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Lusitania
Lusitania
(/ˌluːsɪˈteɪniə/, Portuguese: Lusitânia, Spanish: Lusitania) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal
Portugal
south of the Douro river and part of modern Spain
Spain
(the present autonomous community of Extremadura
Extremadura
and a small part of the province of Salamanca). It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people (an Indo-European people). Its capital was Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
(currently Mérida, Spain), and it was initially part of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
province of Hispania Ulterior, before becoming a province of its own in the Roman Empire. Romans first came to the territory around the mid-2nd century BC.[1] A war with Lusitanian tribes followed, from 155 to 139 BC. In 27 BC, the province was created.[2]

Contents

1 Origin of the name 2 Lusitanians 3 War against Rome 4 Roman province

4.1 Division under Augustus
Augustus
(25–20 BC) 4.2 Division under Diocletian 4.3 Governors 4.4 Coloniae and Municipia

5 Notable Lusitanians 6 Legacy of the name 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Origin of the name[edit] The etymology of the name of the Lusitani (who gave the Roman province their name) remains unclear. Popular etymology connected the name to a supposed Roman demigod Lusus, whereas some early-modern scholars[which?] suggested that Lus was a form of the Celtic Lugus followed by another (unattested) root *tan-, supposed to mean "tribe",[3] while others derived the name from Lucis, an ancient people mentioned in Avienus' Ora Maritima (4th century AD) and from tan ( -stan
-stan
in Iranian), or from tain, meaning "a region" or implying "a country of waters", a root word that formerly meant a prince or sovereign governor of a region.[4][5][6] Ancient Romans, such as Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History, 3.5) and Varro (116 – 27 BC, cited by Pliny), speculated that the name Lusitania
Lusitania
had Roman origins, as when Pliny says "lusum enim Liberi Patris aut lyssam cum eo bacchantium nomen dedisse Lusitaniae et Pana praefectum eius universae" [ Lusitania
Lusitania
takes its name from the Lusus associated with Bacchus and the Lyssa of his Bacchantes, and Pan is its governor]. Lusus
Lusus
is usually translated as "game" or "play", while lyssa is a borrowing from the Greek λυσσα, "frenzy" or "rage", and sometimes Rage personified; for later poets, Lusus
Lusus
and Lyssa become flesh-and-blood companions (even children) of Bacchus. Luís de Camões' epic Os Lusíadas
Os Lusíadas
(1572), which portrays Lusus
Lusus
as the founder of Lusitania, extends these ideas, which have no connection with modern etymology. In his work, Geography, the classical geographer Strabo
Strabo
(died ca. 24 AD) suggests a change had occurred in the use of the name "Lusitanian". He mentions a group who had once been called "Lusitanians" living north of the Douro
Douro
river but were called in his day "Callacans".[7] Lusitanians[edit]

Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
at about 300 BC.[8]

Main article: Lusitanians The Lusitani, who were Indo-European speakers, established themselves in the region in the 6th century BC, but historians and archeologists are still undecided about their ethnogenesis. Some modern authors consider them to be an indigenous people who were Celticized culturally and possibly also through intermarriage.[1] The archeologist Scarlat Lambrino defended the position that the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
were a tribal group of Celtic origin related to the Lusones
Lusones
(a tribe that inhabited the east of Iberia). Some have claimed that both tribes came from the Swiss mountains.[citation needed] Others argue that the evidence points to the Lusitanians
Lusitanians
being a native Iberian tribe, resulting from intermarriage between different local tribes.[citation needed] The first area colonized by the Lusitani was probably the Douro
Douro
valley and the region of Beira Alta (present day Portugal); in Beira, they stayed until they defeated the Celtici
Celtici
and other tribes, then they expanded to cover a territory that reached Estremadura before the arrival of the Romans. War against Rome[edit]

v t e

Roman conquest of Hispania

Second Punic War Celtiberian Wars (First,Second) Lusitanian War Numantine War Cantabrian Wars

Main article: Lusitanian War

And yet the country north of the Tagus, Lusitania, is the greatest of the Iberian nations, and is the nation against which the Romans waged war for the longest times — Strabo[9]

Roman conquest of Hispania

The Lusitani are mentioned for the first time in Livy
Livy
(218 BC) and are described as fighting for the Carthaginians; they are reported as fighting against Rome in 194 BC, sometimes allied with Celtiberian tribes. In 179 BC, the praetor Lucius Postumius Albinus celebrated a triumph over the Lusitani, but in 155 BC, on the command of Punicus (Πουνίκου, perhaps a Carthaginian) first and Cesarus (Καίσαρος) after, the Lusitani reached Gibraltar. Here they were defeated by the praetor Lucius Mummius. From 152 BC onwards, the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
had difficulties in recruiting soldiers for the wars in Hispania, deemed particularly brutal. In 150 BC, Servius Sulpicius Galba organised a false armistice. While the Lusitani celebrated this new alliance, he massacred them, selling the survivors as slaves; this caused a new rebellion led by Viriathus, who was after many attempts killed by traitors paid by the Romans in 139 BC, after having led a successful guerrilla campaign against Rome and their local allies. Two years after, in 137 BC Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus led a successful campaign against the Lusitani, reaching as far north as the Minho river. Romans scored other victories with proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus and Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
(elected in 113 BC), but still the Lusitani resisted with a long guerilla war; they later joined Sertorius' (a renegade Roman General) troops (around 80 BC) and Julius Caesar conducted a successful campaign against them in 61-60 BC,[10] but they were not finally defeated until the reign of Augustus
Augustus
(around 28-24 BC). Roman province[edit]

Roman Hispania under Diocletian
Diocletian
(AD 293); Lusitania
Lusitania
found in the extreme west

Tower of Centum Cellas

Roman Temple of Évora

Roman Theatre (Mérida)

Division under Augustus
Augustus
(25–20 BC)[edit] With Lusitania
Lusitania
(and Asturia
Asturia
and Gallaecia), Rome had completed the conquest of the Iberian peninsula, which was then divided by Augustus (25–20 BC[citation needed] or 16-13 BC[1]) into the eastern and northern Hispania Tarraconensis, the southwestern Hispania Baetica
Hispania Baetica
and the western Provincia Lusitana. Originally, Lusitania
Lusitania
included the territories of Asturia
Asturia
and Gallaecia, but these were later ceded to the jurisdiction of the new Provincia Tarraconensis and the former remained as Provincia Lusitania
Lusitania
et Vettones. Its northern border was along the Douro
Douro
river, while on its eastern side its border passed through Salmantica (Salamanca)and Caesarobriga (Talavera de la Reina) to the Anas
Anas
(Guadiana) river. Between 28-24 BC Augustus' military campaigns pacified all Hispania under Roman rule, with the foundation of Roman cities like Asturica Augusta (Astorga) and Bracara Augusta
Bracara Augusta
(Braga) to the north, and to the south Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
(Mérida) (settled with the emeriti of the Legio V Alaudae and Legio X Gemina
Legio X Gemina
legions). Between the time of Augustus
Augustus
and Claudius, the province was divided into three conventus iuridicus, territorial units presided by capital cities with a court of justice and joint Roman/indigenous people assemblies (conventus), that counseled the Governor:

Conventus Emeritensis, with capital in Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
(Mérida, Spain) Conventus Scalabitanus, with capital in Scalabis
Scalabis
Iulia (Santarém, Portugal) Conventus Pacensis, with capital in Pax Iulia
Pax Iulia
(Beja, Portugal)

The conventus ruled of a total of 46 populis, 5 being Roman colonies[11] ( Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
(Mérida, Spain), Pax Iulia
Pax Iulia
(Beja), Scalabis
Scalabis
(Santarém), Norba Caesarina and Metellinum). Felicitas Iulia Olisipo
Olisipo
(Lisbon, which was a Roman law
Roman law
municipality) and 3 other towns had the old Latin status[12] ( Ebora
Ebora
(Évora), Myrtilis Iulia (Mértola) and Salacia (Alcácer do Sal). The other 37 were of stipendiarii class, among which Aeminium
Aeminium
(Coimbra), Balsa (Tavira), or Mirobriga (Santiago do Cacém). Other cities include Ossonoba (Faro), Cetobriga (Tróia, Setúbal), Collippo (Leiria) or Arabriga (Alenquer). Division under Diocletian[edit] Under Diocletian, Lusitania
Lusitania
kept its borders and was ruled by a praeses, later by a consularis; finally, in 298 AD, it was united with the other provinces to form the Diocesis Hispaniarum ("Diocese of the Hispanias"). Governors[edit]

Quintus Acutius Faienanus, legatus Augusti pro praetore between 19 and 1 BC.[13] Lucius Calventius Vetus Carminius, legatus Augusti pro praetore 44-45[14] Marcus Salvius Otho
Otho
Caesar Augustus
Augustus
Governor 58-68[15] Gaius Catellius Celer 75/76-77/78[16]  ? Gaius Calpurnius Flaccus 119/120-120/121 Gaius Oppius Sabinus Julius Nepos Manlius Vibius Sollemnis Severus (under Hadrian) Lucius Roscius Maecius Celer Postumus Mamilianus Vergilius Staberianus (under Hadrian) Gaius Javolenus Calvinus Germinius Kapito Cornelius Pollio Squilla Quintus Vulkacius Scuppidius Verus c. 138 Gaius Javolenus Calvinus (between 138 and 140)[17] Aulus Avillius Urinatius Quadratus c.151-c.154[17] Gaius Caesonius Macer Rufinianus c. 193 -c. 197 Vettius Agorius Praetextatus
Vettius Agorius Praetextatus
(4th century)

Coloniae and Municipia[edit]

Colonia Metellinum
Metellinum
(Medellín, Badajoz) Colonia Norba Caesarina (Cáceres) Colonia Augusta Emerita (Mérida), provincial capital. Colonia Civitas Pacensis (Beja, Portugal) Colonia Scalabis
Scalabis
Praesidium Iulium (Santarém, Portugal) Municipium Caesarobriga (Talavera de la Reina, Toledo) Municipium Augustobriga (Talavera la Vieja, Cáceres) Municipium Aeminium
Aeminium
(Coimbra, Portugal) Municipium Conímbriga
Conímbriga
(Condeixa-a-Nova, Portugal) Municipium Salmantica (Salamanca) Municipium Caurium (Coria, Cáceres) Municipium Turgalium (Trujillo, Cáceres) Municipium Capara (Cáparra, Cáceres) Municipium Olisipo
Olisipo
(Lisboa, Portugal) Municipium Egitandiorum (Idanha-a-Velha, Portugal) Municipium Regina Turdulorum (Casas de Reina, Badajoz) Municipium Lacobriga
Lacobriga
(Lagos, Portugal)

Notable Lusitanians[edit]

Viriathus Gaius Appuleius Diocles

Legacy of the name[edit] As with the Roman names of many European countries, Lusitania
Lusitania
was and is often used as an alternative name for Portugal, especially in formal or literary and poetic contexts. The 16th-century colony that would eventually become Brazil
Brazil
was initially founded as "New Lusitania". In common use are such terms as Lusophone, meaning Portuguese-speaking, and Lusitanic, referring to the Community of Portuguese Language Countries—once Portugal's colonies and presently independent countries still sharing some common heritage. Prior to his invasion in 1807, Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
proposed the establishment of a French-backed puppet Kingdom of Northern Lusitania
Kingdom of Northern Lusitania
as one of the successor states to Portugal
Portugal
under the assumption that such a campaign would result in an easy French victory. See also[edit]

Ancient Rome portal Portugal
Portugal
portal Spain
Spain
portal

Lusitanians Lusitanian mythology Lusitanian language National Archaeology Museum (Portugal) Emerita Augusta Ophiussa Portugal History of Portugal Timeline of Portuguese history Spain History of Spain Timeline of Spanish history Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Romanization of Hispania Balsa (Roman town) National Museum of Archaeology (Portugal)

References[edit]

^ a b c Garcia, José Manuel (1989). História de Portugal: Uma Visão Global. Lisboa: Editorial Presença. pp. 32, 33, 38. ISBN 9722309897.  ^ Alan W. Ertl (2008). Toward an Understanding of Europe: A Political Economic Précis of Continental Integration. Universal-Publishers. ISBN 9781599429830. Retrieved 2012-08-12.  ^ Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World. McFarland Inc. p. 228. ISBN 9780786422487.  ^ "Chapter XII, Section I: The History of the Celtes". An Universal History from the Earliest Account of Time. VI. London: T. Osborne, A. Millar, and J. Osborn. 1747. p. 22. Retrieved 18 October 2015.  ^ Piers, Henry (1786) [1682]. "No. IV: A Dissertation concerning the ancient Irish Laws, &c., Part II". In Vallancey, Charles. Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis. 1 (2nd ed.). Dublin: Luke White. p. 279. Retrieved 18 October 2015.  ^ O'Brien, John (1768). Focalóir gaoidhilge-sax-bhéarla, or An Irish-English dictionary. Nicolas-Francis Valleyre. p. 464. Retrieved 18 October 2015.  ^ Strabo, Geography, Book III, Chapter 4, paragraph 20 ^ "Ethnographic Map of Pre-Roman Iberia (circa 200 b". Arkeotavira.com. Retrieved 2010-08-03.  ^ "Strabo.Geography". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2010-08-03.  ^ Suetonius, Cae, 18; Appian, BH, 102; Plut, Cae., 12; Dio, 37 & 52, 153-154, Valleius Patraculus, II, 52-5; Antonio Santosuosso, Storming the Heavans: Soldiers, Emperors, and Civilians in the Roman Empire (London: Pilmico/Random House, 2011), p. 57-58; Casey Simpson, “Caesar or Rex?” (Honors thesis, Ball State University, 2004); Stephen Dando-Collins, Legions of Rome (New York: Thomas Dunne/St. Martin’s, 2010), pp. 28, 61-63; CAH, both editions ^ [1] ^ Bowman, Alan K; Champlin, Edward; Lintott, Andrew (1996-02-08). "The Cambridge Ancient History". ISBN 9780521264303.  ^ Géza Alföldy, Fasti Hispanienses, Steiner, Wiesbaden (1969). ^ Der Neue Pauly, Stuttgart 1999, T. 2, c. 951-992 ^ Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Penguin. pp. 255–262. ISBN 978-0-14-045516-8.  ^ Unless otherwise noted, the governors from 75 to the end of Hadrian's reign are taken from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), pp. 281-362; 13 (1983), pp. 147-237. ^ a b Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), p. 256

An etymological lexicon of Proto-Celtic

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lusitania.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article Lusitania.

Lusitania, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia (around 200 BC) Southern Star Article: Crewman's strange foreboding of disaster

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania Inferior Germania Superior Hispania Baetica Hispania Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya Superior Libya Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganization in 534–536

Coordinates: 38°46′08″N 7°13′05″W / 38.7689°N 7.2181°W

.