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The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies among countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 By country

2.1 Asia

2.1.1 Pakistan 2.1.2 India 2.1.3 Philippines 2.1.4 Turkey 2.1.5 Uzbekistan and Tajikistan

2.2 Europe

2.2.1 Albania 2.2.2 Belarus 2.2.3 Czech Republic 2.2.4 Finland 2.2.5 France 2.2.6 Germany 2.2.7 Greece 2.2.8 Hungary 2.2.9 Italy 2.2.10 Lithuania 2.2.11 Malta 2.2.12 Netherlands 2.2.13 Poland 2.2.14 Portugal 2.2.15 Romania 2.2.16 Russia 2.2.17 Serbia

2.3 North America

2.3.1 United States

2.4 South America

2.4.1 Chile

3 Notes 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] Lyceum
Lyceum
is a Latin
Latin
rendering of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Λύκειον (Lykeion), the name of a gymnasium in Classical Athens
Classical Athens
dedicated to Apollo Lyceus. This original lyceum is remembered as the location of the peripatetic school of Aristotle. Some countries derive the name for their modern schools from the Latin
Latin
but use the Greek name for the ancient school: for example, Dutch has Lykeion (ancient) and Lyceum (modern), both rendered "lyceum" in English (note that in classical Latin
Latin
the "C" in lyceum was always pronounced as a K, not a soft C, as in modern English). The name Lycée
Lycée
was retrieved and utilized by Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1802 to name the main secondary education establishments. From France the name spread in many countries influenced by French culture. By country[edit] Asia[edit] Pakistan[edit] In Pakistan in a small city called Dera Ghazi Khan there is a school named Lyceum
Lyceum
High School. It was established in 1993 by its principal Javaid Iqbal. It only offers classes till eighth, but its studies match the level of its name as it uses all the foreign methods of teaching and stands with a slogan of "Lyceum: a school of creative thoughts." India[edit] The Goa
Goa
Lyceum
Lyceum
(Portuguese: Liceu de Goa) in Panaji, Goa
Goa
– established in 1854, following the Portuguese model – was the first public secondary school in the state, then a Portuguese territory.[2] Later, the Goa
Goa
Lyceum
Lyceum
received the official title of Liceu Nacional Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
( Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
National Lyceum). Philippines[edit] There is a major university and an educational system in the City of Manila named Lyceum
Lyceum
(complete name: Lyceum
Lyceum
of the Philippines University). It is also referred to with the acronym LPU. Its branches also bear the name "Lyceum". There are other schools that are not affiliated with LPU but have the word "Lyceum" in their names; however, LPU is the original and first bearer of the name and is more closely associated with it. LPU is one of the most stable universities in the Philippines with branch campuses in Makati, Batangas, Laguna, and Cavite. A school called Lyceum
Lyceum
of Alabang exists, though not affiliated with the said university, is an outstanding institution in the south. Turkey[edit] The Turkish word for the latest part of pre-university education is lise which is derived from the French word "lycée"[3] and corresponds to "high school" in English. It lasts 4 to 5 years with respect to the type of the high school. At the end of their "lise" education, students take the YGS / LYS test, i.e. university entrance examination, to get the right to enroll in a public university or a private university. Uzbekistan and Tajikistan[edit] Lyceums also emerged in the former Soviet Union countries after they became independent. One typical example is Uzbekistan, where all high schools were replaced with lyceums ("litsey" is the Russian term, derived from French "lycée"), offering a three-year educational program with a certain major in a certain direction. Unlike Turkey, Uzbek lyceums do not hold University
University
entrance examination, which gives students the right to enter a University, but they hold a kind of "mock examination" which is designed to test their eligibility for a certain University. Europe[edit] Albania[edit] The Albanian National Lyceum was a high school in the city of Korçë, Albania, that emphasized the French culture and the European values. The school fully functioned with a French culture emphasis from 1917 to 1939. The school was continued post World War II as the Raqi Qirinxhi High School.[4] Belarus[edit] The Belarusian Humanities Lyceum is a private secondary school founded shortly after Belarus' independence from the USSR
USSR
by intellectuals, such as Vincuk Viacorka
Vincuk Viacorka
and Uladzimir Kolas, with the stated aims of preserving and promoting native Belarusian culture, and raising a new Belarusian elite. It was shut down in 2003 by the Ministry of Education of Belarus allegedly for promoting enmity within Belarusian society and using the classroom as a political soapbox, indoctrinating students with biased views on history, ideology, politics, morality and values. The lyceum eventually switched to homeschooling with a limited number of underground home schoolers. Czech Republic[edit] The term lyceum refers to a type of secondary education consisting of anywhere from 4 years ended by graduation. It is a type between grammar school and a technical high school. For example, the famous scientist Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
went to a "lyceum" school. Finland[edit] The concept and name lyceum (in Swedish, lyseo in Finnish) entered Finland through Sweden. Traditionally, lycea were schools to prepare students to enter universities, as opposed to the typical, more general education. Some old schools continue to use the name lyceum, though their operations today vary. For example, Helsinki Normal Lyceum
Lyceum
educates students in grades 7–12, while Oulu Lyceum
Lyceum
enrolls students only in grades 10–12. The more commonly used term for upper secondary school in Finland is lukio in Finnish, gymnasium in Swedish. France[edit] The French word for an upper secondary school, lycée, derives from Lyceum. (see Secondary education
Secondary education
in France.) Germany[edit]

Mädchenschule (Lyzeum) in Wittenberg

The lyceum in Germany was known as an old term for Gymnasium for girls. In Bavaria it was also a Hochschule to study theology and philosophy. Greece[edit] Secondary Education - Ages: 15 ~ 18 Γενικό Λύκειο (3 years), Geniko Lykeio "General Lyceum", (~ 1996, 2006–present) Ενιαίο Λύκειο (3 years), Eniaio Lykeio "Unified Lyceum" (1997–2006) Comparable to the last two or three years of American High School (upper secondary) classes in Greece. The institution of Εσπερινό Λύκειο (4 years), Esperino Lykeio "Evening Lyceum" was introduced in 1974 to accommodate the secondary education needs of working and adult students. Hungary[edit] Before World War I, secondary education institutes with a primary goal of preparing for higher studies were often referred to by the word líceum. In contemporary Hungarian, the most ubiquitous word for these institutions is gimnázium, but líceum lives on as an archaizing word referring to schools of high prestige and revered traditions, most notably Calvinist
Calvinist
boarding schools. Italy[edit] In Italy
Italy
the term liceo refers to a number of upper secondary school,[5] which last 5 years (from 14 to 19 years) and are specialized in teaching math, ancient Greek, and Latin. It give preparation for university. It is the hardest school in Italy. Lithuania[edit] Some gymnasiums are called licėjus, e. g. Vilnius Lyceum. Malta[edit] Junior lyceums refer to secondary education state owned schools. Netherlands[edit] In the Netherlands, a lyceum is a selective secondary school for children aged 12–18 that offers "voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs" (vwo) and "hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs" (havo), the top and middle levels of secondary education available in that country. Successful completion allows vwo students admission to university and havo students to hogeschool, comparable to vocational university. The term lyceum is also sometimes used for other vocational schools such as the Grafisch Lyceum, or Muzieklyceum Amsterdam, which grew into the Conservatorium van Amsterdam. Poland[edit] The liceum is the Polish secondary-education school. Polish liceums are attended by children aged 16 to 19–21 (see list below). Before graduating, pupils are subject to a final examination, the matura. Polish liceums are of several types:

general lyceum (16–19) specialised lyceum (16–19) complementary lyceum (18-21)

Portugal[edit] From 1836 until 1978, in the Portuguese educational system, the lyceum (Portuguese: liceu), or national lyceum (Portuguese: liceu nacional), was a high school that prepared students to enter universities or more general education. On the other hand, the technical school (Portuguese: escola técnica) was a technical-oriented school. After several education reforms, all these schools merged into a single system of "3rd cycle basic" and secondary schools (Portuguese: escolas básicas do 3.º ciclo e secundárias), offering grades 7 to 12. Romania[edit] The Romanian word for lyceum is liceu. It represents a post-secondary form of education. In order for a student to graduate the lyceum and obtain a baccalaureate diploma, they must pass the bac. The lyceum consists of four school years (9–12). Although the lyceum is a pre-university educational institution, it can be enough for the graduates to find a job, mainly as office work. Russia[edit] In Imperial Russia, a Lyceum
Lyceum
was one of the following higher educational facilities: Demidov Lyceum
Lyceum
of Law in Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
(1803), Alexander Lyceum
Lyceum
in Tsarskoye Selo
Tsarskoye Selo
(1810), Richelieu lyceum in Odessa (1817), and Imperial Katkov Lyceum
Lyceum
in Moscow (1867). The Tsarskoye Selo
Tsarskoye Selo
Lyceum
Lyceum
was opened on October 19, 1811 in the neoclassical building designed by Vasily Stasov and situated next to the Catherine Palace. The first graduates were all brilliant and included Aleksandr Pushkin
Aleksandr Pushkin
and Alexander Gorchakov. The opening date was celebrated each year with carousals and revels, and Pushkin composed new verses for each of those occasions. In January 1844 the Lyceum
Lyceum
was moved to Saint Petersburg. During 33 years of the Tsarskoye Selo
Tsarskoye Selo
Lyceum's existence, there were 286 graduates. The most famous of these were Anton Delwig, Wilhelm Küchelbecher, Nicholas de Giers, Dmitry Tolstoy, Yakov Karlovich Grot, Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky, Alexei Lobanov-Rostovsky and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin. Serbia[edit] The Lyceum of the Principality of Serbia was the first higher education school in Serbia
Serbia
in which education was taught in Serbian. It was founded in 1838 on the initiative of Prince Miloš Obrenović II in 1838 in Kragujevac. When Belgrade
Belgrade
became the Serbian capital city in 1841, the Serbian Lyceum
Lyceum
was moved to it. In 1863 it was transformed into the Higher School. North America[edit] United States[edit] See Lyceum
Lyceum
movement. Thoreau speaks of lecturing at a lyceum in "Life Without Principle". South America[edit] Chile[edit] It is not uncommon in Chile to use the word "Liceo" when referring to a High School. Another term is "Enseñanza Media" (Secondary Education), however, "Liceo" is the most common term due to Chile's extensive European influence.[citation needed] Notes[edit]

^ Osmani & Shefik, p. 384 ^ " Goa
Goa
Education".  ^ Nişanyan, Sevan. ""Lise" in the Sevan Nişanyan Etymological Dictionary" (in Turkish). Retrieved 2009-02-13. [dead link] ^ Xoxi & Koli, p. 1 ^ Liceo: Definizione e significato di Liceo

References[edit]

Xoxi, Koli (1997), Liceu Kombëtar i Korçës (1917-1939) (in Albanian), Shtëpia Botuese "Lumo Skëndo", OCLC 45500476  Osmani, Shefik (1983), Fjalor i pedagogjisë (in Albanian), Shtëpia Botuese "8 Nëntori", OCLC 17442147 

External links[edit]

Polish System of Education

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School types

By educational stage

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Preschool Pre-kindergarten Kindergarten

Primary

Elementary school First school Infant school Junior school Primary school

Secondary

Adult high school Comprehensive school Cadet college Grammar school Gymnasium High school Lyceum Middle school Secondary school Sixth form college Studio school University-preparatory school University
University
technical college Upper school

Tertiary

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By scope

College
College
preparatory Compulsory education Democratic education Gifted education Remedial education Vocational education

Historical

Ancient higher-learning institutions

Platonic Academy Lyceum

Monastic schools Cathedral schools Medieval universities

Schools imposed on indigenous peoples

in Canada in New Zealand in the United States in South Africa

Informal or illegal

in Ireland in Greece in South Tyrol

.