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The Luiseño, or Payómkawichum, are a Native American people who at the time of the first contacts with the Spanish in the 16th century inhabited the coastal area of southern California, ranging 50 miles from the present-day southern part of Los Angeles County to the northern part of San Diego County, and inland 30 miles. In the Luiseño
Luiseño
language, the people call themselves Payómkawichum (also spelled Payómkowishum), meaning "People of the West."[3] The tribe was named Luiseño
Luiseño
by the Spanish due to their proximity to the Mission San Luís Rey de Francia (The Mission of Saint Louis King of France.)[4] Known as the "King of the Missions," it was founded on June 13, 1798 by Father Fermín Francisco de Lasuén, located in what is now Oceanside, California, in northern San Diego County. It was the Spanish First Military District. Today there are six federally recognized tribes of Luiseño
Luiseño
bands based in southern California, all with reservations. Another organized band has not received federal recognition.

Contents

1 Language 2 Population 3 Prehistoric culture 4 Villages 5 Tribes 6 Notable Luiseños 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Language[edit] The Luiseño language
Luiseño language
belongs to the Cupan group of Takic languages, within the major Uto-Aztecan
Uto-Aztecan
family of languages.[5] About 30 to 40 people speak the language. In some of the independent bands, individuals are studying the language, language preservation materials are being compiled, and singers sing traditional songs in the luiseno language.[2] Population[edit]

Richard Bugbee (Luiseño), curator, museum director, and California language advocate[6]

Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California
California
have varied substantially. In the 1920s, A. L. Kroeber[7] put the 1770 population of the Luiseño
Luiseño
(including the Juaneño) at 4,000-5,000; he estimated the population in 1910 as 500. The historian Raymond C. White[8] proposed a historic population of 10,000 in his work of the 1960s. Prehistoric culture[edit] The Luiseño
Luiseño
people were successful in exploiting a number of natural resources to provide food and clothing. They had a close relationship with their natural environment. They used many of the native plants, harvesting many kinds of seeds, berries, nuts, fruits, and vegetables for a varied and nutritious diet. The land also was inhabited by many different species of animals which the men hunted for game and skins. Hunters took antelopes, bobcats, deer, elk, foxes, mice, mountain lions, rabbits, wood rats, river otters, ground squirrels, and a wide variety of insects.[9] The Luiseño
Luiseño
used toxins leached from the California
California
buckeye to stupefy fish in order to harvest them in mountain creeks.[10] Villages[edit]

'ahúuya, near the upper course of San Luis Rey River. 'akíipa, near Kahpa. 'áalapi, San Pascual south of the middle course of the San Luis Rey River. 'áaway, on a head branch of Santa Margarita River. Hurúmpa, west of Riverside. Húyyulkum, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. 'ikáymay, near San Luis Rey Mission. Qáxpa, on the middle course of San Luis Rey River. Katúktu, between Santa Margarita and San Luis Rey Rivers, north of San Luis Rey. Qée'ish, Qéch, south of San Luis Rey Mission. Qewéw, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Kóolu, near the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Kúuki, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Kwáa'alam, on the lower course of San Luis Rey River. Maláamay, northeast of Pala. Méexa, on Santa Margarita River northwest of Temecula. mixéelum pompáwvo, near Escondido. Ngóoriva Pa'áa'aw, near Tái. Palomar mountain Páayaxchi, on Elsinore Lake. Páala, at Pala. Páalimay, on the coast between Buena Vista and Agua Hedionda Creeks. Panakare, north of Escondido. Páașuku, near the headwaters of San Luis Rey River. Páawma, east of Pala. Pauma Pochóorivo, on the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Sóowmay, south of the middle course of San Luis Rey River. Șakíshmay ( Luiseño
Luiseño
or Diegueño), on the boundary line between the two peoples. Șíikapa, Palomar. Șuvóowu Șuvóova, east of San Jacinto Soboba. Táaxanashpa, La Jolla. Táa'akwi, at the head of Santa Margarita River. Táakwish poșáppila, east of Palomar Mountain. Tái, close to Palomar Mountain. Tapá'may, north of Katúktu. Teméeku, east of Temecula. Tómqav, west of Pala. 'úshmay. at Las Flores Waxáwmay, Guajome on San Luis Rey River above San Luis Rey. Wiyóoya, at the mouth of San Luis Rey River. Wi'áasamay, east of San Luis Rey. Wáșxa,Rincon near the upper course of San Luis Rey River. Yamí', near Húyyulkum.[11]

Tribes[edit] Today Luiseño
Luiseño
people are enrolled in the following federally recognized tribes:

La Jolla Band of Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians Pala Band of Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians Pauma Band of Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians Pechanga Band of Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians Rincon Band of Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians Soboba Band of Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians.[12]

Additionally, the San Luis Rey Band of Luiseños is organized and active in northern San Diego County, but is not currently recognized by the United States
United States
Bureau of Indian Affairs. Notable Luiseños[edit]

James Luna
James Luna
(1950–2018), performance artist Fritz Scholder
Fritz Scholder
(1937–2005), painter and sculptor Pablo Tac
Pablo Tac
(1822–1841), historian, linguist Freddy Herrera, musician Pete Calac
Pete Calac
(1892–1968), football player Jamie Okuma (b. 1977), beadwork artist, fashion designer

See also[edit]

Indigenous peoples of North America portal

Luiseño
Luiseño
language Luiseño
Luiseño
traditional narratives Mission Indians Pauma Massacre Temecula Massacre USS Luiseno (ATF-156) Kumeyaay
Kumeyaay
people

Notes[edit]

^ " California
California
Indians and Their Reservations: P. SDSU Library and Information Access. (retrieved 18 July 2010) ^ a b Hinton, 28-9 ^ a b Crouthamel, S. J. " Luiseño
Luiseño
Ethnobotany." Palomar College. 2009 (retrieved 18 July 2010) ^ Pritzker, 129 ^ Pritzker, 130 ^ "Board of Directors." Advocates for Indigenous California
California
Language Survival. (retrieved 21 Dec 2009) ^ A.L.Kroeber, 1925: p 649, 883 ^ R.C. White, 1963, p.117, 119 ^ J.S. Williams, 2003 ^ C.M. Hogan, 2008 ^ John R. Swanton (1953). The Indian Tribes of North America - California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin. 145. Retrieved 2012-09-04.  ^ Pritzker, 131

References[edit]

Hinton, Leanne. Flutes of Fire: Essays on California
California
Indian Languages. Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1994. ISBN 0-930588-62-2. Hogan, C. Michael. (2008) Aesculus californica, Globaltwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg [1] Kroeber, A. L. (1925) Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D.C. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. White, Raymond C. (1963) " Luiseño
Luiseño
Social Organization", in University of California
California
Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 48:91-194.

Further reading[edit]

Bean, Lowell John and Shipek, Florence C. (1978) "Luiseño," in California, ed. Robert F. Heizer, vol. 8, Handbook of North American Indians (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 550–563. Du Bois, Constance Goddard. 1904-1906. "Mythology of the Mission Indians: The Mythology of the Luiseño
Luiseño
and Diegueño
Diegueño
Indians of Southern California", in The Journal of the American Folk-Lore Society, Vol. XVII, No. LXVI. pp. 185–8 [1904]; Vol. XIX. No. LXXII pp. 52–60 and LXXIII. pp. 145–64. [1906]. Sparkman, Philip Stedman (1908). The culture of the Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians. The University Press. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  Kroeber, Alfred Louis; Philip Stedman Sparkman; Thomas Talbot Waterman; Constance Goddard DuBois; José Francisco de Paula Señán; Vicente Francisco Sarría (1910). The religion of the Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians of southern California. The University Press. Retrieved 24 August 2012.  Volume 2

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luiseno.

Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians
Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians
official site Pechanga Band of Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians Mythology of the Mission Indians, by Du Bois, 1904-1906. San Luis Rey Band of Luiseño
Luiseño
Indians official site Marisa Agha (2012-03-18). "Language preservation helps American Indian students stick with college". The Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on 2012-03-21. Retrieved 2012-08-08. 

v t e

Indigenous peoples of California

Achomawi Atsugewi Bay Miwok
Bay Miwok
(Saklan) Cahuilla Chemehuevi Chimariko Chumash Coast Miwok Cupeño Eel River Athapaskans (Lassik, Nongatl, Sinkyone, Wailaki) Esselen Halchidhoma Hupa
Hupa
(Chilula, Whilkut) Juaneño
Juaneño
(Acjachemen) Karuk Cahto Kawaiisu Kitanemuk Kucadikadi Kumeyaay
Kumeyaay
(Diegueño, Ipai, Tipai) Lake Miwok Luiseño Maidu Mattole
Mattole
(Bear River) Modoc (Klamath) Mohave Mono (Monache, Owens Valley Paiute) Nomlaki Northern Paiute Ohlone
Ohlone
(Costanoan) Patwin Pomo Quechan
Quechan
(Yuma) Salinan Serrano Shasta (Konomihu, Okwanuchu) Tataviam (Fernandeño) Timbisha Tolowa Tongva
Tongva
(Gabrieliño) Tübatulabal Plains and Sierra Miwok Wappo Washoe Wintu Wiyot Yana Yoku

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