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The Luna programme
Luna programme
(from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon
Moon
by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
between 1959 and 1976. Fifteen were successful, each designed as either an orbiter or lander, and accomplished many firsts in space exploration. They also performed many experiments, studying the Moon's chemical composition, gravity, temperature, and radiation. Twenty-four spacecraft were formally given the Luna designation, although more were launched. Those that failed to reach orbit were not publicly acknowledged at the time, and not assigned a Luna number. Those that failed in low Earth
Earth
orbit were usually given Cosmos designations.[2] The estimated cost of the Luna programme
Luna programme
was about $4.5 billion.

Contents

1 Achievements 2 Other notable missions 3 Failed missions 4 Missions 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Achievements[edit] Luna 1
Luna 1
(January 1959) missed its intended impact with the Moon
Moon
and became the first spacecraft to fall into orbit around the Sun. Luna 2
Luna 2
(September 1959) mission successfully hit the Moon's surface, becoming the first man-made object to reach the Moon. Luna 3
Luna 3
(October 1959) rounded the Moon
Moon
later that year, and returned the first photographs of its far side, which can never be seen from Earth. Luna 9
Luna 9
(February 1966) became the first probe to achieve a soft landing on another planetary body. It returned five black and white stereoscopic circular panoramas, which were the first close-up shots of the Lunar surface. Luna 10
Luna 10
(March 1966) became the first artificial satellite of the Moon. Luna 17
Luna 17
(November 1970) and Luna 21
Luna 21
(January 1973) carried the Lunokhod vehicles, which roamed around on the Moon's terrain. Another major achievement of the Luna programme, with Luna 16 (September 1970), Luna 20
Luna 20
(February 1972) and Luna 24
Luna 24
(August 1976), was the ability to collect samples of lunar soil and return them to Earth. The programme returned 0.326 kg of lunar samples. The Luna missions were the first space-exploration sample return missions to rely solely on advanced robotics. Other notable missions[edit] Luna 15
Luna 15
(July 1969), also designed to return soil samples from the lunar surface, underwent its mission at the same time as the Apollo 11 mission. Neil Armstrong
Neil Armstrong
and Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin
were already on the lunar surface when Luna 15
Luna 15
began its descent, and the spacecraft crashed into a mountain minutes later. Failed missions[edit] While the programme was active, it was Soviet practice not to release any details of missions which had failed to achieve orbit. This resulted in Western observers assigning their own designations to the missions, for example Luna E-1 No.1, the first failure of 1958 which NASA believed was associated with the Luna programme
Luna programme
was known as Luna 1958A.[3] NASA identified a spacecraft which it referred to as Luna 1966A as having launched on 30 April 1966, a spacecraft referred to as Luna 1969B as having launched on 15 April 1969, and a spacecraft referred to as Luna 1970B as having launched on 19 February 1970.[3] When details of Soviet launches were later disclosed, no launches of Luna spacecraft were found to have occurred on those dates.[4][5] Missions[edit]

Public name Internal name Mission Launch date Carrier rocket Outcome Remarks

N/A E-1 No.1 Impactor September 23, 1958 Luna Launch failure Failed to orbit

N/A E-1 No.2 Impactor October 11, 1958 Luna Launch failure Failed to orbit

N/A E-1 No.3 Impactor December 4, 1958 Luna Launch failure Failed to orbit

Luna 1 E-1 No.4 Impactor January 2, 1959 Luna Partial success (missed Moon) Also known as Mechta; placed onto incorrect trajectory, flew past the Moon
Moon
without impacting; first spacecraft to escape geocentric orbit

N/A E-1A No.1 Impactor June 18, 1959 Luna Launch failure Failed to orbit

Luna 2 E-1A No.2 Impactor September 12, 1959 Luna Successful Impacted Palus Putredinis
Palus Putredinis
(29.10 N, 0.00 E) on the Moon
Moon
on September 14, 1959 at ~07:30:00 UT. First man-made object to reach the moon.

Luna 3 E-2A No.1 Flyby October 4, 1959 Luna Successful Took first photographs of the far side of the Moon.

N/A E-3 No.1 Flyby April 15, 1960 Luna Launch failure Failed to orbit

N/A E-3 No.2 Flyby April 16, 1960 Luna Launch failure Failed to orbit

N/A E-6 No.2 Lander January 4, 1963 Molniya-L Launch failure Never left LEO

N/A E-6 No.3 Lander February 3, 1963 Molniya-L Launch failure Failed to orbit

Luna 4 E-6 No.4 Lander April 2, 1963 Molniya-L Spacecraft failure Failed to perform course correction manoeuvre; flew past the Moon

N/A E-6 No.6 Lander March 21, 1964 Molniya-M Launch failure Failed to orbit

N/A E-6 No.5 Lander April 20, 1964 Molniya-M Launch failure Failed to orbit

Kosmos 60 E-6 No.9 Lander March 12, 1965 Molniya-L Launch failure Never left LEO, decayed five days later

N/A E-6 No.8 Lander April 10, 1965 Molniya-L Launch failure Failed to orbit

Luna 5 E-6 No.10 Lander May 9, 1965 Molniya-M Spacecraft failure Failed to decelerate; impacted Mare Nubium

Luna 6 E-6 No.7 Lander June 8, 1965 Molniya-M Spacecraft failure Failed to perform course correction manoeuvre; flew past the Moon

Luna 7 E-6 No.11 Lander October 4, 1965 Molniya Spacecraft failure Attitude control failure; impacted Oceanus Procellarum

Luna 8 E-6 No.12 Lander December 3, 1965 Molniya Spacecraft failure Attitude control failure; impacted Oceanus Procellarum

Luna 9 E-6 No.13 Lander January 31, 1966 Molniya-M Successful Landed in Oceanus Procellarum
Oceanus Procellarum
(7.08 N, 295.63 E) 18:44:52 UT on February 3, 1966

Kosmos 111 E-6S No.204 Orbiter March 1, 1966 Molniya-M Launch failure Never left LEO, decayed two days later

Luna 10 E-6S No.206 Orbiter March 31, 1966 Molniya-M Successful

Luna 11 E-6LF No.101 Orbiter August 24, 1966 Molniya-M Successful

Luna 12 E-6LF No.102 Orbiter October 22, 1966 Molniya-M Successful

Luna 13 E-6M No.205 Lander December 21, 1966 Molniya-M Successful Landed in Oceanus Procellarum
Oceanus Procellarum
(18.87 N, 297.95 E) 18:01:00 UT on December 24, 1966

N/A E-6LS No.112 Orbiter February 7, 1968 Molniya-M Launch failure Failed to orbit

Luna 14 E-6LS No.113 Orbiter April 7, 1968 Molniya-M Successful

N/A E-8 No.201 Rover February 19, 1969 Proton-K/D Launch failure First attempt to launch Lunokhod. Failed to orbit, Lunokhod destroyed.

N/A E-8-5 No.402 Sample Return June 14, 1969 Proton-K/D Launch failure Failed to orbit

Luna 15 E-8-5 No.401 Sample Return July 13, 1969 Proton-K/D Spacecraft failure Entered selenocentric orbit successfully, failed during descent on 21 July 1969; impacted the Moon
Moon
while Apollo 11
Apollo 11
was on the surface

Kosmos 300 E-8-5 No.403 Sample Return September 23, 1969 Proton-K/D Launch failure Never left LEO, decayed four days later

Kosmos 305 E-8-5 No.404 Sample Return October 22, 1969 Proton-K/D Launch failure Never left LEO, decayed two days later

N/A E-8-5 No.405 Sample Return February 6, 1970 Proton-K/D Launch failure Failed to orbit

Luna 16 E-8-5 No.406 Sample Return September 12, 1970 Proton-K/D Successful Landed in Mare Fecunditatis
Mare Fecunditatis
(0.68 S, 56.30 E) at 05:18:00 UT on September 20, 1970. Sample returned to Earth
Earth
on September 24, 1970

Luna 17 E-8 No.203 Rover November 10, 1970 Proton-K/D Successful Landed in Mare Imbrium
Mare Imbrium
(38.28 N, 325.00 E) at 03:47:00 UT on November 17, 1970. Deployed Lunokhod 1

Luna 18 E-8-5 No.407 Sample Return September 2, 1971 Proton-K/D Spacecraft failure Entered selenocentric orbit successfully, failed during descent; impacted Mare Fecunditatis
Mare Fecunditatis
(3.57 N, 50.50 E)

Luna 19 E-8LS No.202 Orbiter September 28, 1971 Proton-K/D Successful

Luna 20 E-8-5 No.408 Sample Return February 14, 1972 Proton-K/D Successful Landed in Mare Fecunditatis
Mare Fecunditatis
(3.57 N, 56.50 E) at 19:19:00 UT on February 21, 1972. Sample returned to Earth
Earth
on February 25, 1972

Luna 21 E-8 No.204 Rover January 8, 1973 Proton-K/D Successful Landed in Le Monnier (25.85 N, 30.45 E) at 23:35:00 UT on January 15, 1973. Deployed Lunokhod 2

Luna 22 E-8LS No.206 Orbiter May 29, 1974 Proton-K/D Successful

Luna 23 E-8-5M No.410 Sample Return October 28, 1974 Proton-K/D Spacecraft failure Landed in Mare Crisium, fell over upon landing

N/A E-8-5M No.412 Sample Return October 16, 1975 Proton-K/D Launch failure Failed to orbit, intended to return a sample from Mare Crisium

Luna 24 E-8-5M No.413 Sample Return August 9, 1976 Proton-K/D Successful Landed in Mare Crisium
Mare Crisium
(12.25 N, 62.20 E) at 02:00:00 UT on August 18, 1976. Sample returned to Earth
Earth
on August 22, 1976

See also[edit]

Moon
Moon
portal Spaceflight portal

Luna (rocket) Luna-Glob Soviet moonshot Soviet space program

References[edit]

^ "Earth's Moon
Moon
– Luna 3, First image of the far side of the Moon". NSSDC (NSSDC Data Set ID (Photo): 59-008A-01A). 24 March 2003. Retrieved 22 August 2015.  ^ Planetary Spacecraft - Moon
Moon
Missions (RussianSpaceWeb.com) ^ a b Williams, David R. "Tentative IDs". NASA NSSDC. Retrieved 3 August 2010.  ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 3 August 2010.  ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Russia's unmanned missions toward the Moon". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 3 August 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luna programme.

Lunar and Planetary Department Moscow University Luna Series (USSR) Profile by NASA's Solar System Exploration Encyclopædia Britannica, Luna Space Probe Soviet Luna Chronology Soviet Lunar Images Exploring the Moon: Luna Missions

v t e

Luna programme

Luna E-1 No.1 Luna E-1 No.2 Luna E-1 No.3 Luna 1 Luna E-1A No.1 Luna 2 Luna 3 Luna E-3 No.1 Luna E-3 No.2 Luna E-6 No.2 Luna E-6 No.3 Luna 4 Luna E-6 No.6 Luna E-6 No.5 Kosmos 60 Luna E-6 No.8 Luna 5 Luna 6 Luna 7 Luna 8 Luna 9 Kosmos 111 Luna 10 Luna 11 Luna 12 Luna 13 Luna E-6LS No.112 Luna 14 Luna E-8 No.201 Luna E-8-5 No. 402 Luna 15 Kosmos 300 Kosmos 305 Luna E-8-5 No. 405 Luna 16 Luna 17 Luna 18 Luna 19 Luna 20 Luna 21 Luna 22 Luna 23 Luna E-8-5M No. 412 Luna 24

v t e

Spacecraft missions to the Moon

Programs

American

Apollo Lunar Orbiter Lunar Precursor Pioneer Ranger Surveyor

Chinese (CLEP) Indian (Chandrayaan) Japanese Russian

Luna-Glob

Soviet

Crewed Luna Zond Lunokhod

Current

Orbiters

ARTEMIS Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

Past

Orbiters

Apollo 8 10 Apollo 15
Apollo 15
Subsatellite (PFS-1) Apollo 16
Apollo 16
Subsatellite (PFS-2) Chandrayaan-1 Chang'e 1 Chang'e 2 Clementine Explorer 35 Explorer 49 GRAIL Hiten LADEE Luna 10 11 12 14 19 22 Lunar Orbiter 1 2 3 4 5 Lunar Prospector SELENE
SELENE
(Kaguya, Okina & Ouna) SMART-1 Chang'e 5-T1
Chang'e 5-T1
(Service Module)

Flybys

4M Apollo 13 AsiaSat-3 Cassini–Huygens Chang'e 5-T1
Chang'e 5-T1
(Xiaofei) Galileo Geotail ICE Luna 1 Luna 3 Mariner 10 Nozomi Pioneer 4 Pioneer 10 Ranger 5 STEREO Zond 3 5 6 7 8

Impactors

LCROSS Luna 2 MIP Ranger 4 6 7 8 9

Landers

Apollo Lunar Module
Apollo Lunar Module
x6 ALSEP (x5) and EASEP (x1) Chang'e 3 Luna 9 13 17 21 Surveyor 1 3 5 6 7

Rovers

Apollo 15 16 17 Lunokhod 1 2 Yutu

Sample return

Apollo 11 12 14 15 16 17 Luna 16 20 24

Human landing

Apollo 11 12 14 15 16 17

Planned

EM-1 (2019)

Orion EM-1

ArgoMoon BioSentinel Cislunar Explorers CuSP CU-E3 EQUULEUS LunaH-Map Lunar Flashlight Lunar IceCube NEA Scout OMOTENASHI SkyFire Team Miles

Luna-Glob

Luna 25
Luna 25
(2019) Luna 26
Luna 26
(2021) Luna 27
Luna 27
(2022) Luna 28
Luna 28
(2025) Luna 29

Others

Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2
(2018) Chang'e 4
Chang'e 4
(2018) TESS (2018) Astrobotic / Hakuto
Hakuto
/ AngelicvM (2019) Chang'e 5
Chang'e 5
(2019) MX-1E (2019) PTScientists
PTScientists
(2019) Chang'e 6
Chang'e 6
(2020) SLIM (2021) DESTINY+
DESTINY+
(2022) EM-2 (2023) EM-3 (2023+)

Proposed

Baden-Württemberg 1 Blue Origin Blue Moon DSE-Alpha International Lunar Network Lunar Lander Lunar Mission One Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway Lunar Orbital Station MoonLITE OpenLuna Resource Prospector SELENE-R SpaceIL Synergy Moon TeamIndus

Cancelled

Altair European Lunar Explorer LEO LK Lunar-A Lunar Observer Lunokhod 3 MoonRise Prospector SpaceX lunar tourism mission Ukrselena

See also

Colonization of the Moon Exploration of the Moon Google Lunar X Prize List of Apollo astronauts List of lunar probes List of artificial objects on the Moon List of missions to the Moon Lunar rover Moon
Moon
landing

Conspiracy theories

Manned missions in italics.

v t e

Soviet space probes

Earth
Earth
satellites

Kosmos Molniya Zenit Bion GLONASS Meteor

Space observatories

Orion Astron Granat Prognoz RELIKT-1

Moon
Moon
exploration

Luna (Lunokhod rovers) Zond program

Venus

Venera Vega

Mars

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