shops, dining and cobbled streets; * The many Renaissance
Renaissance
hôtels particuliers _ of the Old Lyon quarter, such as the _Hôtel de Bullioud,_ were also built by Philibert Delorme.

17TH AND 18TH CENTURIES

_ City Hall towering over the Place des Terreaux

* City Hall on the Place des Terreaux , built by architects Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Robert de Cotte ; * Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon
Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon
, fine arts museum housed in a former convent of the 17th century, including the Baroque chapelle Saint-Pierre_; * Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon
Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon
(17th and 18th century), historical hospital with a baroque chapel; * Temple du Change
Temple du Change
(17th and 18th century), former stock exchange of Lyon, Protestant temple since the 18th century; * Place Bellecour , one of the largest town squares in Europe; * Chapelle de la Trinité
Chapelle de la Trinité
(1622), the first Baroque chapel built in Lyon, and part of the former École de la Trinité, now Collège-lycée Ampère ; * Église Saint-Polycarpe (1665–1670), Classical church; * Église Saint-Just (16th to 18th century), Classical church; * Saint-Bruno des Chartreux (17th and 18th century), church, masterpiece of Baroque architecture; * Église Notre Dame Saint-Vincent
Église Notre Dame Saint-Vincent
(18th century), Neo-classical church.

19TH CENTURY AND MODERN CITY

_ Overview on Lyon
Lyon
during Fête des Lumières
Fête des Lumières
Fourvière

* Opéra Nouvel (1831), renovated in 1993 by Jean Nouvel ; * Théâtre des Célestins (1877), designed by Gaspard André ; * Basilica of Notre-Dame de Fourvière , large 19th-century basilica on the top of Fourvière Hill; * Tour métallique de Fourvière (1894); * La Mouche_ Cattle Market and Abbatoir (1914, 1928), designed by Tony Garnier ; * Sainte Marie de La Tourette
Sainte Marie de La Tourette
monastery (1960) designed by Le Corbusier ; * Saint-Exupéry International Airport (formerly Satolas Airport), designed by Guillaume Gilbert ; * Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry
Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry
(1994) by Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
; * Palais des congrès de Lyon (1998), designed by Renzo Piano and a group of buildings for various functions; * Tour du Crédit Lyonnais ; * Tour Oxygène ; * Tour Incity
Tour Incity
.

MUSEUMS

* Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon
Musée des beaux-arts de Lyon
(_Fine Arts Museum_), main museum of the city and one of the largest art galleries in France. Housed in the "Palais Saint Pierre", a former 17th-century convent, it displays a major collection of paintings by artists (including Tintoretto
Tintoretto
; Paolo Veronese ; Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
; Rubens ; Rembrandt
Rembrandt
; Zurbaran ; Canaletto ; Delacroix ; Monet ; Gauguin ; Van Gogh ; Cézanne ; Matisse ; Picasso ; Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
...); collections of sculptures, drawings and printings, decorative arts, Roman and Greek antiquities; the second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities in France
France
after that of the Louvre
Louvre
; and a medal cabinet of 50.000 medals and coins. * The Gallo-Roman Museum displaying many valuable objects and artworks found on the site of Roman Lyon
Lyon
(Lugdunum) such as Circus Games Mosaic , Coligny calendar
Coligny calendar
and the Taurobolic Altar ; * African Museum of Lyon ; * Centre d\'histoire de la résistance et de la déportation ; * Musée des Confluences , new museum of sciences and anthropology which opened its doors on 20 December 2014. * La Sucrière , contemporary art centre; * Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon
Hôtel-Dieu de Lyon
houses the "Musée des Hospices Civils", a permanent exhibit tracing the history and practice of medicine from the Middle Ages to modern times; * Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs
Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs
, decorative arts and textile museum. It holds one of the world's largest textile collections with 2,500,000 works ; * Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon, contemporary art museum; * Musée Gadagne , museum of the history of Lyon
Lyon
housed in a historic building in Vieux Lyon. Also includes a large collection of marionnettes; * Musée des Automates , museum of automated puppets in Vieux Lyon, open since 1991.

PARKS AND GARDENS

Main article: Parks in Lyon The lake, in the Parc de la Tête d\'Or

* Parc de la Tête d\'Or , (literally, Golden Head Park), in central Lyon
Lyon
is the largest urban park in France
France
at 117 hectares. Located in the 6th arrondissement, it features a large lake on which boating takes place during the summer months. * Jardin botanique de Lyon (8 hectares), included in the Parc de la Tête d\'Or , is a municipal botanical garden and is open weekdays without charge. The garden was established in 1857 as a successor to earlier botanical gardens dating to 1796, and now describes itself as France's largest municipal botanical garden. * Parc de Gerland
Parc de Gerland
, in the south of the city (80 hectares); * Parc des hauteurs , in Fourvières; * Parc de Miribel-Jonage (2200 hectares); * Parc de Lacroix-Laval
Parc de Lacroix-Laval
(115 hectares); * Parc de Parilly
Parc de Parilly
(178 hectares).

EDUCATION

UNIVERSITIES AND TERTIARY EDUCATION

Université Lumière

* École Centrale de Lyon
Lyon
; * École Normale Supérieure de Lyon * EM Lyon
Lyon
(École de Management de Lyon); * ECE Lyon
Lyon
(École de Commerce Européenne de Lyon); * Institut d\'études politiques de Lyon
Lyon
(Sciences Po Lyon); * CPE Lyon
Lyon
; * ECAM Lyon
Lyon
(École Catholique d'Arts et Métiers de Lyon); * École pour l\'informatique et les nouvelles technologies ; * École pour l\'informatique et les techniques avancées ; * ENTPE (École Nationale des Travaux Publiques de l'État); * ESME-Sudria ; * École des Beaux-Arts ; * E-Artsup ; * Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon
Lyon
(located in Villeurbanne
Villeurbanne
); * Polytech Lyon
Lyon
located in Villeurbanne
Villeurbanne
; * Institut supérieur européen de gestion group ; * ISARA (Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture Rhône Alpes); * Institution des Chartreux ; * Université Claude Bernard ( Lyon
Lyon
1) ; * Université Lumière ( Lyon
Lyon
2) ; * Université Jean Moulin ( Lyon
Lyon
3) ; * IAE (Institut d'Administration des Entreprises de Lyon); * Catholic University of Lyon ; * ESDES Business School; * IDRAC (International School of Management); * Wesford Graduate Business School; * IFAG (Business Management School); * Institut supérieur européen de formation par l\'action ; * Le Lycée du Parc ; * La Martiniere Lyon ; * Web@cademie ; * CEESO (Centre Européen d'Enseignement Supérieur de l'Ostéopathie); * Bellecour, Ecoles D'Arts.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS

There are some international private schools in the Lyon
Lyon
area, including:

* Cité Scolaire Internationale de Lyon
Cité Scolaire Internationale de Lyon
or the Lycée de Gerland;

* Includes the _Section Japonaises_ (リヨン・ジェルラン補習授業校 _Riyon Jeruran Hoshū Jugyō Kō_ " Lyon
Lyon
Gerland Japanese Supplementary School"), which the Japanese Ministry of Education (MEXT) counts as a part-time Japanese supplementary school

* Ombrosa; * International School of Lyon in nearby Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon ; * Montessori School of Lyon.

SUPPLEMENTARY EDUCATION

Other Japanese supplementary schools:

* The _Association Pour le Developpement de la Langue et de la Culture Japonaises_ (ADLCJ; リヨン補習授業校 _Riyon Hoshū Jugyō Kō_) is held in the _Maison Berty Albrecht_ in Villeurbanne
Villeurbanne
, near Lyon. It was formed in 1987. It serves Japanese expatriate children who wish to continue their Japanese education whilst abroad.

TRANSPORT

Further information: Lyon Metro
Lyon Metro
, Tramways in Lyon
Tramways in Lyon
, Trolleybuses in Lyon
Lyon
, Buses in Lyon , Transport in Rhône-Alpes , and TER Rhône Alpes Network of highways around Lyon
Lyon

Lyon–Saint Exupéry Airport , located east of Lyon, serves as a base for domestic and international flights. It is an important transport facility for the entire Rhône-Alpes region. Coach links connect the airport with other towns in the area including Chambéry and Grenoble. With its in-house train station (Gare de Lyon Saint-Exupéry ), the airport is also connected to the TGV
TGV
network. Since August 2010, the new Rhônexpress
Rhônexpress
tram links the international airport with the business quarter of La Part Dieu in less than 30 minutes and can reach up to 100 km/h (62 mph); it offers connections with Underground A&B, Tramway T1, T2 and Lyon
Lyon
Perrache , an older station that now serves primarily regional rail services. In practice, many trains, including TGVs, serve both stations. Smaller railway stations include Gorge-de-Loup , Vaise
Vaise
, Vénissieux , Saint-Paul and Jean Macé . Lyon
Lyon
is connected to the north ( Lille
Lille
, Paris
Paris
, Brussels , Rennes
Rennes
, and in the future Amsterdam
Amsterdam
) and the south ( Marseille
Marseille
, Montpellier , and in the future Barcelona
Barcelona
, Turin
Turin
) by the TGV. Since 23 March 2012 there has been a direct TGV
TGV
connection from Frankfurt via Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and Lyon
Lyon
to Marseille
Marseille
. It was the first city to be connected to Paris
Paris
by the TGV
TGV
in 1981.

The city is at the heart of a dense road network and is located at the meeting point of several highways: A6 (to Paris); A7 (to Marseille ); A42 (to Geneve ); and A43 (to Grenoble
Grenoble
). The city is now bypassed by the A46 . A double motorway tunnel passes under Fourvière, connecting the A6 and the A7 autoroutes, both forming the "Autoroute du Soleil". Prior to the construction of the bypass by the east, the tunnel was famous for its traffic jams, since traffic between northern and southern France, as well as from neighbouring countries and local traffic, converged at this point, Lyon
Lyon
being virtually the only low passage between the Alps and the Massif Central (extinct) volcano range. Lyon
Lyon
is served by the Eurolines intercity coach organisation. Its Lyon
Lyon
terminal is located at the city's Perrache railway station, which serves as an intermodal transportation hub that also includes tramways, local and regional trains and buses, the terminus of Metro line A, of the Tramway T2, the bicycle service Vélo'v, and taxis. Public transport map

The TCL (for _Transports en Commun Lyonnais_), Lyon's all-four public transit system, consisting of metro, tramways and buses, serves 62 communes of the Lyon
Lyon
agglomeration. The metro network has four lines ( A B C D ), 42 stations and runs with a frequency of up to a train every 2 minutes. There are five Lyon
Lyon
tram lines ( T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 ) since April 2009: T1 from _Debourg_ in the south to _IUT-Feyssine_ in the north, Tram T2 from _Perrache_ railway station in the south-west to Saint-Priest in the south-east, Tram T3 from Part-Dieu to Meyzieu
Meyzieu
, Tram T4 from 'Hôptial Feyzin Venissieux' to Gaston Berger. Tram T5 from Grange Blanche, in the south-east to Eurexpo in the south-wast. The Lyon
Lyon
bus network consists of the Lyon
Lyon
trolleybus system , motorbuses , and coaches for areas outside the centre. There are also two funicular lines from Vieux Lyon to Saint-Just and Fourvière .

The current ticketing system is relatively simple as the city has only one public transport operator; the SYTRAL (TCL is the brand name used for the transport, it stands for Transport en Commun Lyonnais ( Lyon
Lyon
Common Transport)).

In 2008, an 'RER' (commuter rail ) project was started, with the objective of linking Lyon
Lyon
with the surrounding cities which are growing fast. It should have a total of eight lines and will replace the actual TER lines operated by the SNCF (National French Railway Network). It was planned to be fully finished by 2010.

The public transit system has been complemented since 2005 by _Vélo\'v _, a bicycle network providing a low-cost and convenient bicycle-hire service where bicycles can be hired and dropped off at any of 340 stations throughout the city of Lyon
Lyon
and Villeurbane, Lyon was the first city in France
France
to introduce this bicycle renting system. Borrowing a bicycle for less than 30 minutes is free. Free rental time can be extended for another 30 minutes at any station. In 2011 the Auto'lib car rental service was introduced; it works in the same way as the Velo'v but for cars.

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION STATISTICS

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Lyon, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 45 min. 11% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 17% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.7 km, while 4% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

* Lyon
Lyon
is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Intercultural cities programme.

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
France

Lyon
Lyon
is twinned with:

* _ Aleppo
Aleppo
, Syria
Syria
* Beersheba
Beersheba
, Israel
Israel
* Beirut
Beirut
, Lebanon
Lebanon
* Birmingham
Birmingham
, West Midlands , England, UK (since 1951_) * _ Craiova , Romania
Romania
(since 1992)_ * _ Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main , Hesse
Hesse
, Germany
Germany
(since 1960)_ * _ Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, China
China
(since 1988)_ * _ Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam
Vietnam
(since 1997)_ * _ Leipzig
Leipzig
, Saxony , Germany
Germany
(since 1981)_ * _ Łódź , Łódź Voivodeship , Poland
Poland
(since 1991)_ * _ Milan
Milan
, Lombardy
Lombardy
, Italy
Italy
(since 1966)_ * _ Minsk
Minsk
, Belarus
Belarus
(since 1976)_ * _ Montréal , Québec , Canada
Canada
(since 1979)_ * _ Ouagadougou , Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
* Pécs , Hungary
Hungary
* Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia
Russia
(since 1993)_ * _ St. Louis , Missouri
Missouri
, United States
United States
(since 1975_) * _ Turin
Turin
, Piedmont , Italy
Italy
* Yerevan
Yerevan
, Armenia
Armenia
(since 1992)_ * _ Yokohama
Yokohama
, Japan
Japan
(since 1959_)

GALLERY

The lion, symbol of the city, is a common sight in Lyon:

*

A lion door knocker in Lyon
Lyon
*

The Lion Place Sathonay *

The lion at Maison des Avocats *

A real lion in the Parc de la Tête d\'Or *

The lion on the seal of Lyon
Lyon

Other images :

*

The théâtre des Célestins. *

The théâtre gallo-romain. *

Mullioned windows, Renaissance
Renaissance
house, climb the Great Coast *

Maison des avocats in the Vieux Lyon *

The Tour Rose in the Vieux Lyon *

Parc de la Tête d\'Or *

Belltower of Charity *

Nave of Church of Saint-Bruno des Chartreux *

Faculties and the University Bridge *

The Rhône, Pont Lafayette *

Lyon
Lyon
from Fourvière hill, October 2015

SEE ALSO

* Geography portal * Europe portal * European Union portal * France
France
portal * Lyon
Lyon
portal

* Gallia Lugdunensis * List of movies set in Lyon * List of people from Lyon * List of streets and squares in Lyon * Outline of France
France

NOTES

* ^ A war cry from 1269, in modern Franco-Provençal this is spelt: _Avant, Avant, Liyon lo mèlyor_.

REFERENCES

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Lyon
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France
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Lyon
1864 * ^ "Pierre Alain Muet Archives 2008". Pa-muet.com. 17 June 2008. Archived from the original on 24 January 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010. * ^ "Bottazzi fait le mur". Brefonline.Com. Archived from the original on 25 November 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2009. * ^ "The African Museum of Lyon Website". Musee-africain-lyon.org. Retrieved 5 February 2009. * ^ UNESCO World Heritage Site. City of Lyon
Lyon
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Lyon
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Lyon
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Lyon
and Greater Lyon". Mairie de Lyon. Archived from the original on 19 July 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2008. * ^ "Twinning the Cities". City of Beirut. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2009. * ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". _Archant Community Media Ltd_. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013. * ^ "Partner Cities". Birmingham
Birmingham
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Frankfurt
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Frankfurt
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Guangzhou
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Guangzhou
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* ^ "Twin sisters with Ho Chi Minh City" (in Vietnamese). Department of Foreign Affairs, Ho Chi Minh City. * ^ " Leipzig
Leipzig
– International Relations". © 2009 Leipzig
Leipzig
City Council, Office for European and International Affairs. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2009. * ^ "Miasta partnerskie – Urząd Miasta Łodzi __". _City of Łódź_ (in Polish). Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013. * ^ "_Lione_". 2015 Municipality of Milan
Milan
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Minsk
__" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk
Minsk
City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013. * ^ " Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
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Saint Petersburg
City Government. Archived from the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2008. * ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs – Twinnings and Agreements". _International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico_. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013. * ^ " Yerevan
Yerevan
– Partner Cities". _ Yerevan
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Municipality Official Website_. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ "Official Yokohama
Yokohama
City Tourism Website: _Sister Cities_". Yokohama
Yokohama
Convention & Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2008.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to LYON _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for LYON _.

* Official website(in French) * Visit Lyon, the official website for tourism in France * Lyon
Lyon
Tourist Office and Convention Bureau

* v * t * e

City of Lyon
Lyon

HISTORY

* Lugdunum

* History of Lyon
History of Lyon

* Category
Category

* Canut revolts * Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lyon
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lyon
* Cognet de Seynes * Timeline * Traboule
Traboule

ARRONDISSEMENTS

* 1st * 2nd * 3rd

.