Spain (renounced in 1949) Mexico
YEARS ACTIVE 1929–1977
SPOUSE(S) Jeanne Rucar (1934–1983; his death)
LUIS BUñUEL PORTOLéS (Spanish pronunciation: ; 22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.
Often associated with the surrealist movement of the 1920s, Buñuel
created films from the 1920s through the 1970s. His work spans two
continents, three languages, and an array of genres, including
experimental film , documentary , melodrama , satire , musical ,
erotica , comedy , romance , costume dramas , fantasy , crime film ,
adventure , and western . Despite this variety, filmmaker John Huston
believed that, regardless of genre, a Buñuel film is so distinctive
as to be instantly recognizable, or, as
Six of Buñuel's films are included in _Sight "> Calanda
Buñuel was born in Calanda , a small town in the province of Teruel
, in the
When Buñuel was four and a half months old, the family moved to
In his youth, Buñuel was deeply religious, serving at Mass and taking Communion every day, until, at the age of 16, he grew disgusted with what he perceived as the illogicality of the Church, along with its power and wealth. :p.292
In 1917, he attended the University of
Since he was 17, he steadily dated the future poet and dramatist Concha Méndez , with whom he vacationed every summer at San Sebastián . He introduced her to his friends at the Residencia as his fiancée. After five years, she broke off the relationship, citing Buñuel's "insufferable character".
During his student years, Buñuel became an accomplished hypnotist. He claimed that once, while calming a hysterical prostitute through hypnotic suggestion, he inadvertently put one of the several bystanders into a trance as well. :p.67 He was often to insist that watching movies was a form of hypnosis: "This kind of cinematographic hypnosis is no doubt due to the darkness of the theatre and to the rapidly changing scenes, lights, and camera movements, which weaken the spectator's critical intelligence and exercise over him a kind of fascination." :p.69
Buñuel's interest in films was intensified by a viewing of Fritz Lang 's _Der müde Tod _: "I came out of the Vieux Colombier completely transformed. Images could and did become for me the true means of expression. I decided to devote myself to the cinema". At age 72, Buñuel had not lost his enthusiasm for this film, asking the octogenarian Lang for his autograph. :p.301
EARLY FRENCH PERIOD (1925–1930)
Jean Epstein , Buñuel's first film collaborator
In 1925 Buñuel moved to Paris, where he began work as a secretary in an organization called the International Society of Intellectual Cooperation. :p.124 He also became actively involved in cinema and theater, going to the movies as often as three times a day. Through these interests, he met a number of influential people, including the pianist Ricardo Viñes , who was instrumental in securing Buñuel's selection as artistic director of the Dutch premiere of Manuel de Falla 's puppet-opera _ El retablo de maese Pedro _ in 1926. :p.29
He decided to enter the film industry and enrolled in a private film school run by Jean Epstein and some associates. At that time, Epstein was one of the most celebrated commercial directors working in France, his films being hailed as "the triumph of impressionism in motion, but also the triumph of the modern spirit". Before long, Buñuel was working for Epstein as an assistant director on _Mauprat _ (1926) and _La chute de la maison Usher _ (1928), and also for Mario Nalpas on _La Sirène des Tropiques_ (1927), starring Josephine Baker . He appeared on screen in a small part as a smuggler in Jacques Feyder 's _Carmen _ (1926).
When Buñuel somewhat derisively refused to acquiesce to Epstein's demand that he assist Epstein's mentor, Abel Gance , who was at the time working on the film _Napoléon _, Epstein dismissed him angrily, saying "How can a little asshole like you dare to talk that way about a great director like Gance?" :p.30 then added "You seem rather surrealist. Beware of surrealists, they are crazy people."
After parting with Epstein, Buñuel worked as film critic for _La Gaceta Literaria_ (1927) and _Les Cahiers d'Art_ (1928). :p.30 In the periodicals _L'Amic de les Arts_ and _La gaseta de les Arts_, he and Dalí carried on a series of "call and response" essays on cinema and theater, debating such technical issues as segmentation, découpage , "photogenia" (founded on the insert shot ) and rhythmic editing . He also collaborated with the celebrated writer Ramón Gómez de la Serna on the script for what he hoped would be his first film, "a story in six scenes" called _Los caprichos_. :pp.30–31 Through his involvement with _Gaceta Literaria_, he helped establish Madrid's first cine-club and served as its inaugural chairman.
It was during this time that he met his future wife, Jeanne Rucar Lefebvre, a gymnastics teacher who had won an Olympic bronze medal. Buñuel courted her in a formal Aragonese manner, complete with a chaperone, and they married in 1934 despite a warning by Jean Epstein when Buñuel first proposed in 1930: "Jeanne, you are making a mistake... It's not right for you, don't marry him." The two remained married throughout his life and had two sons, Juan-Luis and Rafael. Diego Buñuel , filmmaker and host of the National Geographic Channel 's _Don\'t Tell My Mother _ series, is their grandson.
_Un Chien Andalou_ (1929)
After this apprenticeship, Buñuel shot and directed a 16-minute short, _ Un Chien Andalou _, with Salvador Dalí . The film, financed by Buñuel's mother, consists of a series of startling images of a Freudian nature, starting with a woman's eyeball being sliced open with a razor blade. _Un Chien Andalou_ was enthusiastically received by the burgeoning French surrealist movement of the time and continues to be shown regularly in film societies to this day.
The script was written in six days at Dalí's home in
It was Buñuel's intention to shock and insult the intellectual bourgeoisie of his youth, later saying: "Historically the film represents a violent reaction against what in those days was called 'avant-garde,' which was aimed exclusively at artistic sensibility and the audience's reason." Against his hopes and expectations, the film was a huge success amongst the French bourgeoisie, leading Buñuel to exclaim in exasperation, "What can I do about the people who adore all that is new, even when it goes against their deepest convictions, or about the insincere, corrupt press, and the inane herd that saw beauty or poetry in something which was basically no more than a desperate impassioned call for murder?"
Although _Un Chien Andalou_ is a silent film , during the original
screening (attended by the elite of the Parisian art world), Buñuel
played a sequence of phonograph records which he switched manually
while keeping his pockets full of stones with which to pelt
anticipated hecklers. After the premiere, Buñuel and Dalí were
granted formal admittance to the tight-knit community of Surrealists,
led by poet
_L\'Age D\'Or_ (1930)
Late in 1929, on the strength of _Un Chien Andalou_, Buñuel and Dalí were commissioned to make another short film by Marie-Laurie and Charles de Noailles , owners of a private cinema on the Place des États-Unis and financial supporters of productions by Jacques Manuel, Man Ray and Pierre Chenal . :p.124 At first, the intent was that the new film be around the same length as _Un Chien_, only this time with sound. But by mid-1930, the film had grown segmentally to an hour's duration. :p.116 Anxious that it was over twice as long as planned and at double the budget, Buñuel offered to trim the film and cease production, but Noailles gave him the go-ahead to continue the project. :p.116
The film, entitled _L\'Age d\'Or _, was begun as a second
collaboration with Dalí, but, while working on the scenario, the two
had a falling out; Buñuel, who at the time had strong leftist
sympathies, desired a deliberate undermining of all bourgeois
institutions, while Dalí, who eventually supported the Spanish
_L'Age d'Or_ was publicly proclaimed by Dalí as a deliberate attack
on Catholicism, and this precipitated a much larger scandal than _Un
Chien Andalou_. One early screening was taken over by members of the
fascist League of Patriots and the Anti-Jewish Youth Group, who hurled
purple ink at the screen and then vandalised the adjacent art
gallery, destroying a number of valuable surrealist paintings. The
film was banned by the Parisian police "in the name of public order".
The de Noailles, both Catholics, were threatened with excommunication
by The Vatican because of the film's blasphemous final scene (which
Concurrent with the _succès de scandale _, both Buñuel and the
film's leading lady,
Lya Lys , received offers of interest from
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and traveled to Hollywood at the studio's expense.
While in the United States, Buñuel associated with other celebrity
Spain in the early 1930s was a time of political and social
turbulence, a period of intense and bloody upheaval. Anarchists and
Radical Socialists sacked monarchist headquarters in
Buñuel's future wife, Jeanne Rucar, recalled that during that period, "he got very excited about politics and the ideas that were everywhere in pre-Civil War Spain". In the first flush of his enthusiasm, Buñuel joined the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) in 1931 :pp.85–114 though later in life he denied becoming a Communist. :p.72 _ An early scene from Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan_ depicts a local wedding custom where the bridegroom tears the head off a rooster suspended by its feet from a scaffold above the main street of town. :p.57
In 1932, Buñuel was invited to serve as film documentarian for the celebrated _Mission Dakar-Djibouti_, the first large-scale French anthropological field expedition, which, led by Marcel Griaule , unearthed some 3,500 African artifacts for the new Musée de l\'Homme . Although he declined, the project piqued his interest in ethnography . After reading the academic study, _Las Jurdes: étude de géographie humaine_ (1927) by Maurice Legendre, he decided to make a film focused on peasant life in Extremadura , one of Spain's poorest states. The film, called _Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan _ (1933), was financed on a budget of 20,000 pesetas donated by a working-class anarchist friend named Ramón Acín , who had won the money in a lottery. In the film, Buñuel matches scenes of deplorable social conditions with narration that resembles travelogue commentary delivered by a detached-sounding announcer, while the soundtrack thunders inappropriate music by Brahms . "Though the material is organized with masterly skill, the very conception of 'art' here seems irrelevant. It is the most profoundly disturbing film I have ever seen." Award-winning film director Tony Richardson on _Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan_
_Las Hurdes_ was banned by three successive Republican governments, definitively by Franco when he came to power. It is a film which continues to perplex viewers and resists easy categorization by film historians. _Las Hurdes_ has been called one of the first examples of mockumentary , and has been labeled a "surrealist documentary", a term defined by critic Mercè Ibarz as "A multi-layered and unnerving use of sound, the juxtaposition of narrative forms already learnt from the written press, travelogues and new pedagogic methods, as well as a subversive use of photographed and filmed documents understood as a basis for contemporary propaganda for the masses". Catherine Russell has stated that in _Las Hurdes_, Buñuel was able to reconcile his political philosophy with his surrealist aesthetic, with surrealism becoming, "a means of awakening a marxist materialism in danger of becoming a stale orthodoxy."
After _Las Hurdes_ in 1933, Buñuel worked in Paris in the dubbing
* _Don Quintín el amargao_ (Don Quintin the Sourpuss), 1935 – a musical based on a play by Carlos Arniches , the first _zarzuela _ (a type of Spanish opera) filmed in sound. * _ La hija de Juan Simón _ (Juan Simón's Daughter), 1935 – another musical and a major commercial success * _¿Quién me quiere a mí?_ (Who Loves Me?), 1936 – a sentimental comedy that Buñuel called "my only commercial failure, and a pretty dismal one at that." :p.144 * _¡Centinela, alerta!_, (Sentry, Keep Watch!), 1937 – a comedy and Filmófono's biggest box-office hit.
Spanish Civil War
Buñuel essentially functioned as the coordinator of film propaganda for the Republic, which meant that he was in a position to examine all film shot in the country and decide what sequences could be developed and distributed abroad. The Spanish Ambassador suggested that Buñuel revisit Hollywood where he could give technical advice on films being made there about the Spanish Civil War, :p.6 so in 1938, he and his family traveled to the United States using funds obtained from his old patrons, the Noailles. Almost immediately upon his arrival in America, however, the war ended and the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association of America discontinued making films on the Spanish conflict. According to Buñuel's wife, returning to Spain was impossible since the Fascists had seized power, :p.63–64 so Buñuel decided to stay in the U.S. indefinitely, stating that he was "immensely attracted by the American naturalness and sociability." :p.255
UNITED STATES (1938–1945)
Museum of Modern Art, 1943
Returning to Hollywood in 1938, he was befriended by Frank Davis, an
MGM producer and member of the
Communist Party USA , :p.349 who placed
Buñuel on the payroll of _Cargo of Innocence_, a film about Spanish
refugee mothers and children fleeing from
In desperation, to market himself to independent producers, he composed a 21-page autobiography, a section of which, headed "My Present Plans", outlined proposals for two documentary films:
* "The Primitive Man", which would depict "the terrible struggle of primitive man against a hostile universe, how the world appeared, _how they saw it_, what ideas they had on love, on death, on fraternity, how and why religion is born", * "Psycho-Pathology", which would "expose the origin and development of different psychopathic diseases... Such a documental film, apart from its great scientific interest, could depict on screen a _New Form of Terror_ or its synonym _Humour_." :p.257
Nobody showed any interest and Buñuel realized that staying in Los
Angeles was futile, so he traveled to New York to see if he could
change his fortunes. :p.174 "
In New York, Antheil introduced Buñuel to
In 1942, Buñuel applied for American citizenship, because he anticipated that MoMA would soon be put under federal control. :p.183 But that same year, Dalí published his autobiography, _The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí _, in which he made it clear that he had split with Buñuel because the latter was a Communist and an atheist . News of this reached Archbishop Spellman , who angrily confronted Barry with the question: "Are you aware that you are harbouring in this Museum the Antichrist, the man who made a blasphemous film _L'Age d'Or_?" :p.214 At the same time, a campaign on the part of Hollywood, through its industry trade paper, the _ Motion Picture Herald _, to undermine the MoMA film unit resulted in a 66% reduction in the department's budget and Buñuel felt himself compelled to resign. In 1944, he returned to Hollywood for the third time, this time as Spanish Dubbing Producer for Warner Brothers . :p.190 Before leaving New York, he confronted Dalí at his hotel, the Sherry Netherland , to tell the painter about the damage his book had done and then shoot him in the knee. Buñuel did not carry out the violent part of his plan. Dalí explained himself by saying: "I did not write my book to put YOU on a pedestal. I wrote it to put ME on a pedestal". Man Ray -- a friend from Buñuel's surrealist period and collaborator on unrealized Hollywood projects
Buñuel's first dubbing assignment on returning to Hollywood was _My
Reputation _, a
* In collaboration with an old friend from his Surrealist days, Man
Ray , he worked on a scenario called _The Sewers of Los Angeles_,
which took place on a mountain of excrement close to a highway and a
dust basin. :p.129
* With his friend,
José Rubia Barcia , he co-wrote a screenplay
called _La novia de medianoche_ (The Midnight Bride), a gothic
thriller, which lay dormant until it was filmed by Antonio Simón in
* He continued working on a screenplay called "Goya and the Duchess
of Alba", a treatment he had started as early as 1927, with the
Florián Rey and cameraman
José María Beltrán , and
then resuscitated in 1937 as a project for Paramount.
* In his 1982 autobiography _Mon Dernier soupir_ (_My Last Sigh_,
1983), Buñuel wrote that at the request of director
In 1945, Buñuel's contract with
Warner Brothers expired, and he
decided not to renew it in order, as he put it: "to realize my life's
ambition for a year: to do nothing". While his family enjoyed
themselves at the beach, Buñuel spent much of his time in Antelope
Valley with new acquaintances writer
In his autobiography, in a chapter about his second spell in America,
Buñuel states that "n several occasions, both American and European
producers have suggested that I tackle a film version of Malcolm Lowry
Under the Volcano _". :p.194 He says that he read the book many
times as well as eight different screenplays but was unable to come up
with a solution for the cinema. The movie was eventually made in 1984
INTERMEDIATE YEARS (1946–1961)
The following year, an old friend, producer Denise Tual , the widow of Pierre Batcheff , the leading man in _Un Chien Andalou_, proposed that she and Buñuel adapt Lorca's play, _La casa de Bernarda Alba _, for production in Paris. As it turned out, though, before they could both make their way to Europe, they encountered problems in securing the rights from Lorca's family. :p.21 While in Mexico City, on a stopover, they had asked Óscar Dancigers, a Russian émigré producer active in Mexico, for financing. Dancigers ran an independent production company that specialized in assisting U.S. film studios with on-location shooting in Mexico, but following World War II, he had lost his connection with Hollywood due to his being blacklisted as a Communist. :p.73 Although Dancigers wasn't enthusiastic about the Lorca project, he did want to work with Buñuel and persuaded the Spanish director to make a film for him. :p.197 Libertad Lamarque, star of Buñuel's first Mexican film. Buñuel was said to have held a long-time grudge against Lamarque because the actress was able to bring him to tears when he viewed a "corny melodrama" which she had made in Argentina: "How could I let myself cry over such an absurd, grotesque, ridiculous scene?" :p.147
The "Golden Age" of Mexican cinema was peaking in the mid-to-late
1940s, at just the time Buñuel was connecting with Dancigers. Movies
represented Mexico's third largest industry by 1947, employing 32,000
workers, with 72 film producers who invested 66 million pesos
(approximately U.S. $13 million) per year, four active studios with 40
million pesos of invested capital, and approximately 1,500 theaters
throughout the nation, with about 200 in
The film was not successful at the box office, with some even calling it a fiasco. Different reasons have been given for its failure with the public; for some, Buñuel was forced to make concessions to the bad taste of his stars, particularly Negrete, others cite Buñuel's rusty technical skills and lack of confidence after so many years out of the director's chair, while still others speculate that Mexican audiences were tiring of genre movies, called "churros", that were perceived as being cheaply and hastily made. :p.48
The failure of _Gran Casino_ sidelined Buñuel, and it was over two
years before he had the chance to direct another picture. According
to Buñuel, he spent this time "scratching my nose, watching flies and
living off my mother's money", :p.199 but he was actually somewhat
more industrious than that may sound. With the husband/wife team of
Luis Alcoriza , he wrote the scenario for _Si usted no
puede, yo sí_, which was filmed in 1950 by
Julián Soler . :p.203 He
also continued developing the idea for a surrealistic film called
_Ilegible, hijo de flauta_, with the poet Juan Larrea . Dancigers
pointed out to him that there was currently a vogue for films about
street urchins, so Buñuel scoured the back streets and slums of
During this period, Dancigers was busy producing films for the actor/director Fernando Soler , one of the most durable of Mexican film personalities, having been referred to as the "national paterfamilias". Although Soler typically preferred to direct his own films, for their latest collaboration, _ El Gran Calavera _, based on a play by Adolfo Torrado, he decided that doing both jobs would be too much trouble, so he asked Dancigers to find someone who could be trusted to handle the technical aspects of the directorial duties. Buñuel welcomed the opportunity, stating that: "I amused myself with the montage, the constructions, the angles... All of that interested me because I was still an apprentice in so-called 'normal' cinema." As a result of his work on this film, he developed a technique for making films cheaply and quickly by limiting them to 125 shots. :p.73 _El Gran Calavera_ was completed in 16 days at a cost of 400,000 pesos (approximately $46,000 US at 1948 exchange rates). :p.52 The picture has been described as "a hilarious screwball send-up of the Mexican nouveau riche ... a wild roller coaster of mistaken identity, sham marriages and misfired suicides", and it was a big hit at the box office in Mexico. In 2013, the picture was re-made by Mexican director Gary Alazraki under the title _ The Noble Family _. In 1949, Buñuel renounced his Spanish citizenship to become a naturalized Mexican.
The commercial success of _El Gran Calavera_ enabled Buñuel to
redeem a promise he had extracted from Dancigers, which was that if
Buñuel could deliver a money-maker, Dancigers would guarantee "a
degree of freedom" on the next film project. Knowing that Dancigers
was uncomfortable with experimentalism, especially when it might
affect the bottom line, Buñuel proposed a commercial project titled
_¡Mi huerfanito jefe!_, about a juvenile street vendor who can't sell
his final lottery ticket, which ends up being the winner and making
him rich. Dancigers was open to the idea, but instead of a
"_feuilleton _", he suggested making "something rather more serious".
:p.60 During his recent researches through the slums of Mexico City,
Buñuel had read a newspaper account of a twelve-year-old boy's body
being found on a garbage dump, and this became the inspiration, and
final scene, for the film, called _
Los olvidados _. :pp.53–54 "The
world doesn't work like Hollywood told us it does, and Buñuel knew
well that poverty's truths could not be window-dressed in any way.
This film continues to provoke reactions for its unapologetic
portrayal of life without hope or trust. It stands out among Buñuel's
works as the moment when he broke surface and bellowed, before sinking
back into the world of the privileged where his surreal view most
loved to play.
The film tells the story of a street gang of children who terrorize their impoverished neighborhood, at one point brutalizing a blind man and at another assaulting a legless man who moves around on a dolly, which they toss down a hill. Film historian Carl J. Mora has said of _Los olvidados_ that the director: "visualized poverty in a radically different way from the traditional forms of Mexican melodrama. Buñuel's street children are not 'ennobled' by their desperate struggle for survival; they are in fact ruthless predators who are not better than their equally unromanticized victims". :p.91 The film was made quickly (18 days) and cheaply (450,000 pesos), with Buñuel's fee being the equivalent of $2,000. :pp.210–211 During filming, a number of members of the crew resisted the production in a variety of ways: one technician confronted Buñuel and asked why he didn't make a "real" Mexican movie "rather than a miserable picture like this one", :p.200 the film's hairdresser quit on the spot over a scene in which the protagonist's mother refuses to give him food ("In Mexico, no mother would say that to her son."), :p.99 another staff member urged Buñuel to abandon shooting on a "garbage heap", noting that there were many "lovely residential neighborhoods like Las Lomas " that were available, :p.99 while Pedro de Urdimalas, one of the scriptwriters, refused to allow his name in the credits. _ Octavio Paz, ardent champion of Los olvidados_ and close friend during Buñuel's exile in Mexico
This hostility was also felt by those who attended the movie's
Through the determined efforts of future
Buñuel remained in Mexico for the rest of his life, although he spent periods of time filming in France and Spain. In Mexico, he filmed 21 films during an 18-year period. For many critics, although there were occasional widely acknowledged masterpieces like _Los olvidados_ and _Él_ (1953), the majority of his output consisted of generic fare which was adapted to the norms of the national film industry, frequently adopting melodramatic conventions that appealed to local tastes. Other commentators, however, have written of the deceptive complexity and intensity of many of these films, arguing that, collectively, they, "bring a philosophical depth and power to his cinema, together offering a sustained meditation on ideas of religion, class inequity, violence and desire." Although Buñuel usually had little choice regarding the selection of these projects, they often deal with themes that were central to his lifelong concerns:
* sexual pathology: _Él_ (1953), _ Ensayo de un crimen _ (1955), and _Abismos de pasión _ (1954) * the destructive effects of rampant machismo : _ El Bruto _, (1953), _ El río y la muerte _, (1955); * the blurring of fantasy and reality: _ Subida al cielo _ (1952), _ La ilusión viaja en tranvía _ (1954); * the disruptive status of women in a male-dominated culture: _Susana _ (1951), _ La hija del engaño _ (1951—a remake of the Filmófono production _Don Quintín el amargao_ of 16 years earlier), _ Una mujer sin amor _ (1952); and * the absurdity of the religious life: :pp.118–19 _ Nazarín _ (1959) and _Simón del desierto_ (1965).
As busy as he was during the 1950s and early 1960s, there were still
many film projects that Buñuel had to abandon due to lack of
financing or studio support, including a cherished plan to film
Juan Rulfo 's _
Pedro Páramo _, of which he said how
much he enjoyed "the crossing from the mysterious to the real, almost
without transition. I really like this mixture of reality and fantasy,
but I don't know how to bring it to the screen." Other unrealized
projects during his lifetime included adaptations of
Mexico And Beyond: Return To International Filmmaking (1954–1960)
As much as he welcomed steady employment in the Mexican film
industry, Buñuel was quick to seize opportunities to re-emerge onto
the international film scene and to engage with themes that were not
necessarily focused on Mexican preoccupations. :p.144 His first chance
came in 1954, when Dancigers partnered with Henry F. Ehrlich, of
United Artists , to co-produce a film version of
Daniel Defoe 's
In the mid-1950s, Buñuel got the chance to work again in France on international co-productions. The result was what critic Raymond Durgnat has called the director's "revolutionary triptych", in that each of the three films is "openly, or by implication, a study in the morality and tactics of armed revolution against a right-wing dictatorship." :p.100 The first, _Cela s\'appelle l\'aurore _ (Franco-Italian, 1956) required Buñuel and the "pataphysical" writer Jean Ferry to adapt a novel by Emmanuel Roblès after the celebrated writer Jean Genet failed to deliver a script after having been paid in full. :p.100 The second film was _La Mort en ce jardin_ (Franco-Mexican, 1956), which was adapted by Buñuel and his frequent collaborator Luis Alcoriza from a novel by the Belgian writer José-André Lacour . The final part of the "triptych" was _La Fièvre Monte à El Pao _ (Franco-Mexican, 1959), the last film of the popular French star Gérard Philipe , who died in the final stages of the production. Buñuel was later to explain that he was so strapped for cash that he, "took everything that was offered to me, as long as it wasn't humiliating."
In 1960, Buñuel re-teamed with scenarist
Hugo Butler and organizer
George Pepper, allegedly his favorite producer, to make his second
English-language film, a US/Mexico co-production called _The Young One
_, based on a short story by writer and former CIA-agent Peter
Matthiessen . This film has been called "a surprisingly
uncompromising study of racism and sexual desire, set on a remote
island in the Deep South" and has been described by critic Ed
Gonzalez as, "salacious enough to make
Elia Kazan 's
Baby Doll and
Luis Malle\'s _Pretty Baby_ blush." Although the film won a special
award at the
Cannes Film Festival
LATE INTERNATIONAL PERIOD (1961-1977)
At the 1960 Cannes Festival, Buñuel was approached by the young director Carlos Saura , whose film _Los Golfos_ had been entered officially to represent Spain. Two years earlier, Saura had partnered with Juan Antonio Bardem and Luis García Berlanga to form a production company called UNINCI, and the group was keen to get Buñuel to make a new film in his native country as part of their overall goal of creating a uniquely Spanish brand of cinema. :p.190–91 At the same time, Mexican actress Silvia Pinal was eager to work with Buñuel and talked her producer-husband Gustavo Alatriste into providing additional funding for the project with the understanding that the director, who Pinal described as "a man worshiped and idolized", would be given "absolute freedom" in carrying out the work. Finally, Buñuel agreed to work again in Spain when further support was provided by producer Pere Portabella 's company _Film 59_.
Buñuel and his co-scenarist Julio Alejandro drafted a preliminary screenplay for _ Viridiana _, which critic Andrew Sarris has described as incorporating "a plot which is almost too lurid to synopsize even in these enlightened times", dealing with rape, incest, hints of necrophilia, animal cruelty and sacrilege, and dutifully submitted it to the Spanish censor, who, to the surprise of nearly everyone, approved it after requesting only minor modifications and one significant change to the ending. Although Buñuel accommodated the censor's demands, he came up with a final scene that was even more provocative than the scene it replaced: "even more immoral", as Buñuel was later to observe. Since Buñuel had more than adequate resources, top-flight technical and artistic crews, and experienced actors, filming of _Viridiana_ (which took place on location and at Bardem's studios in Madrid) went smoothly and quickly. :p. 98
Buñuel submitted a cutting copy to the censors and then arranged for his son, Juan-Luis, to smuggle the negatives to Paris for the final editing and mixing, ensuring that the authorities would not have an opportunity to view the finished product before its planned submission as Spain's official entry to the 1961 Cannes Festival. Spain's director general of cinematography José Munoz-Fontan presented the film on the last day of the festival and then, on the urging of Portabella and Bardem, appeared in person to accept the top prize, the Palme d\'Or , which the film shared with the French entry _Une aussi longue absence _, directed by Henri Colpi . Within days, _l\'Osservatore Romano _, the Vatican's official organ, denounced the film as an insult not only to Catholicism but to Christianity in general. Consequences to nearly all concerned were swift: Munoz-Fontan was cashiered from his government post, the film was banned in Spain for the next 17 years, all mention of it in the press was prohibited, and the two Spanish production companies UNINCI and _Film 59_ were disbanded. "When today I amuse myself by making useless calculations, I realize that Buñuel and I shared more than two thousand meals together and that on more than fifteen hundred occasions he knocked on my door, notes in hand, ready to begin work. I'm not even counting the walks, the drinks, the films we watched together, the film festivals." -- Jean-Claude Carrière on his long-term collaboration with Buñuel.
Buñuel went on to make two more films in Mexico with Pinal and Alatriste, _ El ángel exterminador _ (1962) and _ Simón del desierto _ (1965)— along with _Viridiana_, they form the so-called "Buñuelian trilogy" — and was later to say that Alatriste had been the one producer who gave him the most freedom in creative expression. Pinal was keenly interested in continuing to work with Buñuel, trusting him completely and frequently stating that he brought out the best in her.
In 1963, actor
Pinal was so determined to work again with Buñuel that she was ready to move to France, learn the language and even work for nothing in order to get the part of Célestine , the title character. Silberman, however, wanted French actress Jeanne Moreau to play the role, so he put Pinal off by telling her that Moreau, too, was willing to act with no fee. Ultimately, Silberman got his way, leaving Pinal so disappointed that she was later to claim that Alatriste's failure to help her secure this part led to the breakup of their marriage. When Buñuel requested a French-speaking writer with whom to collaborate on the screenplay, Silberman suggested the 32-year-old Jean-Claude Carrière , an actor whose previous screenwriting credits included only a few films for the comic star/director Pierre Étaix , but once Buñuel learned that Carrière was the scion of a wine-growing family, the newcomer was hired on the spot. At first, Carrière found it difficult to work with Buñuel, because the young man was so deferential to the famous director that he never challenged any of Buñuel's ideas, until, at Buñuel's covert insistence, Silberman told Carrière to stand up to Buñuel now and then; as Carrière was later to say: "In a way, Buñuel needed an opponent. He didn't need a secretary -- he needed someone to contradict him and oppose him and to make suggestions." The finished 1964 film, _Diary of a Chambermaid_ , became the first of several to be made by the team of Buñuel, Carrière and Silberman. Carrière was later to say: "Without me and without Serge Silberman, the producer, perhaps Buñuel would not have made so many films after he was 65. We really encouraged him to work. That's for sure." This was the second attempt to film Mirbeau's novel, the first being a 1946 Hollywood production directed by Jean Renoir , which Buñuel refused to view for fear of being influenced by the famous French director, whom he venerated. Buñuel's version, while admired by many, has often been compared unfavorably to Renoir's, with a number of critics claiming that Renoir's _Diary_ fits better in Renoir's overall _oeuvre_, while Buñuel's _Diary_ is not sufficiently "Buñuelian".
After the 1964 release of _Diary_, Buñuel again tried to make a film
of Matthew Lewis' _
In 1965, Buñuel manage to work again with Sylvia Pinal in what would turn out to be his last Mexican feature, co-starring Claudio Brook, _ Simón del desierto _. Pinal was keenly interested in continuing to work with Buñuel, trusting him completely and frequently stating that he brought out the best in her, however, this would be their last collaboration. _ Catherine Deneuve starred in Belle de Jour _ (1967), based on Joseph Kessel's novel, playing the role of a bored upper class Parisian housewife who spends her weekdays in a brothel. She was re-united with Buñuel again, starring in Tristana (1970), shot in Toledo, Spain . Deneuve pictured here in 1968 "Well, I think it was difficult for him, coping with his deafness. Some people said he was not that deaf, but I think, when you don't hear very well and when you're tired, everything sinks into a buzz, and it is very hard. French is not his language, so on _Belle de Jour_, I'm sure that it was much more of an effort for him to have to explain. ". Actress Catherine Deneuve , star of _Belle de Jour_
In 1966, Buñuel was approached by the Hakim brothers, Robert and
Raymond , Egyptian-French producers who specialized in sexy films
directed by star filmmakers, who offered him the opportunity to
direct a film version of
Joseph Kessel 's novel _Belle de Jour_ , a
book about an affluent young woman who leads a double life as a
prostitute, and that had caused a scandal upon its first publication
in 1928. Buñuel did not like Kessel's novel, considering it "a bit
of a soap opera", but he took on the challenge because: "I found it
interesting to try to turn something I didn't like into something I
did." So he and Carrière set out enthusiastically to interview women
in the brothels of
Critics have noted Buñuel's habit of following up a commercial or critical success with a more personal, idiosyncratic film that might have less chance of popular esteem.
After the worldwide success of his 1967 _Belle de jour_, and upon viewing Jean-Luc Godard 's film _La Chinoise_, Buñuel, who had wanted to make a film about Catholic heresies for years, told Carrière: "If that is what today's cinema is like, then we can make a film about heresies." The two spent months researching Catholic history and created the 1969 film _The Milky Way_ , a "picaresque road film" that tells the story of two vagabonds on pilgrimage to the tomb of the Apostle James at Santiago de Compostela , during which they travel through time and space to take part in situations illustrating heresies that arose from the six major Catholic dogmas. Vincent Canby , reviewing the film in the _New York Times_, compared it to George Stevens ' blockbuster _ The Greatest Story Ever Told _, in that Buñuel had made a film about Jesus casting nearly all the famous French performers of the time in cameo roles. _The Milky Way_ was banned in Italy, only to have the Catholic Church intervene on its behalf. :p.152 A few great directors have the ability to draw us into their dream world, into their personalities and obsessions and fascinate us with them for a short time. This is the highest level of escapism the movies can provide for us -- just as our elementary identification with a hero or a heroine was the lowest. Film critic Roger Ebert , on _Tristana_
The 1970 film _ Tristana _ is a film about a young woman who is seduced and manipulated by her guardian, who attempts to thwart her romance with a young artist and who eventually induces her to marry him after she loses one of her legs due to a tumor. It has been considered by scholar Beth Miller the least understood of Buñuel's films, and consequently one of the most underrated, due to a "consistent failure to apprehend its political and, especially, its socialist-feminist statement". Buñuel had wanted to make a film of Benito Pérez Galdós ' novel _ Tristana _ as early as 1952, even though he considered Galdós' book the author's weakest, in Buñuel's words: "of the 'I love you, my little pigeon' genre, very kitsch". After finishing _Viridiana_ and in the wake of the scandal its release caused in 1962, the Spanish censor flatly turned down this project, :p.152 and Buñuel had to wait for 8 years before he could receive backing from the Spanish production company Epoca Films. The censors had threatened to deny permission for the film on the grounds that it encouraged duelling, so Buñuel had to approach the subject matter very gingerly, in addition to making concessions to his French/Italian/Spanish producers, who insisted on casting two of the three primary roles with actors not of Buñuel's choosing: Franco Nero and Catherine Deneuve. :p.128 On this occasion, however, Deneuve and Buñuel had a more mutually satisfactory working relationship, with Deneuve telling an interviewer, "but in the end, you know, it was actually rather a wonderful shoot. _Tristana_ is one of my favorite films. Personally, as an actress, I prefer _Tristana_ to _Belle de Jour_."
The germ of the idea for their next film together, _The Discreet
Charm of the Bourgeoisie _ (1972) came from Buñuel and Serge
Silberman discussing uncanny repetition in everyday life; Silberman
told an anecdote about how he had invited some friends for dinner at
his house, only to forget about it, so that, on the night of the
dinner party, he was absent and his wife was in her nightclothes. The
film tells of a group of affluent friends who are continually stymied
in their attempts to eat a meal together, a situation that a number of
critics have contrasted to the opposite dilemma of the characters in
_The Exterminating Angel_, where guests of a dinner party are
mysteriously unable to leave after having completed their meal. For
this film, Buñuel, Silberman and Carrière assembled a top-flight
cast of European performers, "a veritable rogues' gallery of French
art-house cinema", according to one critic. For the first time,
Buñuel made use of a video-playback monitor , which allowed him to
make much more extensive use of crane shots and elaborate tracking
shots , and enabled him to cut the film in the camera and eliminate
the need for reshoots . Filming required only two months and Buñuel
claimed that editing took only one day. When the film was released,
Silberman decided to skip the Cannes Festival in order to concentrate
on getting it nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign
Language Film , which it won, leading Buñuel to express his contempt
for a process that relied on the judgment of, "2500 idiots, including
for example the assistant dress designer of the studio." _
As was his habit, Buñuel took advantage of the popular success of _Discreet Charm_ to make one of the "puzzling, idiosyncratic films he _really_ wanted to make". In 1973, at the Monastery of Paular in the Spanish Somosierra , he wrote the screenplay for _The Phantom of Liberty _(1974) with Carrière for production by Silberman and his Hollywood partners. :p.249 The resulting film is a series of 12 distinctive episodes with separate protagonists, linked together only by following a character from one episode to another in a relay-race manner. Buñuel has stated that he made the film as a tribute to poet Benjamin Péret , a founding member of French Surrealism, :p.170 and called it his "most Surrealist film". :p.249
Buñuel's final film was _
That Obscure Object of Desire _ (1977),
adapted by Buñuel and Carrière from an 1898 novel by Pierre Louÿs
La Femme et le pantin _, which had already been used as the
basis of films directed by
Josef von Sternberg (_The Devil is a Woman_
, 1935) and
Julien Duvivier (_
La Femme et le Pantin _, 1959). The
film, which tells the story of an older man who is obsessed by a young
woman who continually evades his attempts to consummate a sexual
relationship, starred the Spanish actor
LAST YEARS (1978–1983)
"Luis waited for death for a long time, like a good Spaniard, and when he died he was ready. His relationship with death was like that one has with a woman. He felt the love, hate, tenderness, ironical detachment of a long relationship, and he didn't want to miss the last encounter, the moment of union. "I hope I will die alive," he told me. At the end it was as he had wished. His last words were 'I'm dying'." Long-time friend and collaborator, Jean-Claude Carrière
After the release of _ That Obscure Object of Desire _, Buñuel retired from filmmaking. In 1982, he wrote (along with Carrière) his autobiography, _Mon Dernier Soupir_ (_My Last Sigh_), which provides an account of his life, friends, and family as well as a representation of his eccentric personality. In it, he recounts dreams, encounters with many well-known writers, actors, and artists such as Pablo Picasso and Charlie Chaplin as well as antics, like dressing up as a nun and walking around town.
In his seventies, Buñuel once told his friend, novelist Carlos
Fuentes : "I'm not afraid of death. I'm afraid of dying alone in a
hotel room, with my bags open and a shooting script on the night
table. I must know whose fingers will close my eyes." Buñuel died in
Buñuel considered Benjamin Péret , a long-time friend, the "quintessential surrealist poet." :p.110
When his first film was released, Buñuel became the first filmmaker
to be officially welcomed into the ranks of the Surrealists by the
Buñuel's films were famous for their surreal imagery , including
scenes in which chickens populate nightmares, women grow beards, and
aspiring saints are desired by lascivious women. Even in the many
movies he made for hire (rather than for his own creative reasons),
such as _Susana _ and _The Great Madcap_, he usually added his
trademark of disturbing and surreal images. :pp.119–120 Some critics
have pointed out that one reason why Buñuel found working in Mexico
so congenial was that what might seem unusual or even outlandish in
Europe or the United States fit comfortably with elements of Mexican
culture and the audience's expectations of national melodrama. As
filmmaker Tomás Pérez Turrent has commented, when referring to the
apparently incredible features that many critics find in Buñuel's
films: "In Mexico, it's believable", while one of the founders of
Surrealism, André Breton, called Mexico, "the most surrealist country
in the world." Certainly, running through the more personal films of
Buñuel's early and late years is a backbone of surrealism; Buñuel's
world is one in which an entire dinner party suddenly finds itself
inexplicably unable to leave the room and go home, a bad dream hands a
man a letter which he brings to the doctor the next day, and where the
devil , if unable to tempt a saint with a pretty girl, will fly him to
a disco . An example of a more
Buñuel never explained or promoted his work, remaining true to his and Dalí's early insistence on the completely irrational and defying symbolic interpretation. On one occasion, when his son was interviewed about _ The Exterminating Angel _, Buñuel instructed him to give facetious answers. As examples, when asked about the presence of a bear in the socialites' house, Buñuel _fils_ claimed it was because his father liked bears, and, similarly, the several repeated scenes in the film were explained as having been put there to increase the running time.
As a university student, Buñuel had studied entomology at the Museum of Natural History under the famous naturalist Ignacio Bolívar , :pp.65 and he had an early and lasting interest in the scientific documentaries of Jean Painlevé , which he tried to screen at the Residencia de Estudiantes. :pp.168 Numerous critics have commented on the number of sequences in his films involving insects, from the death's head moth in _Un chien andalou_ and the extended scorpion scenes in _L'Age d'or_ to the framed tarantula in _Le Fantôme de la liberté_. Others have commented on the dispassionate nature of Buñuel's treatment of his characters, likening it to the stance of the entomological researcher, and Buñuel himself once said that he had an "entomological" interest in the protagonist of his film _El_. :pp.12 The writer Henry Miller observed: "Buñuel, like an entomologist, has studied what we call love in order to expose beneath the ideology, mythology, platitudes and phraseologies the complete and bloody machinery of sex."
RELIGION AND ATHEISM
Many of his films were openly critical of bourgeois morals and
organized religion , mocking the Roman Catholic Church in particular
but religion in general, for its hypocrisy. When asked if it was
intention to blaspheme in his films, Buñuel responded, "I didn't
deliberately set out to be blasphemous, but then
Un chien andalou _ (1929) – A man drags pianos, upon which are
piled two dead donkeys, two priests, and the tablets of The Ten
* _L\'Âge d\'Or _ (1930) – A bishop is thrown out a window, and
in the final scene one of the culprits of the _
120 days of Sodom _ is
portrayed by an actor dressed in a way that he would be recognized as
El Gran Calavera _ (1949) – During the final scenes of the
wedding, the priest continuously reminds the bride of her obligations
under marriage. Then the movie changes and the bride runs chasing her
Ensayo de un crimen _ (1955) – A man dreams of murdering his
wife while she's praying in bed dressed all in white.
Nazarin _ (1959) – The pious lead character wreaks ruin through
his attempts at charity.
Viridiana _ (1961) – A well-meaning young nun tries
unsuccessfully to help the poor . One scene in the film parodies _The
Last Supper _.
El ángel exterminador _ (1962) – The final scene is of sheep
entering a church, mirroring the entrance of the parishioners.
Simón del desierto _ (1965) – The devil tempts a saint by
taking the form of a bare-breasted girl singing and showing off her
legs. At the end of the film, the saint abandons his ascetic life to
hang out in a jazz club.
La Voie Lactée _ (1969) – Two men travel the ancient
pilgrimage road to
Santiago de Compostela and meet embodiments of
various heresies along the way. One dreams of anarchists shooting the
Buñuel is often cited as one of the world's most prominent atheists . In a 1960 interview, he was asked about his attitude toward religion, and his response has become one of his most celebrated quotes: "I'm still an atheist, thank God." But his entire answer to the question was somewhat more nuanced: "I have no attitude. I was raised in it. I could answer "I'm still an atheist, thank God." I believe we must seek God within man himself. This is a very simple attitude." Critics have pointed out that Buñuel's atheism was closely connected to his surrealism, in that he considered chance and mystery, and not providence, to be at the heart of all reality.
Seventeen years later, in an interview with the _New Yorker _,
Buñuel expressed a somewhat different opinion about religion and
atheism: "I'm not a Christian, but I'm not an atheist either, ... I'm
weary of hearing that accidental old aphorism of mine, 'I'm not an
atheist, thank God.' It's outworn. Dead leaves. In 1951, I made a
small film called 'Mexican Bus Ride', about a village too poor to
support a church and a priest. The place was serene, because no one
suffered from guilt. It's guilt we must escape, not God." However, in
1982, Buñuel had reaffirmed his atheism in his autobiography.
Buñuel's style of directing was extremely economical; he shot films
in a few weeks, rarely deviating from his script (the scene in
Tristana _ where
Catherine Deneuve exposes her breasts to Saturno –
but not the audience – being a noted exception) and shooting in
order as much as possible to minimize editing time. He remained true
throughout his working life to an operating philosophy that he
articulated at the beginning of his career in 1928: "The guiding idea,
the silent procession of images that are concrete, decisive, measured
in space and time—in a word, the film—was first projected inside
the brain of the filmmaker". :p.135 In this, Buñuel has been compared
As much as possible, Buñuel preferred to work with actors and crew
members with whom he had worked before and whom he trusted, leading
some critics to refer to these people as a "stock company" , including
such performers as:
Buñuel preferred scenes that could simply be pieced together end-to-end in the editing room, resulting in long, mobile, wide shots which followed the action of the scene. Filmmaker Patricia Gruben has attributed this procedure to a long-standing strategy on Buñuel's part intended to thwart external interference: "he would make the whole scene in long four-minute dolly shots so the producers couldn't cut it". Examples are especially present in his French films. For example, at the ski resort's restaurant in _Belle de jour _, Séverin, Pierre, and Henri converse at a table. Buñuel cuts away from their conversation to two young women, who walk down a few steps and proceed through the restaurant, passing behind Séverin, Pierre, and Henri, at which point the camera stops and the young women walk out of frame. Henri then comments on the women and the conversation at the table progresses from there.
Cinematographer Gabriel Figueroa was Buñuel's favorite cameraman, making seven films together and remaining close friends until the director's death.
Critics have remarked on Buñuel's predilection for developing a surrealist mise-en-scène through use of a deceptively sparse naturalism, as Michael Atkinson has put it: "visually Spartan and yet spasming with bouts of the irrational." Buñuel's visual style has been generally characterized as highly functional and uncluttered, with extraneous detail eliminated on sets to focus on character-defining elements.
As an example, Buñuel has told about one of his experiences with cameraman Gabriel Figueroa , a veteran who had become famous in cinematography circles by making a specialty of illuminating the beauty of the Mexican landscape using photographic chiaroscuro (stark contrast between illuminated space and dark shadows). Figueroa had set up a shot for _Nazarín_ near the valley of the Popocatépetl : "It was during this shoot that I scandalized Gabriel Figueroa, who had prepared for me an aesthetically irreproachable framing, with the Popocatépetl in the background and the inevitable white clouds. I simply turned the camera to frame a banal scene that seemed to me more real, more proximate. I have never liked refabricated cinematographic beauty, which very often makes one forget what the film wants to tell, and which personally, does not move me."
Actress Catherine Deneuve has provided another anecdote illustrating this aspect of Buñuel's style: while shooting _Tristana_, he had told her frequently of the distaste he felt for the "touristy" side of Toledo , where the film was made, so she teased him about one crane shot that brought out the beauty of the surrounding landscape, to which Buñuel responded by re-shooting the entire scene from a dolly with no background whatsoever, all the while inveighing against the "obviously" beautiful.
Buñuel has been hailed as a pioneer of the sound film, with _L'Age
d'Or_ being cited as one of the first innovative uses of sound in
French film. Film scholar Linda Williams has pointed out that Buñuel
used sounds, including music, as nonsynchronous counterpoint to the
visual image, rather than redundant accompaniment, in accordance with
theories that had been advanced by
Music is an important part of Buñuel's early films, to such an
extent that, for his one silent film _Un Chien Andalou_, in his
sixties, he took the trouble to create a sonorised version, based on
the music (Wagner , a South American tango) played at its original
screening. One critic has noted that, in _L'Age d'Or_, Buñuel
employed the music of Beethoven , Mozart , Mendelssohn , Debussy and
Wagner "as a kind of connective tissue for, and aural commentary on,
the unnerving visuals." As regards _Las Hurdes_, critics have often
remarked on the "nagging inappropriateness" of the score, the fourth
Johannes Brahms ' Symphony No. 4 in E Minor , a practice
called by James Clifford "fortuitous or ironic collage." Although
Buñuel's use of this technique declined in frequency over the years,
he still occasionally employed incongruous musical juxtaposition for
ironic effect, notably during the opening and the climactic scenes of
Viridiana , which take place to the strains of
Late in life, Buñuel claimed to dislike non-diegetic music (music not intrinsic to the scene itself) and avoided its use, stating: "In my last films I rarely use music. If I do, it has to be justified, so the viewer can see its source: a gramophone or a piano." One consistent exception, however, is the use of the traditional drums from his birthplace Calanda, which are heard in most of his films, with such regularity that the repetition has been described as a "biofilmographic signature". Buñuel's explanation of his use of these drums was the statement: "Nowhere are they beaten with such mysterious power as in Calanda...in recognition of the shadows that covered the earth at the moment Christ died." :p.19
The films of his second French era were not scored and some (_Belle de jour_, _Diary of a Chambermaid _) are without music entirely. _Belle de jour_ does, however, feature non-diegetic sound effects , "to unify spatially incongruous shots or symbolize dream world."
_ Instituto de Educación Secundaria (IES) Luis Buñuel, Zaragoza, Spain
* In 1994, a retrospective of Buñuel's works was organized by the
Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle in Bonn, as homage to one of the most
internationally revered figures in world cinema. :p.101 This was
followed in the summer of 1996 by a commemoration of the centenary of
the birth of cinema held by the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina
Sofía in Madrid, which included a unique retrospective, jointly
sponsored by the King of Spain and the President of Mexico, called
¿Buñuel!. La mirada del siglo_, honoring his special status as
Spanish cinema's most emblematic figure.
* A secondary school in
Buñuel has been portrayed as a character in many films and
television productions. A portion of the television mini-series
_Lorca, muerte de un poeta_ (1987–1988), directed by Juan Antonio
Bardem recreates the student years of Buñuel, Lorca and Dalí, with
Fernando Valverde portraying Buñuel in two episodes. He was played
by Dimiter Guerasimof in the 1991 biopic _Dalí_, directed by Antoni
Ribas , despite the fact that Dalí and his attorney had written to
Ribas objecting to the project in its early stages in 1985. Buñuel
appeared as a character in Alejandro Pelayo's 1993 film _Miroslava_,
based on the life of actress Miroslava Stern , who committed suicide
after appearing in _Ensayo de un crimen_ (1955). Buñuel was played
by three actors,
El Gran Wyoming (old age), Pere Arquillué (young
adult) and Juan Carlos Jiménez Marín (child), in
Carlos Saura 's
2001 fantasy, _Buñuel y la mesa del rey Salomón_, which tells of
Buñuel, Lorca and Dalí setting out in search of the mythical table
of King Salomón, which is thought to have the power to see into the
past, the present and the future. Buñuel was a character in a 2001
television miniseries _
Severo Ochoa : La conquista de un Nobel_, on
the life of the Spanish émigré and
Main article: Luis Buñuel filmography
* Film portal
Cinema of Mexico
Cinema of Spain
* Generation of \'27
List of atheists in film, radio, television and theater
List of banned films
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* ^ Bellver, Catherine Gullo (2001). _Absence and Presence: Spanish
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* ^ Wilcox, John Chapman (1997). _Women Poets of Spain,
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* ^ "Biografia Concha Mendez Cuesta". Agonia.Net. Retrieved 30 July
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See also, Luis Buñuel bibliography
* J. Francisco Aranda _Luis Buñuel: Biografia Critica_ (Spanish Edition) Paperback: 479 pages. Publisher: Lumen; Nueva ed. rev. y aumentada edition (1975) . Language: Spanish . ISBN 8426410553 . ISBN 978-8426410559 . * Robert Bresson and Luis Buñuel. _La politica de los autores/ The Politics of Authors_ (La Memoria Del Cine) (Spanish Edition) Paidos Iberica Ediciones S a (April 2003), 189 pages, ISBN 8449314143 * Luis Buñuel, _Mi Ultimo Suspiro_ (English translation _My Last Sigh_ Alfred A. Knopf , 1983). * Buñuel, Luis (1 March 2002). _An Unspeakable Betrayal: Selected Writings of Luis Buñuel_. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23423-9 . * Luis Buñuel, Manuel Lopez Villegas. _Escritos de Luis Bunuel (Fundidos En Negro / Fused in Black)_ (Spanish Edition), Editorial Paginas de Espuma; Paperback, February 2, 2000, 296 pp,ISBN 8493124303
* Luis Buñuel, Rafæl Buñuel, Juan
* _Dans l'oeil de Luis Buñuel._ France, 2013, 54 min., book and director: François Lévy-Kuentz, Producer: KUIV Productions, arte France. * _El último guión – Buñuel en la memoria._ Spain, Germany, France, 2008, 45 min., Book and director: Javier Espada und Gaizka Urresti, Producer: Imval Producciones
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* Senses of Cinema: Great Directors Critical Database * They Shoot Pictures, Don\'t They? * _La furia umana_, n°6, multilanguage dossier (texts by Gilberto Perez, Adrian Martin, Toni D'Angela, Alberto Abruzzese and others) * Bunuel Bibliography (via UC Berkeley) * Buñuel biography
* v * t * e
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