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Lumbinī (Nepali and Sanskrit: लुम्बिनी  listen (help·info), "the lovely") is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Rupandehi District
Rupandehi District
of Province No. 5
Province No. 5
in Nepal. It is the place where, according to Buddhist tradition, Queen Mayadevi gave birth to Siddhartha Gautama in 563 BCE.[1][2] Gautama, who achieved Enlightenment some time around 528 BCE,[3][4] became the Buddha
Buddha
and founded Buddhism.[5][6][7] Lumbini
Lumbini
is one of many magnets for pilgrimage that sprang up in places pivotal to the life of the Buddha.

Ashoka
Ashoka
Pillar in the 1930s

Maya devi Temple

Lumbini
Lumbini
has a number of temples, including the Mayadevi Temple and several others which are still under repair. Many monuments, monasteries and a museum, the Lumbini
Lumbini
International Research Institute, are also within the holy site. Also there is the Puskarini, or Holy Pond, where the Buddha's mother took the ritual dip prior to his birth and where he had his first bath. At other sites near Lumbini, earlier Buddhas were, according to tradition, born, then achieved ultimate Enlightenment and finally relinquished their earthly forms. Lumbini
Lumbini
was made a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
status by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1997.[1][2]

Contents

1 In Buddha's time 2 Rediscovery

2.1 Excavation at the Mayadevi Temple in 2013

3 Present-day 4 On the Nepali rupee 5 Transport 6 Foreign visitors (2012–2014) 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

In Buddha's time[edit] In the Buddha's time, Lumbini
Lumbini
was situated in east of Kapilavastu and southwest Devadaha
Devadaha
of Shakya
Shakya
kingdom.[8][9] According to Buddhist tradition, it was there, that the Buddha
Buddha
was born.[10] A pillar discovered at Rummindei in 1896 is believed to mark the spot of Ashoka's visit to Lumbini. The site was not known as Lumbini
Lumbini
before the pillar was discovered.[11] According to an inscription on the pillar, it was placed there by the people then in charge of the park to commemorate Ashoka
Ashoka
visit and gifts.[12] The park was previously known as Rummindei, 2 mi (2 mi (3.2 km)) north of Bhagavanpura. The Sutta Nipáta (vs. 683) states that the Buddha
Buddha
was born in a village of the Sákyans in the Lumbineyya Janapada. The Buddha
Buddha
stayed in Lumbinívana during his visit to Devadaha
Devadaha
and there preached the Devadaha
Devadaha
Sutta.[13] Rediscovery[edit]

Pilgrimage to

Buddha's Holy Sites

The Four Main Sites

Bodh Gaya Kushinagar Lumbini Sarnath

Four Additional Sites

Rajgir Sankassa Shravasti Vaishali

Other Sites

Amaravathi Chandavaram Devadaha

Gaya Kapilavastu Kesaria

Kosambi Nalanda Pataliputra

Pava Varanasi

Later Sites

Ajanta Caves Barabar Caves Bharhut

Ellora Caves Lalitgiri Mathura

Pandavleni Caves Piprahwa Ratnagiri

Sanchi Udayagiri Vikramashila

v t e

Further information: Pillars of Ashoka In 1896, General Khadga Samsher Rana and Alois Anton Führer discovered a great stone pillar at Rummindei, according to the crucial historical records made by the ancient Chinese monk-pilgrim Xuanzang in the 7th century CE and by another ancient Chinese monk-pilgrim Faxian
Faxian
in the early 5th century CE. The Brahmi inscription on the pillar gives evidence that Ashoka, emperor of the Maurya Empire, visited the place in 3rd-century BCE and identified it as the birth-place of the Buddha. The inscription was translated by Paranavitana:[14][note 1]

When King Devandmpriya Priyadarjsin had been anointed twenty years, he came himself and worshipped (this spot). He caused it to be announced that the Buddha
Buddha
Shakyamuni was born here and thereby caused to be created a strong desire (among people) for (that spot). He also caused a stone pillar to be set up (so as to indicate) that the Blessed One was born here. He made the village of Lummini free of taxes and made it a partaker of prosperity.

Excavation at the Mayadevi Temple in 2013[edit] According to Robin Coningham, excavations beneath existing brick structures at the Mayadevi Temple at Lumbini
Lumbini
provide evidence for an older timber structure beneath the walls of a brick Buddhist shrine built during the Ashokan era (3rd-century BCE). The layout of the Ashokan shrine closely follows that of the earlier timber structure, which suggests a continuity of worship at the site. The pre-Mauryan timber structure appears to be an ancient tree shrine. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal from the wooden postholes and optically stimulated luminescence dating of elements in the soil suggests human activity began at Lumbini
Lumbini
around 1000 BCE.[17] The site, states Coningham, may be a Buddhist monument from 6th-century BCE. Other scholars state that the excavations revealed nothing that is Buddhist, and they only confirm that the site predates the Buddha.[18][19] Present-day[edit] Lumbini
Lumbini
is 4.8 km (3 mi) in length and 1.6 km (1.0 mi) in width. The holy site of Lumbini
Lumbini
is bordered by a large monastic zone in which only monasteries can be built, no shops, hotels or restaurants. It is separated into an eastern and western monastic zone, the eastern having the Theravadin monasteries, the western having Mahayana
Mahayana
and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
monasteries. The holy site of Lumbini
Lumbini
has ruins of ancient monasteries, a sacred Bodhi
Bodhi
tree, an ancient bathing pond, the Ashokan pillar and the Mayadevi Temple, where the supposed place of birth of Buddha
Buddha
is located. From early morning to early evening, pilgrims from various countries perform chanting and meditation at the site. A non-governmental organization named Samriddhi Foundation started in 2013 working extensively in the field of education and health specially in government schools of the area where underprivileged children study. A non-governmental organisation called "Asia Pacific Exchange and Cooperation Foundation" (APECF) backed by chairman of the Unified Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Maoist) and then Prime Minister Prachanda, the Chinese government and a UN group called "United Nations Industrial Development Organization" (UNIDO) signed a deal to develop Lumbini
Lumbini
into a "special development zone" with funds worth $3 billion.[20] The venture was a China-UN joint project. A broader ' Lumbini
Lumbini
Development National Director Committee' under the leadership of Pushpa Kamal Dahal
Pushpa Kamal Dahal
was formed on 17 October 2011.[21] The six-member committee included Communist Party of Nepal
Nepal
(Unified Marxist-Leninist) leader Mangal Siddhi Manandhar, Nepali Congress leader Minendra Rijal, Forest Minister Mohammad Wakil Musalman, among other leaders. The committee was given the authority to "draft a master plan to develop Lumbini
Lumbini
as a peaceful and tourism area and table the proposal" and the responsibility to gather international support for the same.[21]

Lumbini

Nipponzan Myohoji
Nipponzan Myohoji
decided to build a Peace Pagoda
Peace Pagoda
in the park in 2001, which is visited by many different cultures and religions every day. Because some Hindus
Hindus
regard the Buddha
Buddha
as an incarnation of Vishnu, thousands of Hindus
Hindus
have begun to come here on pilgrimage during the full moon of the Nepali month of Baisakh (April–May) to worship Queen Mayadevi as Rupa Devi, the mother goddess of Lumbini. Lumbini
Lumbini
was granted World Heritage status by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1997.[1][2] On the Nepali rupee[edit] Nepal's central bank has introduced a 100-rupee Nepali note featuring Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha. The Nepal
Nepal
Rastra Bank said the new note would be accessible only during the Dashain, Nepal's major festival in October 2013. It displays the portrait of Mayadevi, Gautam Buddha's mother in silver metallic on the front. The note also has a black dot which would help the blind recognise the note. The name of the central bank in Latin script would be printed on the note along with the date of printing in both the Christian Era and the Bikram Era. The new note is being issued following a cabinet decision 27 August.[22] Transport[edit] Lumbini
Lumbini
is a 5-hour drive from Kathmandu
Kathmandu
and a 30-minute drive from Bhairahawa. The closest airport is Gautam Buddha
Buddha
Airport at Bhairahawa, with flights to and from Kathmandu.[23] The India border town Sonauli is 1 hour drive from Lumbini
Lumbini
and Gorakhpur railway station in India is 4 hours drive from Lumbini. Foreign visitors (2012–2014)[edit]

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total

2014 8,356 17,964 20,037 6,843 2,553 2,111 2,726 14,123 7,999 16,433 21,089 12,765 132,926[24]

2013 9,371 17,869 22,581 7,101 3,654 3,552 3,621 9,685 7,351 13,610 16,483 10,618 125,496[25]

2012 6,591 20,045 20,519 8,295 1,316 1,366 2,651 17,924 7,955 13,099 21,740 14,566 136,067[25]

Gallery[edit]

Maya Devi Temple

Great Drigung Kagyud lotus Stupa

Bodhi tree
Bodhi tree
and pond at Lumbini

Marker stone, purportedly the exact birthplace of Gautama Buddha

The ancient Mayadevi Temple, Lumbini, Nepal.

Pillar Edict of Ashoka

Eternal Peace Flame

Burmese Lokamani Cula Pagoda

Chinese Maitreya
Maitreya
Temple

Buddhist monks

Shanti stupa lumbini

See also[edit]

Ramagrama stupa Devadaha Sunwal Butwal Pokhara Kathmandu

Notes[edit]

^ Several alternative translations have been published.[15][16]

References[edit]

^ a b c UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre - World Heritage Committee Inscribes 46 New Sites on World Heritage List ^ a b c "Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 March 2011.  ^ Cousins, LS (1996). "The Dating of the Historical Buddha: A Review Article". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 6 (1): 57–63. doi:10.1017/s1356186300014760. JSTOR 25183119. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010.  ^ Schumann, Hans Wolfgang (2003). The Historical Buddha: The Times, Life, and Teachings of the Founder of Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass Press. pp. 10–13. ISBN 8120818172.  ^ "Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha
Buddha
UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  ^ ""Gautama Buddha
Buddha
(B.C. 623-543)" by T.W. Rhys-Davids, The World's Great Events, B.C. 4004-A.D. 70 (1908) by Esther Singleton, pp. 124–35". Unz.org. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  ^ "The Buddha
Buddha
(BC 623-BC 543) – Religion and spirituality Article – Buddha, Bc, 623". Booksie. 8 July 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  ^ "Ramagrama- Devadaha
Devadaha
Lumbini
Lumbini
Development Trust". lumbini.planetwebnepal.com. Lumbini
Lumbini
Development Trust. 2013. Retrieved 2016-09-29.  ^ Violatti, Cristian (12 December 2013). "Kapilavastu". Kapilavastu - Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 29 September 2016.  ^ J.i.52, 54; Kvu.97, 559; AA.i.10; MA.ii.924; BuA.227; Cv.li.10, etc. ^ Sen, Dr. A. C. (2008). Buddhist shrines in India. Kolkota: Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
Book Agency. p. 24. ISBN 978-81-87032-78-6.  ^ See Mukerji: Asoka, p. 27; see p. 201f for details ^ MA.ii.810 ^ Paranavitana, S. (Apr. - Jun., 1962). Rummindei Pillar Inscription of Asoka, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 82 (2), 163-167 ^ Weise, Kai; et al. (2013), The Sacred Garden of Lumbini
Lumbini
– Perceptions of Buddha's Birthplace (PDF), Paris: UNESCO, pp. 47–48, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-30  ^ Hultzsch, E. /1925). Inscriptions of Asoka. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 164-165 ^ Coningham, RAE; Acharya, KP; Strickland, KM; Davis, CE; Manuel, MJ; Simpson, IA; Gilliland, K; Tremblay, J; Kinnaird, TC; Sanderson, DCW (2013). "The earliest Buddhist shrine: excavating the birthplace of the Buddha, Lumbini
Lumbini
(Nepal)" (PDF). Antiquity. 87 (338): 1104–23. doi:10.1017/s0003598x00049899. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2014.  ^ Richard Gombrich
Richard Gombrich
(2013), Pseudo-discoveries at Lumbini, Oxford Center for Buddhist Studies, Oxford University ^ Lars Fogelin (2 March 2015). An Archaeological History of Indian Buddhism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-994822-2.  ^ "Programs/Projects >> UNIDO IP Projects >> Introduction". UNIDOitpo.org. Retrieved 15 July 2011.  ^ a b " Lumbini
Lumbini
Development Committee formed under Dahal's leadership". ekantipur. Retrieved 17 October 2011.  ^ Buddha’s birthplace in Nepal’s 100-rupee note – Indistan News – National, Political and States News Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Lumbini". Welcome Nepal. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2016.  ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

Weise, Kai; et al. (2013), The Sacred Garden of Lumbini
Lumbini
– Perceptions of Buddha's Birthplace (PDF), Paris: UNESCO, archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-30 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lumbini.

Lumbini
Lumbini
On Trial: The Untold Story Lumbini
Lumbini
travel guide from Wikivoyage Lumbini
Lumbini
at the Open Directory Project WorldHeritageSite.org/Lumbini Some photos from Birth place of Lord Buddha, Lumbini [1] Flight Schedules to Lumbini

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