HOME
The Info List - Luzon



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

LUZON (/luːˈzɒn/ ( listen ); Tagalog pronunciation: ), is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines
Philippines
. It is ranked 15th largest in the world by land area . Located in the northern region of the archipelago , it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila
Manila
, as well as Quezon
Quezon
City , the country's most populous city. With a population of 53 million as of 2015 , it is the fourth most populous island in the world (after Java
Java
, Honshu , and Great Britain
Great Britain
), having about 53% of the country's total population.

Luzon
Luzon
may also refer to one of the three primary island groups in the country . As such, it includes the Luzon
Luzon
mainland , the Batanes and Babuyan groups of islands to the north, Polillo Islands to the east, and the outlying islands of Catanduanes , Marinduque , Masbate
Masbate
, Romblon
Romblon
, Mindoro , and Palawan , among others, to the south.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 History

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Physical

* 3.1.1 Northern Luzon * 3.1.2 Central Luzon
Central Luzon
* 3.1.3 Southern Luzon * 3.1.4 Outlying islands

* 3.2 Administrative divisions * 3.3 Tectonics

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Ethnic groups * 4.2 Languages * 4.3 Religion

* 5 Economy * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Bangkang Pinawa, ancient Philippine Mortar and pestle .

The name _Luzon_ is thought to derive from the Tagalog word _lusong_, which is a large wooden mortar used in dehusking rice.

HISTORY

Further information: History of Luzon , Kingdom of Tondo , Kingdom of Namayan , and Kingdom of Maynila
Kingdom of Maynila

Luzon
Luzon
was once split among Hindu -Buddhist kingdoms, Muslim principalities, and ethnoreligious tribes, who had trading connections with Borneo
Borneo
, Malaya , Java
Java
, Indochina
Indochina
, India
India
, Okinawa , Korea
Korea
, Japan
Japan
and China
China
before the Spanish established their rule. From just before the first millennium, the Tagalog and Kapampangan peoples of south and central Luzon
Luzon
had established several Indianized kingdoms , notably among them those of Tundok and Namayan . The Laguna Copperplate Inscription , the first Philippine document written in 900AD, names places in and around Manila
Manila
Bay
Bay
as well as Medan in Indonesia. These kingdoms were based on leases between village rulers (_ Datu
Datu
_) and landlords (_ Lakan _) or Rajahs , to whom tributes and taxes were levied. These kingdoms were coastal thalassocracies based on trade with neighboring Asian political entities at that time. Some parts of Luzon
Luzon
were Islamized when the Sultanate of Brunei expanded its realms from Borneo
Borneo
to the Philippines
Philippines
and set up the Kingdom of Maynila as its puppet-state. In addition, other kingdoms like the Wangdom of Pangasinan
Pangasinan
had become tributary states to China
China
and were largely Sinified kingdoms.

According to sources at the time, the trade in large native _Ruson-tsukuri_ (literally _ Luzon
Luzon
made_ in Japanese:呂宋製 or 呂宋つくり) clay jars used for storing green tea and rice wine with Japan
Japan
flourished in the 12th century, and local Tagalog , Kapampangan and Pangasinense potters had marked each jar with Baybayin letters denoting the particular urn used and the kiln the jars were manufactured in. Certain kilns were renowned over others and prices depended on the reputation of the kiln. Of this flourishing trade, the _Burnay_ jars of Ilocos
Ilocos
are the only large clay jar manufactured in Luzon
Luzon
today with origins from this time.

The Yongle Emperor instituted a Chinese Governor on Luzon
Luzon
during Zheng He 's voyages and appointed Ko Ch'a-lao to that position in 1405. China
China
also had vassals among the leaders in the archipelago. China
China
attained ascendancy in trade with the area in Yongle's reign.

In the 1500s, people from Luzon
Luzon
were called _ Lucoes _ and were actively employed in trading, seafaring and military campaigns across Southeast Asia.

The Portuguese were the first European explorers who recorded it in their charts as _Luçonia_ or _Luçon_ and inhabitants were called _ Luçoes _. Edmund Roberts , who visited Luzon
Luzon
in the early 19th century, wrote that Luzon
Luzon
was "discovered" in 1521. Many people from Luzon
Luzon
had active-employment in Portuguese Malacca. Lucoes such as the Luzon
Luzon
spice trader Regimo de Raja, based in Malacca, was highly influential and the Portuguese appointed him as Temenggong (Sea Lord) or a governor and police-chief general responsible for overseeing of maritime trade, at Malacca. His father and wife carried on his maritime trading business after his death. Another important Malacca trader was Curia de Raja who also hailed from Luzon. The "surname" of "de Raja" or "diraja" could indicate that Regimo and Curia, and their families, were of noble or royal descent as the term is an abbreviation of Sanskrit adiraja.

Pinto noted that there were a number of Lucoes in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines
Philippines
during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them (Sapetu Diraja) the task of holding Aru (northeast Sumatra) in 1540. Pinto also says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the Portuguese conquest in 1511. Pigafetta notes that one of them was in command of the Brunei fleet in 1521.

However, the Luções did not only fight on the side of the Muslims. Pinto says they were also apparently among the natives of the Philippines
Philippines
who fought the Muslims in 1538.

On Mainland
Mainland
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, Lusung/ Lucoes warriors aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547 AD. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defence of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya.

Scholars have thus suggested that they could be mercenaries valued by all sides.

The Spanish arrival in the 16th century saw the incorporation of the Lucoes people and the breaking up of their kingdoms and the establishment of the _Las Islas Filipinas_ with its capital Cebu
Cebu
, which was moved to Manila
Manila
following the defeat of the local Rajah Sulayman in 1570. Under Spain, Luzon
Luzon
also came to be known as the _NUEVA CASTILLA_ or the NEW CASTILE. Further information: Spanish East Indies U.S. Navy ships under attack while entering Lingayen Gulf , January 1945

In World War II , the Philippines
Philippines
were considered to be of great strategic importance because their capture by Japan
Japan
would pose a significant threat to the U.S. As a result, 135,000 troops and 227 aircraft were stationed in the Philippines
Philippines
by October 1941. Luzon
Luzon
was captured by Imperial Japanese forces in 1942 during their campaign to capture the Philippines
Philippines
. General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
—who was in charge of the defense of the Philippines
Philippines
at the time—was ordered to Australia, and the remaining U.S. forces retreated to the Bataan Peninsula
Peninsula
.

A few months after this, MacArthur expressed his belief that an attempt to recapture the Philippines
Philippines
was necessary. The U.S. Pacific Commander Admiral
Admiral
Chester Nimitz and Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Ernest King both opposed this idea, arguing that it must wait until victory was certain. MacArthur had to wait two years for his wish; it was 1944 before a campaign to recapture the Philippines
Philippines
was launched. The island of Leyte was the first objective of the campaign, which was captured by the end of December 1944. This was followed by the attack on Mindoro and later, Luzon. Further information: Battle of Luzon

GEOGRAPHY

For more details on this topic, see Geography of the Philippines
Philippines
§ Luzon
Luzon
. Satellite image of Luzon
Luzon

Luzon
Luzon
island alone has an area of 109,964.9 square kilometres (42,457.7 sq mi), making it the world\'s 15th largest island . It is bordered on the west by the South China Sea
South China Sea
(_ Luzon
Luzon
Sea_ in Philippine territorial waters), on the east by the Philippine Sea
Philippine Sea
, and on the north by the Luzon Strait containing the Babuyan Channel and Balintang Channel . The mainland is roughly rectangular in shape and has the long Bicol Peninsula protruding to the southeast.

Luzon
Luzon
is roughly divided into four sections; Northern , Central and Southern Luzon, and the National Capital Region .

REGIONS SIX DIVISIONS FOUR DIVISIONS THREE DIVISIONS TWO DIVISIONS

ILOCOS REGION Ilocandia Northern Luzon North and Central Luzon North and Central Luzon

CAGAYAN VALLEY

CORDILLERA ADMINISTRATIVE REGION Cordilleras

CENTRAL LUZON Central Luzon

NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION Metro Manila Southern Luzon

CALABARZON Southern Tagalog
Southern Tagalog
Southern Luzon Southern Luzon

MIMAROPA

BICOL REGION Bicolandia

PHYSICAL

Northern Luzon

The northwestern portion of the island, which encompasses most of the Ilocos Region , is characterized by a flat terrain extending east from the coastline toward the Cordillera Central mountains . The Sierra Madre mountains as viewed from Cabagan, Isabela

The Cordillera mountain range, which feature the island's north-central section, is covered in a mixture of tropical pine forests and montane rainforests , and is the site of the island's highest mountain, Mount Pulag , rising at 2,922 metres. The range provides the upland headwaters of the Agno River
Agno River
, which stretches from the slopes of Mount Data , and meanders along the southern Cordillera mountains before reaching the plains of Pangasinan
Pangasinan
.

The northeastern section of Luzon
Luzon
is generally mountainous, with the Sierra Madre , the longest mountain range in the country, abruptly rising a few miles from the coastline. Located in between the Sierra Madre and the Cordillera Central mountain ranges is the large Cagayan Valley . This region, which is known for being the second largest producer of rice and the country's top corn-producer, serves as the basin for the Cagayan
Cagayan
River , the longest in the Philippines.

Along the southern limits of the Cordillera Central lies the lesser-known Caraballo Mountains
Caraballo Mountains
. These mountains form a link between the Cordillera Central and the Sierra Madre mountain ranges, separating the Cagayan Valley from the Central Luzon
Central Luzon
plains.

Central Luzon

The Central Luzon
Central Luzon
plain with Mount Arayat in the background

The central section of Luzon
Luzon
is characterized by a flat terrain, known as the Central Luzon
Central Luzon
plain , the largest in the island in terms of land area. The plain, approximately 11,000 square kilometres (4,200 sq mi) in size, is the country's largest producer of rice, and is irrigated by two major rivers; the Cagayan
Cagayan
to the north, and the Pampanga
Pampanga
to the south. In the middle of the plain rises the solitary Mount Arayat .

The western coasts of Central Luzon
Central Luzon
are typically flat extending east from the coastline to the Zambales Mountains , the site of Mount Pinatubo , made famous because of its enormous 1991 eruption. These mountains extend to the sea in the north, forming the Lingayen Gulf
Lingayen Gulf
, and to the south, forming the Bataan
Bataan
Peninsula
Peninsula
. The peninsula encloses the Manila
Manila
Bay
Bay
, a natural harbor considered to be one of the best natural ports in East Asia, due to its size and strategic geographical location.

The Sierra Madre mountain range continues to stretch across the western section of Central Luzon, snaking southwards into the Bicol Peninsula
Peninsula
.

Southern Luzon

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 Manila
Manila
Bay
Bay

2 Laguna de Bay

3 Taal Volcano / Taal Lake

4 Bataan
Bataan
Peninsula
Peninsula

5 Balayan Bay
Bay

6 Batangas Bay
Bay

7 South China Sea
South China Sea

8 Mindoro Island

9 Lamon Bay

The northern section of Southern Luzon is dominated by the Laguna de Bay
Bay
( Old Spanish , "_ Lake
Lake
of Bay
Bay
town_"), the largest lake in the country. The 949-square-kilometre (366 sq mi) lake is drained into Manila
Manila
Bay
Bay
by the Pasig River , one of the most important rivers in the country due to its historical significance and because it runs through the center of Metro Manila .

Located 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of Laguna de Bay is Taal Lake , a crater lake containing the Taal Volcano , the smallest in the country. The environs of the lake form the upland Tagaytay Ridge , which was once part of a massive prehistoric volcano that covered the southern portion of the province of Cavite
Cavite
, Tagaytay City and the whole of Batangas province.

South of Laguna Lake
Lake
are two solitary mountains, Mount Makiling in Laguna province, and Mount Banahaw , the highest in the region of Calabarzon .

The southeastern portion of Luzon
Luzon
is dominated by the Bicol Peninsula , a mountainous and narrow region extending approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) southeast from the Tayabas Isthmus in Quezon province to the San Bernardino Strait along the coasts of Sorsogon . The area is home to several volcanoes , the most famous of which is the 2,460-metre (8,070 ft) high symmetrically shaped Mayon Volcano
Volcano
in Albay province. The Sierra Madre range has its southern limits at Quezon
Quezon
province. Ultra-prominent mountains dot the landscape, which include Mount Isarog and Mount Iriga in Camarines Sur
Camarines Sur
, and Mount Bulusan in Sorsogon .

The peninsula 's coastline features several smaller peninsulas, gulfs and bays , which include Lamon Bay , San Miguel Bay
Bay
, Lagonoy Gulf , Ragay Gulf , and Sorsogon Bay
Bay
. The nearly perfectly shaped Mayon Volcano
Volcano
in Albay province

Outlying Islands

Several outlying islands near mainland Luzon
Luzon
are considered part of the Luzon
Luzon
island group . The largest include Palawan , Mindoro , Masbate
Masbate
, Catanduanes , Marinduque , Romblon
Romblon
and Polillo . Further information: Island groups of the Philippines
Philippines

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

The island is covered by 7 administrative regions , 30 provinces and, as of 2014 , 68 cities (8 regions, 38 provinces and 71 cities if associated islands are included).

LOCATION Region (designation) Population (2015) AREA DENSITY Regional center Component LGUs

* PROVINCE * _Independent city or municipality_ * ∗ Associated island

Ilocos Region (Region I) 5,026,128 (_7000500000000000000♠5.0%_) 7010130126000000000♠13,012.60 km2 (5,024.19 sq mi) 6996390000000000000♠390/km2 (1,000/sq mi) San Fernando (La Union) 5

* _ Dagupan _ * ILOCOS NORTE * ILOCOS SUR * LA UNION * PANGASINAN

Cagayan Valley (Region II) 3,451,410 (_7000340000000000000♠3.4%_) 7010282288300000000♠28,228.83 km2 (10,899.21 sq mi) 6996119999999999999♠120/km2 (310/sq mi) Tuguegarao
Tuguegarao
6

* BATANES * * CAGAYAN * ISABELA * NUEVA VIZCAYA * QUIRINO * _Santiago _

Central Luzon
Central Luzon
(Region III) 11,218,177 (_7001111000000000000♠11.1%_) 7010220146300000000♠22,014.63 km2 (8,499.90 sq mi) 6996509999999999999♠510/km2 (1,300/sq mi) San Fernando (Pampanga) 9

* _Angeles _ * AURORA * BATAAN * BULACAN * NUEVA ECIJA * _ Olongapo
Olongapo
_ * PAMPANGA * TARLAC * ZAMBALES

Calabarzon (Region IV-A) 14,414,774 (_7001143000000000000♠14.3%_) 7010168733100000000♠16,873.31 km2 (6,514.82 sq mi) 6996850000000000000♠850/km2 (2,200/sq mi) Calamba 6

* BATANGAS * CAVITE * LAGUNA * _Lucena _ * QUEZON * RIZAL

Mimaropa
Mimaropa
(Region IV-B) 2,963,360 (_7000290000000000000♠2.9%_) 7010296209000000000♠29,620.90 km2 (11,436.69 sq mi) 6996099999999999999♠100/km2 (260/sq mi) Calapan 6

* MARINDUQUE * * OCCIDENTAL MINDORO * * ORIENTAL MINDORO * * PALAWAN * * _ Puerto Princesa
Puerto Princesa
_* * ROMBLON *

Bicol Region (Region V) 5,796,989 (_7000570000000000000♠5.7%_) 7010181558200000000♠18,155.82 km2 (7,010.00 sq mi) 6996320000000000000♠320/km2 (830/sq mi) Legazpi 7

* ALBAY * CAMARINES NORTE * CAMARINES SUR * CATANDUANES * * MASBATE * * _Naga _ * SORSOGON

Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) 1,722,006 (_7000170000000000000♠1.7%_) 7010194220300000000♠19,422.03 km2 (7,498.89 sq mi) 6995890000000000000♠89/km2 (230/sq mi) Baguio 7

* ABRA * APAYAO * _ Baguio _ * BENGUET * IFUGAO * KALINGA * MOUNTAIN PROVINCE

National Capital Region (NCR) 12,877,253 (_7001128000000000000♠12.8%_) 7008611390000000000♠611.39 km2 (236.06 sq mi) 6998209999999999999♠21,000/km2 (54,000/sq mi) MANILA 17

* _ Caloocan
Caloocan
_ * _ Las Piñas _ * _ Makati
Makati
_ * _ Malabon
Malabon
_ * _ Mandaluyong
Mandaluyong
_ * _ Manila
Manila
_ * _ Marikina _ * _ Muntinlupa _ * _ Navotas
Navotas
_ * _ Parañaque _ * _ Pasay _ * _ Pasig
Pasig
_ * _Pateros _ * _ Quezon
Quezon
City _ * _San Juan _ * _ Taguig
Taguig
_ * _Valenzuela _

REGION 2015 CENSUS AREA DENSITY REGIONAL CENTER COMPONENT LGUS

Table note(s)

* ^ Land area figures are the sum of each region's component provinces (and/or independent cities), derived from the National Statistical Coordination Board ( Philippine Statistics Authority
Philippine Statistics Authority
) official website. * ^ _A_ _B_ The list includes the associated islands of Luzon (provinces of Marinduque , Occidental Mindoro , Oriental Mindoro , Palawan , Romblon
Romblon
, Batanes , Catanduanes and Masbate
Masbate
). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ An independent component city , not under the jurisdiction of any provincial government. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ A highly urbanized city , independent from any province

Back to contents

TECTONICS

Main article: Philippine Mobile Belt Lake
Lake
Pinatubo in Zambales

Luzon
Luzon
is part of the Philippine Mobile Belt , a fast deforming plate boundary zone (Gervasio, 1967) hemmed in between two opposing subduction zones, the west-dipping Philippine Trench -East Luzon Trench subduction zone, and the east-dipping north-south trending Manila
Manila
Trench -Negros Trench- Cotabato Trench. The Philippine Sea Plate subducts under eastern Luzon
Luzon
along the East Luzon Trench and the Philippine Trench, while the South China Sea
South China Sea
basin, part of the Eurasian plate , subducts under western Luzon
Luzon
along the Manila
Manila
Trench.

The North-Southeastern trending braided left-lateral strike-slip Philippine Fault System traverses Luzon, from Quezon
Quezon
province and Bicol to the northwestern part of the island. This fault system takes up part of the motion due to the subducting plates and produces large earthquakes. Southwest of Luzon
Luzon
is a collision zone where the Palawan micro-block collides with SW Luzon, producing a highly seismic zone near Mindoro island. Southwest Luzon
Luzon
is characterized by a highly volcanic zone, called the Macolod Corridor, a region of crustal thinning and spreading.

Using geologic and structural data, seven principal blocks were identified in Luzon
Luzon
in 1989: the Sierra Madre Oriental , Angat, Zambales , Central Cordillera of Luzon
Central Cordillera of Luzon
, Bicol, and Catanduanes Island blocks. Using seismic and geodetic data, Luzon
Luzon
was modeled by Galgana et al. (2007) as a series of six micro blocks or micro plates (separated by subduction zones and intra-arc faults), all translating and rotating in different directions, with maximum velocities ~100 mm/yr NW with respect to Sundaland/Eurasia.

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION CENSUS OF LUZON

YEAR POP. ±% P.A.

1990 30,782,432 —

2000 39,584,158 +2.55%

2010 48,520,774 +2.06%

2015 53,336,134 +1.82%

Source: National Statistics Office

As of the 2015 census, the population of Luzon
Luzon
Island is 53,336,134 people, making it the 4th most populated island in the world .

ETHNIC GROUPS

An Ifugao warrior with some of his trophies, Luzon, circa 1912

Six major Philippine ethnolinguistic groups predominate Luzon. Ilocanos dominate northern Luzon, while Kapampangans and Pangasinenses , as well as Tagalogs and Sambals , populate Central Luzon
Central Luzon
. Tagalogs dominate the National Capital Region , CALABARZON and the island provinces of Marinduque and Mindoro , while Bicolanos populate the southern Bicol peninsula. Visayans mainly predominate in the island provinces of Masbate
Masbate
, Palawan and Romblon
Romblon
.

Other ethnic groups lesser in population include the Aetas of Zambales and Bataan
Bataan
, the Ibanags of Cagayan
Cagayan
and Isabela and the Igorot/Cordillerans of the Cordilleras . Further information: Ethnic groups of the Philippines
Philippines

Due to recent migrations populations of Hindus , Moros and Chinese have also been present in urban areas. Populations of Spanish , Americans , Japanese , Koreans , Indians , Arabs
Arabs
and Filipino mestizos are also visible. Most Americans have settled in the highly urbanized cities of Angeles and Olongapo
Olongapo
due to the former presence of the U.S. air and naval bases in Central Luzon.

LANGUAGES

Main article: Languages of the Philippines
Philippines
Tagalog , Ilocano and Bicolano languages predominate Luzon.

Almost all of the languages of Luzon
Luzon
belong to the Borneo– Philippines
Philippines
group of the Malayo-Polynesian language branch of the Austronesian language family . Major regional languages include: Tagalog , Ilocano , Bicolano , Kapampangan and Pangasinense .

English is spoken by many inhabitants. The use of Spanish as an official language declined following the American occupation of the Philippines
Philippines
. Almost inexistent among the general populace, Spanish is still used by the elderly of some families of great tradition (Rizal, Liboro...). Saint Augustine Catholic Church in Paoay

RELIGION

Main article: Religion in the Philippines
Philippines

Like most of the Philippines, the major religion in Luzon
Luzon
is Christianity , with Roman Catholicism being the major denomination . Other major sects includes Jehovah\'s Witnesses , Protestantism , the Philippine Independent Church
Philippine Independent Church
, and the Iglesia ni Cristo . Indigenous traditions and rituals, though rare, are also present.

There are also sizable communities of Hindus , Buddhists and Muslims in Metro Manila and in other, especially, urban areas due to the immigration of Moros and Chinese to the island. EDSA , a major thoroughfare in Metro Manila

ECONOMY

The economy of the island is centered in Metro Manila with Makati serving as the main economic and financial hub. Major companies such as Ayala , Jollibee Foods Corporation , SM Group , and Metrobank are based in the business districts of Makati
Makati
, Ortigas Center
Ortigas Center
, and Bonifacio Global City . Industry is concentrated in and around the urban areas of Metro Manila while agriculture predominates in the other regions of the island producing crops such as rice, bananas, mangoes, coconuts, pineapple, and coffee. Other sectors include livestock raising, tourism, mining, and fishing.

SEE ALSO

* Philippines
Philippines
portal * Islands portal * Geography portal

* Regions of the Philippines
Philippines
* Provinces of the Philippines
Philippines
* Battle of Luzon

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Figure composed of the 8 administrative regions excluding the island provinces of Batanes, Catanduanes, and Masbate and the region MIMAROPA.

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Islands of Philippines". _Island Directory Tables_. United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved 18 April 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Census of Population (2015). _Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population_. PSA . Retrieved 20 June 2016. * ^ Zaide, Sonia M. _The Philippines, a Unique Nation_. p. 50. * ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). _Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor_. ABC-CLIO. p. 798. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Roberts, Edmund (1837). _Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat_. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 59. * ^ Laguna Copperplate Inscription
Laguna Copperplate Inscription
– Article in English Archived 2008-02-05 at the Wayback Machine .. Mts.net (2006-07-14). Retrieved on 2010-12-19. * ^ Frans Welman (1 August 2013). _ Borneo
Borneo
Trilogy Brunei: Vol 1_. Booksmango. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-616-222-235-1 . * ^ William Henry Scott (1983). "The fact that Chief Kamayin\'s name is transliterated by the Chinese characters for "excellent," "horse," and\' "silver" led Berthold Laufer in his 1907 "The relations of the Chinese to the Philippines" to list horses and silver among the Pangasinan
Pangasinan
gifts (Historical Bulletin 1967 reprint, Vol. 11, p. 10); this error was carelessly copied by Wu Ching-hong in his 1962 "The rise and decline of Chuanchou\'s international trade" (Proceedings of the Second Conference of the International Association of Historians of Asia, p. 477), whence it passed into more than one Philippine text, but was not repeated by Wu himself in his later works.Laufer also refers to a Philippine embassy led by a "high official called Ko-ch\'a-lao" whom no other scholar has been able to locate and whom Beyer identifies as a "Chinese governor appointed for the island of Luzon" (op. cit., loc. cit.)." (PDF). _Guttenburg Free Online E-books_. 1: 8. * ^ Kekai, Paul. (2006-09-05) Quests of the Dragon and Bird Clan: Luzon
Luzon
Jars (Glossary). Sambali.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-19. * ^ South East Asia Pottery – Philippines. Seapots.com. Retrieved on 2010-12-19. Archived October 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Ho 2009, p. 33. * ^ "In Our Image". _google.com_. Retrieved 24 August 2015. * ^ Yust 1949, p. 75. * ^ Yust 1954, p. 75. * ^ "Philippine Almanac & Handbook of Facts" 1977, p. 59. * ^ Pires, Tomé, A suma oriental de Tomé Pires e o livro de Francisco Rodriguez: Leitura e notas de Armando Cortesão , translated and edited by Armando Cortesao, Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1944. * ^ Junker, 400. http://sambali.blogspot.com/2014/12/the-borneo-route.html * ^ _A_ _B_ Pinto, Fernao Mendes (1989) . "The travels of Mendes Pinto.". Translated by Rebecca Catz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. * ^ Pigafetta, Antonio (1969) . "First voyage round the world". Translated by J.A. Robertson. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild. * ^ Pigafetta 1524 , p. 195. * ^ Pires, Tomé (1944). Armando Cortesao (translator), ed. _A suma oriental de Tomé Pires e o livro de Francisco Rodriguez: Leitura e notas de Armando Cortesão _ (in Portuguese). Cambridge: Hakluyt Society. * ^ Lach, Donald Frederick (1994). "Chapter 8: The Philippine Islands". _Asia in the Making of Europe_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-46732-5 . * ^ Reid, Anthony (1995). "Continuity and Change in the Austronesian Transition to Islam and Christianity". In Peter Bellwood; James J. Fox; Darrell Tryon . _The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives_. Canberra: Department of Anthropology, The Australian National University. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The Philippines". Archived from the original on 22 February 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2008. * ^ Smith, Robert Ross (1993). _Triumph in the Philippines_ (Transcribed and formatted by Jerry Holden for the HyperWar Foundation). Honolulu, HI: University Press of the Pacific. p. 450. ISBN 1410224953 . Retrieved 25 December 2014. * ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Provinces". _Philippine Statistics Authority _. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2016. * ^ "PSGC Interactive; List of Cities". _Philippine Statistics Authority_. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2016. * ^ Hashimoto, M, ed., _Accretion Tectonics in the Circum-Pacific Regions_, ISBN 90-277-1561-0 p299 * ^ Rangin and Pubellier in _Tectonics of Circum-Pacific Continental Margins_ ISBN 90-6764-132-4 p148 fig 4 * ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). _Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines
Philippines
and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities_ (PDF). NSO . Retrieved 29 June 2016. * ^ PHILIPPINES: ADDITIONAL THREE PERSONS PER MINUTE, National Statistics Office Archived 2013-10-04 at the Wayback Machine .. Last revised: July 18, 2003. Retrieved November 27, 2006. * ^ Index of Agriculture and Fishery Statistics. Census.gov.ph. Retrieved on 2010-12-19. Archived February 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine .

FURTHER READING

* Agoncillo, Teodoro A.; Guerrero, Milagros (1975). _History of the Filipino People_ (4 ed.). R. P. Garcia. ISBN 9712345386 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1962). _Philippine History_. Inang Wika Publishing Company. ISBN 9712345386 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Alip, Eufronio Melo (1954). _Political and Cultural History of the Philippines, Volumes 1-2_ (revised ed.). Alip & Sons. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Antonio, Eleanor D.; Dallo, Evangeline M.; Imperial, Consuelo M.; Samson, Maria Carmelita B.; Soriano, Celia D. (2007). _Turning Points I\' 2007 Ed._ (unabridged ed.). Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 9712345386 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Bishop, Carl Whiting (1942). _War Background Studies, Issues 1-7_. Contributor: Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Bishop, Carl Whiting (1942). _Origin of Far Eastern Civilizations: A Brief Handbook, Issues 1-7_. Contributor: Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Corpuz, Onofre D. (1957). _The bureaucracy in the Philippines_. Institute of Public Administration, University of the Philippines. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Demetrio, Francisco R. (1981). _Myths and Symbols: Philippines_ (2 ed.). National Book Store. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Del Castillo y Tuazon, Antonio (1988). _Princess Urduja, Queen of the Orient Seas: Before and After Her Time in the Political Orbit of the Shri-vi-ja-ya and Madjapahit Maritime Empire : a Pre-Hispanic History of the Philippines_. A. del. Castillo y Tuazon. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Farwell, George (1967). _Mask of Asia: The Philippines
Philippines
Today_. Praeger. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick (1966). _A concise history of East Asia_. Praeger. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Ho, Khai Leong, ed. (2009). _Connecting and Distancing: Southeast Asia and China_ (illustrated ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 9812308563 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Karnow, Stanley (2010). _In Our Image: America\'s Empire in the Philippines_ (unabridged ed.). Random House LLC. ISBN 0307775437 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Krieger, Herbert William (1942). _Peoples of the Philippines, Issue 4_. Volume 3694 of Publication (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Lucman, Norodin Alonto (2000). _Moro Archives: A History of Armed Conflicts in Mindanao
Mindanao
and East Asia_. FLC Press. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Liao, Shubert S. C., ed. (1964). _Chinese participation in Philippine culture and economy_. Bookman. Archived from the original on Nov 9, 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Manuel, Esperidion Arsenio (1948). _Chinese Elements in the Tagalog Language: With Some Indication of Chinese Influence on Other Philippine Languages and Cultures, and an Excursion Into Austronesian Linguistics_. Contributor: Henry Otley Beyer. Filipiniana Publications. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Ostelius, Hans Arvid (1963). _Islands of Pleasure: A Guide to the Philippines_. G. Allen & Unwin. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Panganiban, José Villa; Panganiban, Consuelo Torres (1965). _The literature of the Pilipinos: a survey_ (5 ed.). Limbagang Pilipino. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Panganiban, José Villa; Panganiban, Consuelo Torres- (1962). _A Survey of the Literature of the Filipinos_ (4 ed.). Limbagang Pilipino. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Quirino, Carlos (1963). _Philippine Cartography, 1320-1899_ (2 ed.). N. Israel. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Ravenholt, Albert (1962). _The Philippines: A Young Republic on the Move_. Van Nostrand. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Sevilla, Fred; Balagtas, Francisco (1997). _Francisco Balagtas and the roots of Filipino nationalism: life and times of the great Filipino poet and his legacy of literary excellence and political activism_. Trademark Pub. Corp. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Spencer, Cornelia (1951). _Seven Thousand Islands: The Story of the Philippines_. Aladdin Books. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Tan, Antonio S. (1972). _The Chinese in the Philippines, 1898-1935: A Study of Their National Awakening_. R. P. Garcia Publishing Company. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Yust, Walter, ed. (1949). _Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 9_. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 9_. Volume 9 of EncyclopÆdia Britannica: A New Survey of Universal Knowledge. Contributor: Walter Yust. EncyclopÆdia Britannica. 1954. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Zaide, Gregorio F. (1957). _The Philippines
Philippines
since pre-Spanish times.-v. 2. The Philippines
Philippines
since the British invasion_. Volume 1 of Philippine Political and Cultural History (revised ed.). Philippine Education Company. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Zaide, Gregorio F. (1979). _The Pageant of Philippine History: Political, Economic, and Socio-cultural, Volume 1_. Philippine Education Company. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Philippines
Philippines
(Republic). Office of Cultural Affairs (1965). _The Philippines: a Handbook of Information_. Contributor: National Economic Council (Philippines) (revised ed.). Republic of the Philippines, Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Philippine Chinese Historical Association (1975). _The Annals of Philippine Chinese Historical Association, Volumes 5-8_ (revised ed.). Retrieved 24 April 2014. * IAHA Conference (1962). _Biennial Conference Proceedings, Issue 1_. Philippine Historical Association. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _The Philippines: A Handbook of Information_. Contributor: Philippine Information Agency. Philippine Information Agency. 1955. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _University of Manila
Manila
Journal Of East Asiatic Studies, Volume 7_. Contributors: Manila
Manila
(Philippines) University, University of Manila (revised ed.). University of Manila. 1959. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _Unitas, Volume 30, Issues 1-2_. Contributor: University of Santo Tomás. University of Santo Tomás. 1957. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _The Researcher, Volume 2, Issue 2_. Contributors: University of Pangasinan, Dagupan Colleges. Dagupan Colleges. 1970. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _Philippine Social Sciences and Humanities Review, Volumes 24-25_. Contributor: University of the Philippines. College of Liberal Arts. 1959. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _Philippine Social Sciences and Humanities Reviews, Volume 24, Issues 1-2_. Contributors: Philippine Academy of Social Sciences, Manila, University of the Philippines. College of Liberal Arts. College of Liberal Arts, University of the Philippines. 1959. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _Studies in Public Administration, Issue 4_. Contributor: University of the Philippines. Institute of Public Administration. Institute of Public Administration, University of the Philippines. 1957. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _Proceedings Second Biennial Conference, Held at Taiwan Provincial Museum, Taipei, Taiwan. Republic of China, October 6-9, 1962_. Tʻai-pei. 1963. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _Yearbook_. 1965. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _Philippine Almanac & Handbook of Facts_. 1977. Retrieved 24 April 2014.

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikinews has news related to: LUZON _

* _ Media related to Luzon
Luzon
at Wikimedia