The Luiseño, or Payómkawichum, are a Native American people who at
the time of the first contacts with the Spanish in the 16th century
inhabited the coastal area of southern California, ranging 50 miles
from the present-day southern part of Los Angeles County to the
northern part of San Diego County, and inland 30 miles. In the
language, the people call themselves Payómkawichum (also
spelled Payómkowishum), meaning "People of the West."
The tribe was named
by the Spanish due to their proximity to
the Mission San Luís Rey de Francia (The Mission of Saint Louis King
of France.) Known as the "King of the Missions," it was founded on
June 13, 1798 by Father Fermín Francisco de Lasuén, located in what
is now Oceanside, California, in northern San Diego County. It was the
Spanish First Military District.
Today there are six federally recognized tribes of
based in southern California, all with reservations. Another organized
band has not received federal recognition.
3 Prehistoric culture
6 Notable Luiseños
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Luiseño language belongs to the Cupan group of Takic languages,
within the major
Uto-Aztecan family of languages. About 30 to 40
people speak the language. In some of the independent bands,
individuals are studying the language, language preservation materials
are being compiled, and singers sing traditional songs in the luiseno
Richard Bugbee (Luiseño), curator, museum director, and California
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in
California have varied substantially. In the 1920s, A. L. Kroeber
put the 1770 population of the
Luiseño (including the Juaneño) at
4,000-5,000; he estimated the population in 1910 as 500. The historian
Raymond C. White proposed a historic population of 10,000 in his
work of the 1960s.
Luiseño people were successful in exploiting a number of natural
resources to provide food and clothing. They had a close relationship
with their natural environment. They used many of the native plants,
harvesting many kinds of seeds, berries, nuts, fruits, and vegetables
for a varied and nutritious diet. The land also was inhabited by many
different species of animals which the men hunted for game and skins.
Hunters took antelopes, bobcats, deer, elk, foxes, mice, mountain
lions, rabbits, wood rats, river otters, ground squirrels, and a wide
variety of insects. The
Luiseño used toxins leached from the
California buckeye to stupefy fish in order to harvest them in
'ahúuya, near the upper course of San Luis Rey River.
'akíipa, near Kahpa.
'áalapi, San Pascual south of the middle course of the San Luis Rey
'áaway, on a head branch of Santa Margarita River.
Hurúmpa, west of Riverside.
Húyyulkum, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River.
'ikáymay, near San Luis Rey Mission.
Qáxpa, on the middle course of San Luis Rey River.
Katúktu, between Santa Margarita and San Luis Rey Rivers, north of
San Luis Rey.
Qée'ish, Qéch, south of San Luis Rey Mission.
Qewéw, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River.
Kóolu, near the upper course of San Luis Rey River.
Kúuki, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River.
Kwáa'alam, on the lower course of San Luis Rey River.
Maláamay, northeast of Pala.
Méexa, on Santa Margarita River northwest of Temecula.
mixéelum pompáwvo, near Escondido.
Pa'áa'aw, near Tái. Palomar mountain
Páayaxchi, on Elsinore Lake.
Páala, at Pala.
Páalimay, on the coast between Buena Vista and Agua Hedionda Creeks.
Panakare, north of Escondido.
Páașuku, near the headwaters of San Luis Rey River.
Páawma, east of Pala. Pauma
Pochóorivo, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River.
Sóowmay, south of the middle course of San Luis Rey River.
Luiseño or Diegueño), on the boundary line between the
Șuvóowu Șuvóova, east of San Jacinto Soboba.
Táaxanashpa, La Jolla.
Táa'akwi, at the head of Santa Margarita River.
Táakwish poșáppila, east of Palomar Mountain.
Tái, close to Palomar Mountain.
Tapá'may, north of Katúktu.
Teméeku, east of Temecula.
Tómqav, west of Pala.
'úshmay. at Las Flores
Waxáwmay, Guajome on San Luis Rey River above San Luis Rey.
Wiyóoya, at the mouth of San Luis Rey River.
Wi'áasamay, east of San Luis Rey.
Wáșxa,Rincon near the upper course of San Luis Rey River.
Yamí', near Húyyulkum.
Luiseño people are enrolled in the following federally
La Jolla Band of
Pala Band of
Pauma Band of
Pechanga Band of
Rincon Band of
Soboba Band of
Additionally, the San Luis Rey Band of Luiseños is organized and
active in northern San Diego County, but is not currently recognized
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs.
James Luna (1950–2018), performance artist
Fritz Scholder (1937–2005), painter and sculptor
Pablo Tac (1822–1841), historian, linguist
Freddy Herrera, musician
Pete Calac (1892–1968), football player
Jamie Okuma (b. 1977), beadwork artist, fashion designer
Indigenous peoples of North America portal
Luiseño traditional narratives
USS Luiseno (ATF-156)
California Indians and Their Reservations: P. SDSU Library and
Information Access. (retrieved 18 July 2010)
^ a b Hinton, 28-9
^ a b Crouthamel, S. J. "
Luiseño Ethnobotany." Palomar College. 2009
(retrieved 18 July 2010)
^ Pritzker, 129
^ Pritzker, 130
^ "Board of Directors." Advocates for Indigenous
Survival. (retrieved 21 Dec 2009)
^ A.L.Kroeber, 1925: p 649, 883
^ R.C. White, 1963, p.117, 119
^ J.S. Williams, 2003
^ C.M. Hogan, 2008
^ John R. Swanton (1953). The Indian Tribes of North America -
California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin. 145. Retrieved
^ Pritzker, 131
Hinton, Leanne. Flutes of Fire: Essays on
California Indian Languages.
Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1994. ISBN 0-930588-62-2.
Hogan, C. Michael. (2008) Aesculus californica, Globaltwitcher.com,
ed. N. Stromberg 
Kroeber, A. L. (1925) Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of
American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D.C.
Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture,
and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
White, Raymond C. (1963) "
Luiseño Social Organization", in University
California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology
Bean, Lowell John and Shipek, Florence C. (1978) "Luiseño," in
California, ed. Robert F. Heizer, vol. 8, Handbook of North American
Indians (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution,
Du Bois, Constance Goddard. 1904-1906. "Mythology of the Mission
Indians: The Mythology of the
Diegueño Indians of
Southern California", in The Journal of the American Folk-Lore
Society, Vol. XVII, No. LXVI. pp. 185–8 ; Vol. XIX. No.
LXXII pp. 52–60 and LXXIII. pp. 145–64. .
Sparkman, Philip Stedman (1908). The culture of the
The University Press. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
Kroeber, Alfred Louis; Philip Stedman Sparkman; Thomas Talbot
Waterman; Constance Goddard DuBois; José Francisco de Paula Señán;
Vicente Francisco Sarría (1910). The religion of the
of southern California. The University Press. Retrieved 24 August
2012. Volume 2
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luiseno.
Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians
Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians official site
Pechanga Band of
Mythology of the Mission Indians, by Du Bois, 1904-1906.
San Luis Rey Band of
Luiseño Indians official site
Marisa Agha (2012-03-18). "Language preservation helps American Indian
students stick with college". The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the
original on 2012-03-21. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
Indigenous peoples of California
Bay Miwok (Saklan)
Eel River Athapaskans (Lassik, Nongatl, Sinkyone, Wailaki)
Hupa (Chilula, Whilkut)
Kumeyaay (Diegueño, Ipai, Tipai)
Mattole (Bear River)
Mono (Monache, Owens Valley Paiute)
Shasta (Konomihu, Okwanuchu)
Plains and Sierra Miwok