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Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
is the second-largest family of butterflies (behind Nymphalidae, brush-footed butterflies), with over 6,000 species worldwide,[1] whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. They constitute about 30% of the known butterfly species. The family is traditionally divided into the subfamilies of the blues (Polyommatinae), the coppers (Lycaeninae), the hairstreaks (Theclinae) and the harvesters (Miletinae). Adults are small, under 5 cm usually, and brightly coloured, sometimes with a metallic gloss. Larvae are often flattened rather than cylindrical, with glands that may produce secretions that attract and subdue ants. Their cuticles tend to be thickened. Some larvae are capable of producing vibrations and low sounds that are transmitted through the substrates they inhabit. They use these sounds to communicate with ants.[2][3] Adult individuals often have hairy antenna-like tails complete with black and white annulated (ringed) appearance. Many species also have a spot at the base of the tail and some turn around upon landing to confuse potential predators from recognizing the true head orientation. This causes predators to approach from the true head end resulting in early visual detection.[4]

Contents

1 Ecology 2 Subfamilies 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Ecology[edit]

Ant tending a lycaenid larva

Lycaenids are diverse in their food habits and apart from phytophagy, some of them are entomophagous feeding on aphids, scale insects, and ant larvae. Some lycaenids even exploit their association with ants by inducing ants to feed them by regurgitation, a process called trophallaxis. Not all lycaenid butterflies need ants, but about 75% of species associate with ants,[2] a relationship called myrmecophily. These associations can be mutualistic, parasitic, or predatory depending on the species. In some species, larvae are attended and protected by ants while feeding on the host plant, and the ants receive sugar-rich honeydew from them, throughout the larval life, and in some species during the pupal stage. In other species, only the first few instars are spent on the plant, and the remainder of the larval lifespan is spent as a predator within the ant nest. It becomes a parasite, feeding on ant regurgitations, or a predator on the ant larvae.[2] The caterpillars pupate inside the ant's nest and the ants continue to look after the pupa. Just before the adult emerges the wings of the butterfly inside the pupal case detach from it, and the pupa becomes silvery. The adult butterfly emerges from the pupa after three to four weeks, still inside the ant nest. The butterfly must crawl out of the ant nest before it can expand its wings. Several evolutionary adaptations enable these associations and they include small glands on the skin of the caterpillars called "pore cupola organs". Caterpillars of many species, except those of the Riodininae, have a gland on the seventh abdominal segment that produces honeydew and is called the "dorsal nectary gland" (also called "Newcomer's gland"). An eversible organ called the "tentacular organ" is present on the eighth abdominal segment (third segment of thorax in the Riodininae) and this is cylindrical and topped with a ring of spikes and emits chemical signals which are believed to help in communicating with ants.[5] Subfamilies[edit]

Mating Polyommatus semiargus

Caterpillar of the Atala (Eumaeus atala)

Leaf blue (Amblypodia anita) from Theclinae

Many taxonomists include only the Lycaeninae, Theclinae, Polyommatinae, Poritiinae, Miletinae
Miletinae
and Curetinae
Curetinae
under the Lycaenidae.[6][7] The tribe Aphnaeini
Aphnaeini
of the subfamily Theclinae
Theclinae
which includes the genus Chrysoritis
Chrysoritis
is sometimes listed as separate subfamily.[6] A few authorities still include the family Riodinidae
Riodinidae
within the Lycaenidae. The monotypic former subfamily Styginae represented by Styx infernalis from the Peruvian Andes has been placed within the subfamily Euselasiinae[8] of the family Riodinidae.[9] Other classifications notably include the Riodininae
Riodininae
(e.g., Abisara echerius).[10]

Curetinae

Poritiinae

Pentilini

Liptenini

Poritiini

Miletinae

Lacnocnemini

Liphyrini

Miletini

Spalgini

Lycaeninae

Aphnaeini

Lycaenini

Polyommatini

Theclini

Phylogeny of the family[9]

Lipteninae (Afrotropical) may be ranked as a tribe of Poritiinae. (Liptenini) [11] Poritiinae
Poritiinae
(Oriental and Afrotropical) Liphyrinae (mostly African, some Asian) may be ranked as a tribe of Miletinae. (Liphyrini) [12] Selected species

Liphyra brassolis
Liphyra brassolis
– moth butterfly (largest lycaenid)

Miletinae
Miletinae
– harvesters (mostly African, or Oriental, some Holarctic). Probably all feed on aphids or their secretions. Curetinae
Curetinae
– sunbeams (Oriental or Palaearctic) selected species

Curetis thetis
Curetis thetis
– Indian sunbeam

Theclinae
Theclinae
– hairstreaks (usually tailed) and elfins (not tailed) (global) may be ranked as a tribe of Lycaeninae
Lycaeninae
(Theclini) see the clade below right. Selected species

Satyrium pruni
Satyrium pruni
– black hairstreak Atlides halesus
Atlides halesus
– great purple hairstreak Eumaeus atala
Eumaeus atala
– Atala Arhopala
Arhopala
- oakblues

Lycaeninae
Lycaeninae
– coppers (Holarctic) selected species

Lycaena boldenarum
Lycaena boldenarum
– boulder copper Lycaena epixanthe
Lycaena epixanthe
– bog copper Lycaena rauparaha
Lycaena rauparaha
– Rauparaha's copper Lycaena dispar
Lycaena dispar
– large copper Lycaena phlaeas
Lycaena phlaeas
– small copper Iophanus pyrrhias
Iophanus pyrrhias
– Guatemalan copper Lycaena heteronea
Lycaena heteronea
- blue copper

Polyommatinae – blues (global) selected species

Caleta spp. Celastrina ladon
Celastrina ladon
– spring azure Talicada nyseus
Talicada nyseus
– red pierrot Cupido comyntas
Cupido comyntas
– eastern tailed-blue Cupido minimus
Cupido minimus
– small blue Pseudozizeeria maha
Pseudozizeeria maha
– pale grass blue Euphilotes battoides allyni
Euphilotes battoides allyni
– El Segundo blue Euphilotes pallescens arenamontana
Euphilotes pallescens arenamontana
– Sand Mountain blue Chilades
Chilades
- jewel blues Plebejus argus
Plebejus argus
– silver-studded blue Icaricia icarioides fenderi
Icaricia icarioides fenderi
– Fender's blue Polyommatus icarus
Polyommatus icarus
– common blue Polyommatus semiargus
Polyommatus semiargus
– mazarine blue Glaucopsyche lygdamus
Glaucopsyche lygdamus
– silvery blue Glaucopsyche lygdamus
Glaucopsyche lygdamus
palosverdesensis – Palos Verdes blue Glaucopsyche xerces
Glaucopsyche xerces
(extinct) – Xerces blue Phengaris xiushani Maculinea arion
Maculinea arion
– large blue

The fossil genus Lithodryas
Lithodryas
is usually (but not unequivocally) placed here; Lithopsyche
Lithopsyche
is sometimes placed here but sometimes in the Riodininae. See also[edit]

List of lycaenid genera

References[edit]

^ Naomi E. Pierce, Michae, F. Braby, Alan Heath, David J. Lohman, John Mathew, Douglas B. Rand, Mark A. THE ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF ANT ASSOCIATION IN THE LYCAENIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA) 47(1):259-267 [1] ^ a b c Pierce NE, Braby MF, Heath A, Lohman DJ, Mathew J, Rand DB, Travassos MA. 2002. The ecology and evolution of ant association in the Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(Lepidoptera.) Annual Review of Entomology 47: 733-771. PDF ^ DeVries, Philip J. 1992. Singing Caterpillars, Ants
Ants
and Symbiosis. Scientific American, 267:76 ^ Robbins, Robert K. 1981 The "False Head" Hypothesis: Predation and Wing Pattern Variation of Lycaenid Butterflies. American Naturalist, 118(5):770-775 ^ Australian Museum factsheets Accessed 4 November 2010 on the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2008. Lycaenidae. Version 25 April 2008 (temporary). [2] in The Tree of Life Web Project, [3] ^ Ackery, P. R., R. de Jong, and R. I. Vane-Wright. 1999. The butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea, and Papilionoidea. Pages 264-300 in: Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology Vol. IV, Part 35. N. P. Kristensen, ed. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York. ^ Hall J.P.W. & Harvey DJ. (2002) A survey of androconial organs in the Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(Lepidoptera). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 136:171-197 ^ a b Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2007. Riodinidae
Riodinidae
Grote 1895. Metalmarks, Erycinidae Swainson 1827 (see nomenclature section). Version 19 May 2007 [4] in The Tree of Life Web Project, [5] ^ Scoble, MJ. 1992. The Lepidoptera: Form, Function and Diversity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854952-0 ^ [6], Site of Markku Savela ^ [7], Site of Markku Savela

Further reading[edit]

Charles A. Bridges, 1994. Catalogue of the family-group, genus-group and species-group names of the Riodinidae
Riodinidae
& Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) of the world Urbana, Ill. :C.A. Bridges pdf Eliot, J.N.1973 The higher classification of the Lycaenidae] (Lepidoptera): a tentative arrangement. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), entomology, 28: 371-505. 1973: [8] Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through Binoculars, The West (2001) Guppy, Crispin S. and Shepard, Jon H. Butterflies of British Columbia (2001) James, David G. and Nunnallee, David Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies (2011) Pelham, Jonathan Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada (2008) Pyle, Robert Michael The Butterflies of Cascadia (2002)

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Lycaenidae

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lycaenidae.

Tree of Life BugGuide.net Family Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
at Lepidoptera.pro "Lycaenidae". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).  ITIS Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
at the Encyclopedia of Life Royal Museum for Central Africa
Royal Museum for Central Africa
Images of Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
[9] Butterflies and Moths of North America Butterflies of America

v t e

Extant Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Zeugloptera

Micropterigoidea

Micropterigidae
Micropterigidae
(mandibulate archaic moths)

Suborder Aglossata

Agathiphagoidea

Agathiphagidae (kauri moths)

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Heterobathmioidea

Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Dacnonypha

Eriocranioidea

Eriocraniidae

Acanthoctesia

Acanthopteroctetoidea

Acanthopteroctetidae (archaic sun moths)

Lophocoronina

Lophocoronoidea

Lophocoronidae

Neopseustina

Neopseustoidea

Neopseustidae (archaic bell moths)

Exoporia

Hepialoidea

Anomosetidae Hepialidae
Hepialidae
(swift moths, ghost moths) Neotheoridae (Amazonian primitive ghost moths) Palaeosetidae (miniature ghost moths) Prototheoridae (African primitive ghost moths)

Mnesarchaeoidea

Mnesarchaeidae (New Zealand primitive moths)

H e t e r o n e u r a

M o n o t r y s i a

Incurvarioidea

Adelidae
Adelidae
(fairy longhorn moths) Cecidosidae Crinopterygidae Heliozelidae Incurvariidae Prodoxidae
Prodoxidae
(yucca moths)

Andesianoidea

Andesianidae (Andean endemic moths)

Nepticuloidea

Nepticulidae
Nepticulidae
(pigmy, or midget moths) Opostegidae
Opostegidae
(white eyecap moths)

Palaephatoidea

Palaephatidae (Gondwanaland moths)

Tischerioidea

Tischeriidae (trumpet leaf miner moths)

D i t r y s i a

Simaethistoidea

Simaethistidae

Tineoidea

Acrolophidae
Acrolophidae
(burrowing webworm moths) Arrhenophanidae Eriocottidae (Old World spiny-winged moths) Lypusidae Psychidae (bagworm moths) Tineidae
Tineidae
(fungus moths)

Gracillarioidea

Bucculatricidae
Bucculatricidae
(ribbed cocoon makers) Douglasiidae (Douglas moths) Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae

Yponomeutoidea

Acrolepiidae
Acrolepiidae
(false diamondback moths) Bedelliidae Glyphipterigidae
Glyphipterigidae
(sedge moths) Heliodinidae Lyonetiidae Plutellidae Yponomeutidae (ermine moths) Ypsolophidae

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
(case-bearers, case moths) Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
(cosmet moths) Elachistidae
Elachistidae
(grass-miner moths) Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
(twirler moths) Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
(long-horned moths) Metachandidae Momphidae
Momphidae
(mompha moths) Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
(concealer moths) Pterolonchidae Scythrididae
Scythrididae
(flower moths) Xyloryctidae
Xyloryctidae
(timber moths)

Galacticoidea

Galacticidae

Zygaenoidea

Heterogynidae Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
(burnet, forester, or smoky moths) Himantopteridae Lacturidae Somabrachyidae Megalopygidae (flannel moths) Aididae Anomoeotidae Cyclotornidae Epipyropidae
Epipyropidae
(planthopper parasite moths) Dalceridae
Dalceridae
(slug caterpillars) Limacodidae
Limacodidae
(slug, or cup moths)

Cossoidea

Cossidae
Cossidae
(carpenter millers, or goat moths) Dudgeoneidae (dudgeon carpenter moths)

Sesioidea

Brachodidae (little bear moths) Castniidae
Castniidae
(castniid moths: giant butterfly-moths, sun moths) Sesiidae
Sesiidae
(clearwing moths)

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae
Choreutidae
(metalmark moths)

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae
Tortricidae
(tortrix moths)

Urodoidea

Urodidae
Urodidae
(false burnet moths)

Schreckensteinioidea

Schreckensteiniidae
Schreckensteiniidae
(bristle-legged moths)

Epermenioidea

Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
(fringe-tufted moths)

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) Tineodidae (false plume moths)

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
(plume moths)

Whalleyanoidea

Whalleyanidae

Immoidea

Immidae

Copromorphoidea

Copromorphidae (tropical fruitworm moths) Carposinidae
Carposinidae
(fruitworm moths)

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae
Hyblaeidae
(teak moths)

Pyraloidea

Pyralidae
Pyralidae
(snout moths) Crambidae
Crambidae
(grass moth)

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae
Thyrididae
(picture-winged leaf moths)

Mimallonoidea

Mimallonidae (sack bearer moths)

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae
Lasiocampidae
(eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths)

Bombycoidea

Anthelidae
Anthelidae
(Australian lappet moth) Bombycidae
Bombycidae
(silk moths) Brahmaeidae
Brahmaeidae
(Brahmin moths) Carthaeidae (Dryandra moth) Endromidae
Endromidae
(Kentish glory and relatives) Eupterotidae Lemoniidae Saturniidae
Saturniidae
(saturniids) Sphingidae
Sphingidae
(hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms) Phiditiidae

Noctuoidea

Doidae Erebidae
Erebidae
(underwing, tiger, tussock, litter, snout, owlet moths) Euteliidae Noctuidae
Noctuidae
(daggers, sallows, owlet moths, quakers, cutworms, darts) Nolidae
Nolidae
(tuft moths) Notodontidae
Notodontidae
(prominents, kittens) Oenosandridae

Drepanoidea

Epicopeiidae
Epicopeiidae
(oriental swallowtail moths) Drepanidae
Drepanidae
(hook-tips)

Geometroidea

Sematuridae Uraniidae Geometridae (geometer moths)

Cimelioidea

Cimeliidae (gold moths)

Calliduloidea

Callidulidae
Callidulidae
(Old World butterfly-moths)

Superfamily unassigned

Millieriidae

Rhopalocera (butterflies)

Hedyloidea

Hedylidae
Hedylidae
(American moth-butterflies)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae (skippers)

Papilionoidea (true butterflies)

Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(gossamer-winged butterflies: blues, coppers and relatives) Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
(brush-footed, or four-footed butterflies) Papilionidae (swallowtail butterflies) Pieridae
Pieridae
(whites, yellows, orangetips, sulphurs) Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(metalmarks)

Note: division Monotrysia
Monotrysia
is not a clade.

Taxonomy of the Lepidoptera Lists by region

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q158717 BAMONA: Lycaenidae BugGuide: 194 EoL: 855 EPPO: 1LYCAF Fauna Europaea: 7033 Fossilworks: 136325 GBIF: 5473 ITIS:

.