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Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg, French: Luxembourg, German: Luxemburg),[pron 1] also known as Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City (Luxembourgish: Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, French: Ville de Luxembourg, German: Stadt Luxemburg)[pron 2], is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune. Standing at the confluence of the Alzette
Alzette
and Pétrusse rivers in southern Luxembourg, the city lies at the heart of Western Europe, situated 213 km (132 mi) by road from Brussels, 372 km (231 mi) from Paris, and 209 km (130 mi) from Cologne.[1] The city contains Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Castle, established by the Franks
Franks
in the Early Middle Ages, around which a settlement developed. As of January 2016, the commune had a population of 115,227,[2] which was more than three times the population of the country's second most populous commune (Esch-sur-Alzette). The city's metropolitan population, including that of surrounding communes of Hesperange, Sandweiler, Strassen, and Walferdange, reaches 180,000.[3] In 2011, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
was ranked as having the second highest per capita GDP in the world at $80,119 (PPP),[4] with the city having developed into a banking and administrative centre. In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
was placed first for personal safety while it was ranked 19th for quality of living.[5] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union (alongside Brussels
Brussels
and Strasbourg), as it is the seat of several institutions of the European Union, including the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, and the European Stability Mechanism.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Topography 2.2 Quarters of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 2.3 Climate

3 Government

3.1 Local government 3.2 National government 3.3 European institutions

4 Culture

4.1 Sport

5 Places of interest 6 Transport

6.1 Highways 6.2 Public transport 6.3 Rail 6.4 Air

7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

8 Image gallery 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City and Fortress
Fortress
of Luxembourg

Old City of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
at night

In the Roman era, a fortified tower guarded the crossing of two Roman roads that met at the site of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
city. Through an exchange treaty with the abbey of Saint Maximin in Trier
Trier
in 963, Siegfried I of the Ardennes, a close relative of King Louis II of France
Louis II of France
and Emperor Otto the Great, acquired the feudal lands of Luxembourg. Siegfried built his castle, named Lucilinburhuc ("small castle"), on the Bock Fiels ("rock"), mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange treaty. In 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier
Trier
consecrated five altars in the Church of the Redemption (today St. Michael's Church). At a Roman road intersection near the church, a marketplace appeared around which the city developed. The city, because of its location and natural geography, has through history been a place of strategic military significance. The first fortifications were built as early as the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, as the city expanded westward around the new St. Nicholas Church (today the cathedral of Notre Dame), new walls were built that included an area of 5 hectares (12 acres). In about 1340, under the reign of John the Blind, new fortifications were built that stood until 1867. In 1443, the Burgundians under Philip the Good
Philip the Good
conquered Luxembourg. Luxembourg
Luxembourg
became part of the Burgundian, and later Spanish and Austrian empires (See Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
and Spanish road) and under those Habsburg administrations Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Castle was repeatedly strengthened so that by the 16th century, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
itself was one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. Subsequently, the Burgundians, the Spanish, the French, the Spanish again, the Austrians, the French again, and the Prussians conquered Luxembourg. In the 17th century, the first casemates were built; initially, Spain built 23 km (14 mi) of tunnels, starting in 1644.[6] These were then enlarged under French rule by Marshal Vauban, and augmented again under Austrian rule in the 1730s and 1740s. During the French Revolutionary Wars, the city was occupied by France twice: once, briefly, in 1792–3, and, later, after a seven-month siege.[7] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
held out for so long under the French siege that French politician and military engineer Lazare Carnot
Lazare Carnot
called Luxembourg
Luxembourg
"the best fortress in the world, except Gibraltar", giving rise to the city's nickname: the ' Gibraltar
Gibraltar
of the North'.[7] Nonetheless, the Austrian garrison eventually surrendered, and as a consequence, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
was annexed by the French Republic, becoming part of the département of Forêts, with Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City as its préfecture. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Napoleonic Wars, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City was placed under Prussian military control as a part of the German Confederation, although sovereignty passed to the House of Orange-Nassau, in personal union with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of the Netherlands. After the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Crisis, the 1867 Treaty of London
London
required Luxembourg
Luxembourg
to dismantle the fortifications in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City. Their demolition took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, and required the destruction of over 24 km (15 mi) of underground defences and 4 hectares (9.9 acres) of casemates, batteries, barracks, etc.[8] Furthermore, the Prussian garrison was to be withdrawn.[9] When, in 1890, Grand Duke William III died without any male heirs, the Grand Duchy passed out of Dutch hands, and into an independent line under Grand Duke Adolphe. Thus, Luxembourg, which had hitherto been independent in theory only, became a truly independent country, and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City regained some of the importance that it had lost in 1867 by becoming the capital of a fully independent state. Despite Luxembourg's best efforts to remain neutral in the First World War, it was occupied by Germany
Germany
on 2 August 1914. On 30 August, Helmuth von Moltke moved his headquarters to Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City, closer to his armies in France
France
in preparation for a swift victory. However, the victory never came, and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
would play host to the German high command for another four years. At the end of the occupation, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City was the scene of an attempted communist revolution; on 9 November 1918, communists declared a socialist republic, but it lasted only a few hours.[10] In 1921, the city limits were greatly expanded. The communes of Eich, Hamm, Hollerich, and Rollingergrund were incorporated into Luxembourg City, making the city the largest commune in the country (a position that it would hold until 1978). In 1940, Germany
Germany
occupied Luxembourg
Luxembourg
again. The Nazis were not prepared to allow Luxembourgers self-government, and gradually integrated Luxembourg
Luxembourg
into the Third Reich by informally attaching the country administratively to a neighbouring German province. Under the occupation, the capital city's streets all received new, German names, which was announced on 4 October 1940.[11] The Avenue de la Liberté for example, a major road leading to the railway station, was renamed "Adolf-Hitlerstraße".[11] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City was liberated on 10 September 1944.[12] The city was under long-range bombardment by the German V-3 cannon
V-3 cannon
in December 1944 and January 1945. After the war, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
ended its neutrality, and became a founding member of several inter-governmental and supra-governmental institutions. In 1952, the city became the headquarters of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community. In 1967, the High Authority was merged with the commissions of the other European institutions; although Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City was no longer the seat of the ECSC, it hosted some part-sessions of the European Parliament
European Parliament
until 1981.[13] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
remains the seat of the European Parliament's secretariat, as well as the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, and the European Investment Bank. Several departments of the European Commission
European Commission
are also based in Luxembourg. Geography[edit]

View from the Grund up to the Old Town

The highest point of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
is Kneiff
Kneiff
at 560 m, closely followed by Burgplatz at 559 m and Napoleonsgaart at 554 m. Topography[edit] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City lies on the southern part of the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
plateau, a large Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
sandstone formation that forms the heart of the Gutland, a low-lying and flat area that covers the southern two-thirds of the country. The city centre occupies a picturesque site on a salient, perched high on precipitous cliffs that drop into the narrow valleys of the Alzette and Pétrusse
Pétrusse
rivers, whose confluence is in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City. The 70 m (230 ft) deep gorges cut by the rivers are spanned by many bridges and viaducts, including the Adolphe Bridge, the Grand Duchess Charlotte Bridge, and the Passerelle. Although Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City is not particularly large, its layout is complex, as the city is set on several levels, straddling hills and dropping into the two gorges. The commune of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City covers an area of over 51 km2 (20 sq mi), or 2% of the Grand Duchy's total area. This makes the city the fourth-largest commune in Luxembourg, and by far the largest urban area. Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City is not particularly densely populated, at about 1,700 people per km2; large areas of Luxembourg City are maintained as parks, forested areas, or sites of important heritage (particularly the UNESCO
UNESCO
sites), while there are also large tracts of farmland within the city limits. Quarters of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City[edit] Main article: Quarters of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City is subdivided into twenty-four quarters (French: quartiers), which cover the commune in its entirety. The quarters generally correspond to the major neighbourhoods and suburbs of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City, although a few of the historic districts, such as Bonnevoie, are divided between two quarters. Climate[edit] Considering its latitude, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City has a mild oceanic climate, with moderate precipitation, cold to cool winter temperatures and temperate summers. Moderate to heavy cloud cover is present for more than two-thirds of the year.

Climate data for Luxembourg, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(1981–2000, extremes 1947–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.9 (57) 18.2 (64.8) 22.2 (72) 27.0 (80.6) 31.6 (88.9) 35.4 (95.7) 36.1 (97) 37.9 (100.2) 31.5 (88.7) 26.0 (78.8) 18.4 (65.1) 14.6 (58.3) 37.9 (100.2)

Average high °C (°F) 3.1 (37.6) 4.7 (40.5) 9.1 (48.4) 13.3 (55.9) 17.8 (64) 20.7 (69.3) 23.2 (73.8) 22.8 (73) 18.4 (65.1) 13.1 (55.6) 7.3 (45.1) 3.9 (39) 13.1 (55.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.8 (33.4) 1.6 (34.9) 5.2 (41.4) 8.7 (47.7) 13.0 (55.4) 15.9 (60.6) 18.2 (64.8) 17.7 (63.9) 13.9 (57) 9.5 (49.1) 4.7 (40.5) 1.8 (35.2) 9.3 (48.7)

Average low °C (°F) −1.6 (29.1) −1.3 (29.7) 1.6 (34.9) 4.4 (39.9) 8.4 (47.1) 11.1 (52) 13.3 (55.9) 13.0 (55.4) 10.0 (50) 6.3 (43.3) 2.2 (36) −0.5 (31.1) 5.6 (42.1)

Record low °C (°F) −17.8 (0) −20.2 (−4.4) −14.4 (6.1) −6.9 (19.6) −2.1 (28.2) 0.9 (33.6) 4.5 (40.1) 4.3 (39.7) −0.7 (30.7) −4.6 (23.7) −11.1 (12) −15.3 (4.5) −20.2 (−4.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 76.6 (3.016) 62.5 (2.461) 69.1 (2.72) 58.2 (2.291) 78.5 (3.091) 79.9 (3.146) 71.0 (2.795) 75.4 (2.969) 76.3 (3.004) 86.8 (3.417) 76.0 (2.992) 86.7 (3.413) 896.9 (35.311)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 17.1 13.8 16.1 13.6 14.6 14.0 12.8 13.2 12.8 15.2 17.2 17.7 178.1

Average snowy days 8.6 8.0 4.7 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.8 7.3 33.5

Average relative humidity (%) 87 81 75 68 69 69 67 70 76 83 88 88 77

Mean monthly sunshine hours 50.3 83.6 125.1 181.6 213.4 227.0 250.3 230.8 161.9 105.9 54.2 41.0 1,725.1

Percent possible sunshine 18.8 29.4 34.0 44.1 44.8 46.7 51.0 51.7 42.7 31.8 19.8 16.1 35.9

Source: Meteolux[14][15]

Government[edit] Local government[edit] See also: Luxembourg
Luxembourg
communal council and List of mayors of Luxembourg City

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City Hall is the heart of the communal administration, and hosts the offices of both the communal council and the mayor.

Under the Luxembourgian constitution, local government is centred on the city's communal council. Consisting of twenty-seven members (fixed since 1964), each elected every six years on the second Sunday of October and taking office on 1 January of the next year,[16] the council is the largest of all communal councils in Luxembourg. The city is nowadays considered a stronghold of the Democratic Party (DP),[17] which is the third-largest party nationally. Currently, the Democratic Party is the largest party on the council, with eleven councillors.[18] The city's administration is headed by the mayor, who is the leader of the largest party on the communal council. After Xavier Bettel became Luxembourg's new prime minister on 4 December 2013, Lydie Polfer
Lydie Polfer
(DP) was sworn in as new mayor of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
on 17 December of the same year. The mayor leads the cabinet, the collège échevinal, in which the DP forms a coalition with The Greens.[19] Unlike other cities in Luxembourg, which are limited to four échevins at most, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
is given special dispensation to have six échevins on its collège échevinal.[20] National government[edit]

The Plateau de Kirchberg has many new buildings including those for the European Institutions

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City is the seat for the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Government. The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
lives at Berg Castle
Berg Castle
in Colmar-Berg. For national elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the city is located in the Centre constituency. European institutions[edit] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City is the seat of several institutions of the European Union, including the European Court of Justice, the European Commission, the secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Court of Auditors and the European Investment Bank. The majority of these institutions are located in the Kirchberg quarter, in the northeast of the city. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Luxembourg

Casino Luxembourg
Luxembourg
is currently used for exhibitions of local art.

Grand Théâtre de Luxembourg

Despite the city's comparatively small size, it has several notable museums: the recently renovated National Museum of History and Art (MNHA), the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City History Museum, the new Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art (Mudam) and National Museum of Natural History (NMHN). The city of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
itself is on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List, on account of the historical importance of its fortifications.[21] In addition to its two main theatres, the Grand Théâtre de Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and the Théâtre des Capucins, there is a new concert hall, the Philharmonie, as well as a conservatory with a large auditorium. Art galleries include the Villa Vauban, the Casino Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and Am Tunnel.[22] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
was the first city to be named European Capital of Culture twice. The first time was in 1995. In 2007, along with the Romanian city Sibiu, the European Capital of Culture[23] was to be a cross-border area consisting of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the Rheinland-Pfalz and Saarland in Germany, the Walloon Region and the German-speaking
German-speaking
part of Belgium, and the Lorraine area in France. The event was an attempt to promote mobility and the exchange of ideas, crossing borders in all areas, physical, psychological, artistic and emotional. Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City is also famed for its wide selection of restaurants and cuisines, including four Michelin starred establishments.[24] Sport[edit] The ING Europe Marathon has been contested annually in the capital since June 2006. It attracted 11,000 runners and over 100,000 spectators during the 2014 edition The BGL Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Open is a tennis tournament held since 1991 in the capital. The tournament runs from 13 to 21 October. BGL BNP Paribas, one of the most famous sponsors in the world of tennis, is the contracted title sponsor of the tournament until 2014. The D'Coque National Sporting and Cultural Centre, in the quarter of Kirchberg, is the largest sporting venue in the country, with a capacity of 8,300 for indoor sports and swimming. The two football clubs of the city of Luxembourg; Racing FC Union Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and FC RM Hamm Benfica, play in the country's highest league, the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
National Division. The 8,000-seater Stade Josy Barthel hosts the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
national football team, and CAL Spora Luxembourg, which with 400 members is the nation's largest athletics club.[25] Places of interest[edit]

The Luxembourg
Luxembourg
American Cemetery and Memorial

Places of interest include the Gothic Revival Cathedral of Notre Dame, the fortifications, the AM Tunnel (an art gallery underground), the Grand Ducal Palace, the Gëlle Fra
Gëlle Fra
war memorial, the casemates, the Neumünster Abbey, the Place d'Armes, the Adolphe Bridge
Adolphe Bridge
and the city hall. The city is the home of the University of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and RTL Group. The Second World War Luxembourg
Luxembourg
American Cemetery and Memorial is located within the city limits of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
at Hamm. This cemetery is the final resting place of 5,076 American military dead, including General George S. Patton. There is also a memorial to 371 Americans whose remains were never recovered or identified. Transport[edit] Highways[edit] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
is situated in the heart of Europe in the Gold Triangle between Frankfurt, Paris
Paris
and Amsterdam. It is therefore connected to several motorways and international routes.

A1 (E44): to Grevenmacher
Grevenmacher
and Trier
Trier
(Germany). A3 (E25): to Dudelange
Dudelange
and Thionville
Thionville
(France). A4: to Esch-sur- Alzette
Alzette
and to A13 to Petange, Athus
Athus
(Belgium) and Longwy
Longwy
(France) A6 (E25 / E411): to Arlon
Arlon
and Brussels. A7 (E421): to Mersch
Mersch
and Ettelbrück.

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Railway Station

Public transport[edit] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City has a network of 31[26] bus routes, operated by the buses of the City of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(Autobus de la Ville de Luxembourg, AVL), partly subcontracted to private bus companies. There is also a free bus service linking the Glacis to the Central Station, the "Joker Line" for seniors, and a "City night network". The city also owns 5 free carparks, situated at the entry points of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(Beggen: 160 cars, Bouillon: 2442, Kirchberg: 265, Kockelscheuer: 567, Luxembourg-Sud: 881). Those "Park & Ride" carparks are connected to the bus network with the aim of encouraging people to commute into town by bus. In addition to AVL buses, the CFL and RGTR operate regional buses to other places in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and nearby cities in Germany
Germany
and France. On 10 December 2017, the first stage of the new tram opened between Rout Bréck-Pafendall and Luxexpo serving the Kirchberg quarter. An extension to the city centre (Stäreplaz-Étoile) is envisaged for April 2018, further extensions to Gare Centrale, Bonnevoie, Howald and Cloche d’Or are also under construction are planned to be finished by 2020/21.[27] The tram, as with other public transport means in Luxembourg, costs €2 to ride for one hour and €4 for a day ticket. Rail[edit] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City has only one railway station, the main one of the country, which is also the terminus of all the lines in the Grand Duchy. It is owned by the state of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and by the Luxemburgish railway company: the CFL. It is connected to the German, Belgian and French railway network via several trains per hour. The station is also connected to the French TGV Est
TGV Est
network (with which connections are provided to Paris
Paris
and Strasbourg) and to Basel
Basel
and Zürich
Zürich
in Switzerland
Switzerland
via two daily international trains. Air[edit] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
is served by the only international airport in the country: Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Findel International Airport (codes: IATA: LUX, ICAO: ELLX). It is situated in the municipality of Sandweiler, 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) from the City. It is linked to the city centre by bus, but railway and tram links are planned. The airport is the main base for the two Luxembourgish airlines, Luxair
Luxair
and Cargolux. International relations[edit] Luxembourg
Luxembourg
is a member of the QuattroPole union of cities, along with Trier, Saarbrücken, and Metz
Metz
(neighbouring countries: Germany
Germany
and France). Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Luxembourg Luxembourg
Luxembourg
is twinned with:

Country City State / Region Since

United Kingdom Camden, London[28] England 2007

France Metz Lorraine

Russia Tambov Tambov
Tambov
Oblast 2012

Czech Republic Prague[29] Prague 2012

Image gallery[edit]

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
seen from Spot satellite

Skyline of the Hollerich
Hollerich
quarter

The gorges and Adolphe Bridge

The Gëlle Fra
Gëlle Fra
monument commemorates those who volunteered for service in the armed forces of the Allies of World War I

Monument national de la solidarité luxembourgeoise

Flag of the City of Luxembourg

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
center citscape view from Cité Judiciaire

Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City center with Pulvermuhl Viaduct

Cité Judiciaire in Luxembourg

Cité Judiciaire fountain close-up

See also[edit]

List of mayors of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City Cessange Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
1962, held at the Villa Louvigny Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
1966, held at the Villa Louvigny Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
1973, held at the Nouveau Théâtre Municipal Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
1984, held in the Nouveau Théâtre Municipal

Notes[edit]

^ Luxembourgish: [ˈlətsəbuːə̯ɕ] French: [lyksɑ̃buʁ] German: [ˈlʊksm̩bʊɐ̯k] ^ Luxembourgish: [ˈʃtaːt ˈlətsəbuːə̯ɕ], [tʃtaːt] French: [vil də lyksɑ̃buʁ] German: [ˈʃtat ˈlʊksm̩bʊɐ̯k]

References[edit]

^ "Great Circle Distances between Cities". United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 26 March 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2006.  ^ "Stadt Luxemburg hat jetzt 100.000 Einwohner" [ Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City now has 100,000 inhabitants]. Luxemburger Wort
Luxemburger Wort
(in German). 24 October 2012.  ^ "Affichage de tableau" (in French). Statec. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2012.  ^ "Luxembourg". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 27 April 2012.  ^ "2011 Quality of Living worldwide city rankings – Mercer survey", Mercer. Retrieved 29 November 2011. ^ "The Fortress". Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City Tourism Office. Retrieved 23 July 2006.  ^ a b Kreins (2003), p. 64 ^ " World Heritage List
World Heritage List
– Luxembourg" (PDF). UNESCO. 1 October 1993. Retrieved 19 July 2006.  ^ (in French) Treaty of London, 1867, Article IV. GWPDA. Retrieved 19 July 2006. ^ Luxembourg
Luxembourg
country profile. WorldStatesman.org. Retrieved 23 July 2006. ^ a b May, Guy (2002). "Die Straßenbezeichnungen der Stadt Luxemburg unter deutscher Besatzung (1940–1944)" (PDF). Ons Stad (in German) (71): 30-32.  ^ Thewes (2003), p. 121 ^ "Alcide De Gasperi Building". Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l’Europe. 16 June 2006. Retrieved 23 July 2006.  ^ "Données Climatologiques" (PDF). Meteolux. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2016.  ^ "Normales et extrêmes" (in French). Administration de l’Aéroport de Luxembourg. Retrieved 25 October 2016.  ^ "Organisation et fonctionnement des organes politiques". Ville de Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(in French). Retrieved 31 October 2017.  ^ Hansen, Josée (8 October 1999). "Cliff-hanger". Lëtzebuerger Land (in French). Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ "Composition du conseil communal" (in French). Ville de Luxembourg. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ "Composition du collège échevinal" (in French). Ville de Luxembourg. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ "Organisation des communes – Textes Organiques" (PDF). Code administratif Luxembourgeois (in French). Service central de législation. 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ "Culture in Luxembourg".  ^ "Art et Culture", Ville de Luxembourg. (in French) Retrieved 30 October 2011. ^ " Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and Greater Region, European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
2007" (PDF).  ^ "Guide Michelin 2012: Le Luxembourg
Luxembourg
perd des étoiles" Archived 23 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "WelcomeFooter". Cslath.lu. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ "Les 31 lignes d'autobus". vdl.lu.  ^ "HOME – Luxtram.lu – Un tram pour la Ville de Luxembourg". luxtram.lu.  ^ "Twin Towns in the UK". Dorset Twinning Association. 11 May 2007. Archived from the original on 29 December 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2007.  ^ "Partnerská města HMP" [ Prague
Prague
– Twin Cities HMP]. Portál „Zahraniční vztahy“ [ Portal
Portal
"Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 

Kreins, Jean-Marie (2003). Histoire du Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(in French) (3rd ed.). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 978-2-13-053852-3.  Thewes, Guy (July 2003). Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Luxembourg
depuis 1848 (PDF) (in French) (Édition limitée ed.). Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City: Service Information et Presse. ISBN 2-87999-118-8. Retrieved 6 July 2006. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City

Further reading[edit]

Thewes, Guy; Wagener, Danièle (1995). "La Ville de Luxembourg
Luxembourg
en 1795" (PDF). ons stad (in French) (49): 4–7.  Thewes, Guy (2002). "Nationalsozialistische Architektur in Luxemburg" (PDF). ons stad (in German) (71): 25-29.  Thewes, Guy (2004). "L'évacuation des déchets de la vie urbaine sous l'Ancien Régime" (PDF). ons stad (in French) (75): 30–33.  Thewes, Guy (2012). "Le «grand renfermement» - La ville à l'âge de la forteresse" (PDF). ons stad (in French) (99): 10–13.  Thewes, Guy (2013). "Luxembourg, ville dangereuse sous l'Ancien Régime? - Police et sécurité au XVIIIe siècle" (PDF). ons stad (in French) (104): 58–61. 

External links[edit]

Commune of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
official website Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City Tourism Museum of the city of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
website HoloGuides – photos, events and news Luxembourg
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History

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Geography

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Transport

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Outline

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Places adjacent to Luxembourg
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Kopstal Walferdange, Steinsel Niederanven

Strassen Bertrange

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Sandweiler

Leudelange Roeser Hesperange

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Communes of Luxembourg

Bertrange Contern Hesperange Luxembourg Niederanven Sandweiler Schuttrange Steinsel Strassen Walferdange Weiler-la-Tour

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

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Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

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European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

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Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Countries

Active

Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show

Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

Israel Latvia

Eirodziesma Dziesma

Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

OGAE
OGAE
Video Contest OGAE
OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest's Greatest Hits

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 160050945 LCCN: n50054179 ISNI: 0000 0004 0496 5475 GND: 40367

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