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Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River
Yellow River
in Central China. It is a prefecture-level city in western Henan
Henan
province. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
to the east, Pingdingshan
Pingdingshan
to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia
Sanmenxia
to the west, Jiyuan
Jiyuan
to the north, and Jiaozuo
Jiaozuo
to the northeast. As of the final 2010 census, Luoyang
Luoyang
had a population of 6,549,941 inhabitants with 1,857,003 people living in the built-up (or metro) area made of the city's five urban districts, all of which except the Jili District
Jili District
are not urbanized yet.[1] Situated on the central plain of China, Luoyang
Luoyang
is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization, and is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.

Contents

1 Names 2 History 3 World Heritage 4 Ancient city sites 5 Administrative divisions 6 Geography

6.1 Climate

7 Culture 8 Education 9 Transportation 10 Twin towns — sister cities 11 Famous residents 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Names[edit] The name "Luoyang" originates from the city's location on the north or sunny ("yang") side of the Luo River. Since the river flows from west to east and the sun is to the south of the river, the sun always shines on the north side of the river. Luoyang
Luoyang
has had several names over the centuries, including "Luoyi" (洛邑) and "Luozhou (洛州)", though Luoyang
Luoyang
has been its primary name. It has been called, during various periods, "Dongdu" (东都, meaning the Eastern Capital, during the Tang Dynasty), "Xijing" (西京, meaning the Western Capital, during the Song Dynasty), or "Jingluo" (京洛, meaning the general capital for China). During the rule of Wu Zetian, the city was known as Shendu (神都 divine capital) History[edit]

Longmen Grottoes

Museum of Luoyang
Luoyang
Eastern Zhou Royal Horse and Chariot Pits

Statue of the Duke of Zhou
Duke of Zhou
who founded a city here c. 1036 BC

Map of Luoyang
Luoyang
in Eastern Han Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty
when it was the capital of China

White Horse Temple
White Horse Temple
gate

The greater Luoyang
Luoyang
area has been sacred ground since the late Neolithic
Neolithic
period.[citation needed] This area at the intersection of the Luo river and Yi River was considered to be the geographical center of China.[citation needed] Because of this sacred aspect, several cities – all of which are generally referred to as "Luoyang" – have been built in this area. In 2070 BC, the Xia Dynasty king Tai Kang moved the Xia capital to the intersection of the Luo and Yi and named the city Zhenxun (斟鄩). In 1600 BC, Tang of Shang defeated Jie, the final Xia Dynasty
Xia Dynasty
king, and built Western Bo (西亳), a new capital on the Luo River. The ruins of Western Bo are located in Luoyang
Luoyang
Prefecture. In the 1136 BC a settlement named Chengzhou
Chengzhou
(成周) was constructed by the Duke of Zhou
Duke of Zhou
for the remnants of the captured Shang nobility. The Duke also moved the Nine Tripod Cauldrons
Nine Tripod Cauldrons
to Chengzhou from the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
capital at Haojing. A second Western Zhou capital, Wangcheng (also: Luoyi) was built 15 km (9.3 mi) west of Chengzhou. Wangcheng became the capital of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in 771 BC. The Eastern Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
capital was moved to Chengzhou
Chengzhou
in 510 BC. Later, the Eastern Han Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty
capital of Luoyang
Luoyang
would be built over Chengzhou. Modern Luoyang
Luoyang
is built over the ruins of Wangcheng, which are still visible today at Wangcheng Park.[2] In 25 AD, Luoyang
Luoyang
was declared the capital of the Eastern Han Dynasty on November 27 by Emperor Guangwu of Han.[3] For several centuries, Luoyang
Luoyang
was the focal point of China. In AD 68, the White Horse Temple, the first Buddhist
Buddhist
temple in China, was founded in Luoyang. The temple still exists, though the architecture is of later origin, mainly from the 16th century. An Shigao
An Shigao
was one of the first monks to popularize Buddhism in Luoyang. The ambassador Banchao restored the Silk Road
Silk Road
in Eastern Han Dynasty and this has made the capital city Luoyang
Luoyang
the start of Silk Road In 166 AD, the first Roman mission, sent by "the king of Da Qin [the Roman Empire], Andun" ( Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Antoninus, r. 161-180 AD), reached Luoyang
Luoyang
after arriving by sea in Rinan Commandery in what is now central Vietnam.[4] The late 2nd century saw China decline into anarchy:

The decline was accelerated by the rebellion of the Yellow Turbans, who, although defeated by the Imperial troops in 184 AD, weakened the state to the point where there was a continuing series of rebellions degenerating into civil war, culminating in the burning of the Han capital of Luoyang
Luoyang
on 24 September 189 AD. This was followed by a state of continual unrest and wars in China until a modicum of stability returned in the 220s, but with the establishment of three separate kingdoms, rather than a unified empire.[5]

In 190 AD, Chancellor Dong Zhuo
Dong Zhuo
ordered his soldiers to ransack, pillage, and raze the city as he retreated from the coalition set up against him by regional lords all across China. The court was subsequently moved to the more defensible western city of Chang'an. Following a period of disorder, Luoyang
Luoyang
was restored to prominence when Cao Pi, Emperor Wen of the Wei Dynasty, declared it his capital in 220 AD. The Jin Dynasty, successor to Wei, was also established in Luoyang. When Jin was overrun by Xiongnu
Xiongnu
forces in 311 AD, it was forced to move its capital to Jiankang
Jiankang
(modern day Nanjing). The Xiongnu warriors then sacked and nearly totally destroyed Luoyang. The same fate befell Chang'an
Chang'an
in 316 AD.[6] In 493 AD, Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty
Northern Wei Dynasty
moved the capital from Datong
Datong
to Luoyang
Luoyang
and started the construction of the rock-cut Longmen Grottoes. More than 30,000 Buddhist
Buddhist
statues from the time of this dynasty have been found in the caves. Many of these sculptures were two-faced. At the same time, the Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
was also built by the Emperor to accommodate an Indian monk on the Mont Song right next to Luoyang
Luoyang
City. The Yongning Temple (永宁寺), the tallest pagoda in China, was also built in Luoyang. When Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui
took control in 604 AD he founded the new Luoyang
Luoyang
on the site of the existing city using a layout inspired by his father Emperor Wen of Sui's work in newly rebuilt Chang'an. [7][8] During the Tang Dynasty, Luoyang
Luoyang
was Dongdu (东都), the "Eastern Capital", and at its height had a population of around one million, second only to Chang'an, which, at the time, was the largest city in the world.[9] At the interval of Tang Dynasty, the first and the only empress in Chinese history- Empress Wu, moved the capital of her Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
to Luoyang
Luoyang
and named it as Shen Du(Capital of the God). She constructed the tallest palace in Chinese history, which is now in the site of Sui Tang Luoyang
Luoyang
city. During the short-lived Five Dynasties, Luoyang
Luoyang
was the capital of the Later Liang (only for a few years before the court moved to Kaifeng) and Later Tang. During the North Song Dynasty, Luoyang
Luoyang
was the 'Western Capital' and birthplace of Zhao Kuangyin, the founder of the Song Dynasty. It served as a prominent culture center, housing some of the most important philosophers. During the Jin Dynasty, Luoyang
Luoyang
was the "Middle Capital". Since the Yuan Dynasty, Luoyang
Luoyang
was no longer the capital of China in the rest of the ancient dynasties. The population was reduced to that of an average county. However, for one last time, Luoyang
Luoyang
city was the capital of the Republic of China for a brief period of time during the Japanese invasion. By 1949, Luoyang's population was 75,000. After the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
was established, Luoyang
Luoyang
was revived as a major heavy industrial hub. In the first five-year plan of China, 7 of 156 Soviet-aided major industrial programmes was launched in Luoyang's Jianxi District, including Dongfanghong Tractor Factory, Luoyang
Luoyang
Mining Machines Factory and Luoyang
Luoyang
Bearing Factory. Later, during the Third Front construction, a group of heavy industry factories was moved to or founded in Luoyang, including Luoyang
Luoyang
Glass Factory. Industrial development significantly shifted Luoyang's demographic makeup, and about half of Luoyang's population are new immigrants after 1949 from outside the province or their descendants. World Heritage[edit]

Longmen Grottoes(2000.11.30)[10] The Grand Canal- Huiluo Barn, Hanjia Barn (2014.6.22)[11] Silk Roads- Han Wei Luoyang
Luoyang
City Site, Dingding Gate Site of Sui Tang Luoyang
Luoyang
City, Xin'an Hangu Guan Site (2014.6.22)[12]

Ancient city sites[edit]

Erlitou
Erlitou
Site (Zhenxun) of Xia Dynasty Yanshi Shang City Site (Xibo) of Shang Dynasty Wangcheng Site of Eastern Zhou Dynasty Luoyang
Luoyang
City Site of Han and Wei Dynasty Luoyang
Luoyang
City Site of Sui and Tang Dynasty

Administrative divisions[edit]

Luoyang
Luoyang
Museum

Luoyang-Longmen HST Station

The prefecture-level city of Luoyang
Luoyang
administers 5 "built-up" urban districts, 1 additional district, 1 county-level city, and 9 more rural counties:

Luoyang
Luoyang
proper

Jianxi District (涧西区) Xigong District (西工区) Laocheng District (老城区) Chanhe Hui District
Chanhe Hui District
(瀍河回族区) Luolong District
Luolong District
(洛龙区) Jili District
Jili District
(non-urban, 吉利区)

Qiyun Pagoda in White Horse Temple

Yanshi City(偃师市) Mengjin County
Mengjin County
(孟津县) Xin'an County (新安县) Luoning County
Luoning County
(洛宁县) Yiyang
Yiyang
County (宜阳县) Yichuan County (伊川县) Song County (嵩县) Luanchuan County
Luanchuan County
(栾川县) Ruyang County (汝阳县)

During the 2010 census, the 5 "built-up" urban districts held a population of 1,857,003, making it the fourth-largest city in Henan. The entire area of Luoyang’s municipal government held 6,549,941 inhabitants total.

Map

1 2 3 4 5 Luolong Mengjin County Xin'an County Luanchuan County Song County Ruyang County Yiyang County Luoning County Yichuan County Yanshi (city) 1. Laocheng 2. Xigong 3. Chanhe Hui 4. Jianxi 5. Jili

Geography[edit] As its name states, the Old Town of Luoyang
Luoyang
is located on the north bank of the Luo, a southern tributary of the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The districts of the modern urban center include both banks and some of the surrounding mountains. The countryside controlled by the municipal government includes still more rugged land: mountains comprise 45.51% of the total area; hills, 40.73%; and plains, 13.8%.[13] Climate[edit]

Climate data for Luoyang

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.1 (43.0) 8.5 (47.3) 14.5 (58.1) 21.9 (71.4) 27.7 (81.9) 32.7 (90.9) 32.4 (90.3) 30.9 (87.6) 26.8 (80.2) 21.6 (70.9) 14.2 (57.6) 8.1 (46.6) 20.5 (68.8)

Average low °C (°F) −3.9 (25.0) −1.9 (28.6) 3.3 (37.9) 9.7 (49.5) 15.1 (59.2) 20.3 (68.5) 23.1 (73.6) 22.1 (71.8) 16.5 (61.7) 10.3 (50.5) 3.6 (38.5) −2.1 (28.2) 9.7 (49.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.6 (0.299) 13.4 (0.528) 27.1 (1.067) 38.1 (1.5) 52.1 (2.051) 66.3 (2.61) 136.6 (5.378) 100.8 (3.969) 78.5 (3.091) 45.3 (1.783) 26.9 (1.059) 9.6 (0.378) 602.3 (23.713)

Source: National Meteorological Center of the China Meteorological Administration. "Luoyang".

Culture[edit]

Guanlin Temple in May 2007.

Sites

The Longmen Grottoes
Longmen Grottoes
south of the city were listed on the UNESCO
UNESCO
list of World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
in November 2000. Guanlin—a series of temples built in honor of Guan Yu, a hero of the Three Kingdoms period—is nearby. The White Horse Temple
White Horse Temple
is located 12 km (7.5 mi) east of the modern town. The Luoyang Museum
Luoyang Museum
(est. 1958) features ancient relics dating back to the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties. The total number of exhibits on display is 1,700.[14] China's only tomb museum, the Luoyang
Luoyang
Ancient Tombs Museum, opened to the public in 1987 and is situated north of the modern town. The Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory
Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory
(also known as the Dengfeng Observatory or the Tower of Chou Kong) stands 80 km (50 mi) south-east of Luoyang. It was constructed in 1276 during the Yuan Dynasty by Guo Shoujing
Guo Shoujing
as a giant gnomon for "the measurement of the sun's shadow". Prior to the Jesuit China Missions, it was used for establishing the summer and winter solstices in traditional Chinese astronomy.[15]

Cuisine

Luoyang
Luoyang
is famed for its Water Banquet, which consists of 8 cold and 16 warm dishes all cooked in various broths, gravies, or juices.

Botany

Luoyang
Luoyang
is also celebrated for the cultivation of peonies, its city flower. Since 1983, each mid-April the city hosts the Peony Culture Festival of Luoyang
Luoyang
China. More than 19 million tourists visited Luoyang
Luoyang
during the 2014 festival.[16]

Music

"Spring in Luoyang" (洛阳春, Luòyáng Chūn), an ancient Chinese composition, became popular in Korea
Korea
during the Goryeo
Goryeo
dynasty (918–1392) and is still performed in its dangak (Koreanized) version Nakyangchun (낙양춘). Lou Harrison, an American composer, has also created an arrangement of the work.

Dialect

Main article: Luoyang
Luoyang
dialect Residents of Luoyang
Luoyang
typically speak a dialect of Zhongyuan Mandarin. Although Luoyang's dialect was a prestige dialect of spoken Chinese from the Warring States period
Warring States period
of the Zhou until the Ming Dynasty, it differs from the Beijing
Beijing
form of Mandarin which became the basis of the standard modern dialect.

Outer space

Asteroid (239200) 2006 MD13 is named after Luoyang. Education[edit]

Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology (洛阳理工学院) Henan
Henan
University of Science and Technology (河南科技大学) Luoyang
Luoyang
Normal University (洛阳师范学院) PLA Foreign Language Institute, formerly known as the Luoyang
Luoyang
PLA College of Foreign Languages (解放军洛阳外语学院)

Transportation[edit]

Luoyang
Luoyang
Railway Station Luoyang
Luoyang
East Railway Station Luoyang
Luoyang
Guanlin Railway Station Luoyang
Luoyang
Longmen Railway Station Luoyang
Luoyang
Beijiao Airport

Twin towns — sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China Luoyang
Luoyang
is twinned with:

La Crosse, Wisconsin, United States

Famous residents[edit]

Laozi, legendary founder of Taoism The emperors of the Eastern Zhou dynasty Guiguzi, geomancer and numerologist The emperors of the Eastern Han dynasty Xuanzang, Buddhist
Buddhist
monk and hero of the Journey to the West Liu Yuxi, poet Zhao Kuangyin, founder of the Song Dynasty Gao Hong, pipa player Du Wei, soccer player Guo Yipin, vice-mayor, went missing in 2014 Wang Yibo, idol, UNIQ Chen Dong, astronaut of Shenzhou 11 Meng Mei qi, idol, Cosmic Girls

See also[edit]

List of twin towns and sister cities in China Historical capitals of China Luoyang
Luoyang
Longmen Railway Station Sino-Roman Relations Silk Road
Silk Road
transmission of Buddhism Roman Catholic Diocese of Luoyang

References[edit]

^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-henan-admin.php ^ China.org.cn, 2009 ^ Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman, ed. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4.  ^ Hill (2009), p. 27. ^ Hill (2009), p. xvi, ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ Marks, Robert B. (2011). China: Its Environment and History. ISBN 1442212756.  p. 116 ^ Schinz, Alfred (1996). The Magic Square: Cities in Ancient China. ISBN 3930698021.  p. 167-169. ^ Abramson (2008), p. viii. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1003 ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1443 ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1442 ^ 洛阳市人民政府网站 [Luòyángshì Rénmín Zhèngfǔ Wǎngzhàn, Luoyang
Luoyang
Municipal People’s Government Website] op. cit. 北京2008年奥运火炬接力官方网站 [Běijīng 2008 Nián Àoyùn Huǒjù Jiēlì Guānfāng Wǎngzhàn, Beijing
Beijing
2008 Torch Relay Official Website]. 〈洛阳地理及气候概况〉 ["Luòyáng Dìlǐ Jí Qìhòu Gàikuàng", "Overview of Luoyang’s Geography and Climate"]. 20 Mar 2008. Accessed 16 Jan 2014. (in Chinese) ^ China Culture. " Luoyang Museum
Luoyang Museum
Archived 2016-02-15 at the Wayback Machine.". ^ Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China’’. ^ https://baike.baidu.com/item/中国洛阳牡丹文化节/1534157?fromtitle=洛阳牡丹花会&fromid=4516674&fr=aladdin

Further reading[edit]

Abramson, Marc. Ethnic Identity in Tang China. University of Pennsylvania Press (Philadelphia), 2008. ISBN 978-0-8122-4052-8. Cotterell, Arthur. The Imperial Capitals of China: An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. Pimlico (London), 2008. ISBN 978-1-84595-010-1. Hill, John E. Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge (Charleston), 2009. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1. Jenner, W. J. Memories of Loyang. Clarendon Press (Oxford), 1981. Yang Hsüan-chih. Lo-yang ch‘ien-lan chi, translated by Wang Yi-t‘ung as A Record of Buddhist
Buddhist
Monasteries in Lo-yang. Princeton University Press (Princeton), 1984. ISBN 0-691-05403-7.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luoyang.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Luoyang.

Official website of the Luoyang
Luoyang
Municipal Government (in Chinese) " Wangcheng Park in Luoyang" at China.org

Preceded by Zongzhou Primary capital of China 771–256 BCE Succeeded by — then Xianyang

Preceded by Chang'an Primary capital of China 25–190 CE Succeeded by — then Chang'an

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Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 239990442 GND: 4249839-9 BNF: cb11973868v (data) N