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Luis Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
(June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) was an American experimental physicist, inventor, and professor who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1968. The American Journal of Physics
Physics
commented, "Luis Alvarez was one of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the twentieth century."[1] After receiving his PhD
PhD
from the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in 1936, Alvarez went to work for Ernest Lawrence
Ernest Lawrence
at the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California
University of California
in Berkeley. Alvarez devised a set of experiments to observe K-electron capture in radioactive nuclei, predicted by the beta decay theory but never before observed. He produced tritium using the cyclotron and measured its lifetime. In collaboration with Felix Bloch, he measured the magnetic moment of the neutron. In 1940 Alvarez joined the Radiation Laboratory
Radiation Laboratory
(MIT), where he contributed to a number of World War II
World War II
radar projects, from early improvements to Identification friend or foe
Identification friend or foe
(IFF) radar beacons, now called transponders, to a system known as VIXEN for preventing enemy submarines from realizing that they had been found by the new airborne microwave radars. Enemy submarines would wait until the radar signal was getting strong and then submerge, escaping attack. But VIXEN transmitted a radar signal whose strength was the cube of the distance to the submarine so that as they approached the sub, the signal—as measured by the sub—got progressively weaker, and the sub assumed the plane was getting farther away and didn't submerge.[2][3] The radar system for which Alvarez is best known and which has played a major role in aviation, most particularly in the post war Berlin airlift, was Ground Controlled Approach
Ground Controlled Approach
(GCA). Alvarez spent a few months at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
working on nuclear reactors for Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
before coming to Los Alamos to work for Robert Oppenheimer on the Manhattan project. Alvarez worked on the design of explosive lenses, and the development of exploding-bridgewire detonators. As a member of Project Alberta, he observed the Trinity nuclear test from a B-29
B-29
Superfortress, and later the bombing of Hiroshima from the B-29
B-29
The Great Artiste. After the war Alvarez was involved in the design of a liquid hydrogen bubble chamber that allowed his team to take millions of photographs of particle interactions, develop complex computer systems to measure and analyze these interactions, and discover entire families of new particles and resonance states. This work resulted in his being awarded the Nobel Prize in 1968. He was involved in a project to x-ray the Egyptian pyramids
Egyptian pyramids
to search for unknown chambers. With his son, geologist Walter Alvarez, he developed the Alvarez hypothesis
Alvarez hypothesis
which proposes that the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs was the result of an asteroid impact. Alvarez was a member of the JASON Defense Advisory Group, the Bohemian Club, and the Republican Party.[4]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early work 3 World War II

3.1 Radiation Laboratory 3.2 Manhattan Project

4 Bubble chamber 5 Scientific detective 6 Dinosaur
Dinosaur
extinction 7 Aviation 8 Death 9 Awards and honors 10 Selected publications 11 Patents 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Early life[edit] Luis Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
was born in San Francisco on June 13, 1911, the second child and oldest son of Walter C. Alvarez, a physician, and his wife Harriet née Smyth, and a grandson of Luis F. Álvarez, a physician who lived for a time in Spain, then Cuba, and finally the United States, who found a better method for diagnosing macular leprosy. He had an older sister, Gladys, a younger brother, Bob, and a younger sister, Bernice.[5] His aunt, Mabel Alvarez, was a California artist specializing in oil painting.[6] He attended Madison School in San Francisco from 1918 to 1924, and then San Francisco Polytechnic High School.[7] In 1926, his father became a researcher at the Mayo Clinic, and the family moved to Rochester, Minnesota, where Alvarez attended Rochester High School. He had always expected to attend the University of California, but at the urging of his teachers at Rochester, he instead went to the University of Chicago,[8] where he received his bachelor's degree in 1932, his master's degree in 1934, and his PhD
PhD
in 1936.[9] As an undergraduate, he belonged to the Phi Gamma Delta
Phi Gamma Delta
fraternity. As a postgraduate he moved to Gamma Alpha.[10] In 1932, as a graduate student at Chicago, he discovered physics there and had the rare opportunity to use the equipment of legendary physicist Albert A. Michelson.[11] Alvarez also constructed an apparatus of Geiger counter
Geiger counter
tubes arranged as a cosmic ray telescope, and under the aegis of his faculty advisor Arthur Compton, conducted an experiment in Mexico City to measure the so-called East–West effect of cosmic rays. Observing more incoming radiation from the west, Alvarez concluded that primary cosmic rays were positively charged. Compton submitted the resulting paper to the Physical Review, with Alvarez's name at the top.[12] He was an agnostic.[13] Early work[edit]

Nobel Laureate
Laureate
Arthur Compton, left, with young graduate student Luis Alvarez at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
in 1933

Alvarez's sister, Gladys, worked for Ernest Lawrence
Ernest Lawrence
as a part-time secretary, and mentioned Alvarez to Lawrence. Lawrence then invited Alvarez to tour the Century of Progress
Century of Progress
exhibition in Chicago with him.[14] After he completed his oral exams in 1936, Alvarez, now engaged to be married to Geraldine Smithwick, asked his sister to see if Lawrence had any jobs available at the Radiation Laboratory. A telegram soon arrived from Gladys with a job offer from Lawrence. This started a long association with the University of California, Berkeley. Alvarez and Smithwick were married in one of the chapels at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
and then headed for California.[15] They had two children, Walter and Jean.[16] They were divorced in 1957. On December 28, 1958, he married Janet L. Landis, and had two more children, Donald and Helen.[17] At the Radiation Laboratory
Radiation Laboratory
he worked with Lawrence's experimental team, which was supported by a group of theoretical physicists headed by Robert Oppenheimer.[18] Alvarez devised a set of experiments to observe K-electron capture in radioactive nuclei, predicted by the beta decay theory but never observed. Using magnets to sweep aside the positrons and electrons emanating from his radioactive sources, he designed a special purpose Geiger counter
Geiger counter
to detect only the "soft" X-rays
X-rays
coming from K capture. He published his results in the Physical Review in 1937.[19][20] When deuterium (hydrogen-2) is bombarded with deuterium, the fusion reaction yields either tritium (hydrogen-3) plus a proton or helium-3 plus a neutron (2H + 2H → 3H + p or 3He + n). This is one of the most basic fusion reactions, and the foundation of the thermonuclear weapon and the current research on controlled nuclear fusion. At that time the stability of these two reaction products was unknown, but based on existing theories Hans Bethe
Hans Bethe
thought that tritium would be stable and helium-3 unstable. Alvarez proved the reverse by using his knowledge of the details of the 60-inch cyclotron operation. He tuned the machine to accelerate doubly ionized helium-3 nuclei and was able to get a beam of accelerated ions, thus using the cyclotron as a kind of super mass spectrometer. As the accelerated helium came from deep gas wells where it had been for millions of years, the helium-3 component had to be stable. Afterwards Alvarez produced the radioactive tritium using the cyclotron and the 2H + 2H reaction and measured its lifetime.[21][22][23] In 1938, again using his knowledge of the cyclotron and inventing what are now known as time-of-flight techniques, Alvarez created a mono-energetic beam of thermal neutrons. With this he began a long series of experiments, collaborating with Felix Bloch, to measure the magnetic moment of the neutron. Their result of μ0 = 7000193000000000000♠1.93±0.02 μN, published in 1940, was a major advance over earlier work.[24] World War II[edit] Radiation Laboratory[edit] The British Tizard Mission to the United States
United States
in 1940 demonstrated to leading American scientists the successful application of the cavity magnetron to produce short wavelength pulsed radar. The National Defense Research Committee, established only months earlier by President Franklin Roosevelt, created a central national laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) for the purpose of developing military applications of microwave radar. Lawrence immediately recruited his best "cyclotroneers", among them Alvarez, who joined this new laboratory, known as the Radiation Laboratory, on November 11, 1940.[25] Alvarez contributed to a number of radar projects, from early improvements to Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) radar beacons, now called transponders, to a system known as VIXEN for preventing enemy submarines from realizing that they had been found by the new airborne microwave radars.[26] One of the first projects was to build equipment to transition from the British long-wave radar to the new microwave centimeter-band radar made possible by the cavity magnetron. In working on the Microwave Early Warning system (MEW), Alvarez invented a linear dipole array antenna that not only suppressed the unwanted side lobes of the radiation field, but also could be electronically scanned without the need for mechanical scanning. This was the first microwave phased-array antenna, and Alvarez used it not only in MEW but in two additional radar systems. The antenna enabled the Eagle precision bombing radar to support precision bombing in bad weather or through clouds. It was completed rather late in the war; although a number of B-29s were equipped with Eagle and it worked well, it came too late to make much difference.[27]

Receiving the Collier Trophy
Collier Trophy
from President Harry Truman, White House, 1946

The radar system for which Alvarez is best known and which has played a major role in aviation, most particularly in the post war Berlin airlift, was Ground Controlled Approach
Ground Controlled Approach
(GCA). Using Alvarez's dipole antenna to achieve a very high angular resolution, GCA allows ground-based radar operators watching special precision displays to guide a landing airplane to the runway by transmitting verbal commands to the pilot. The system was simple, direct, and worked well, even with previously untrained pilots. It was so successful that the military continued to use it for many years after the war, and it was still in use in some countries in the 1980s.[28] Alvarez was awarded the National Aeronautic Association's Collier Trophy
Collier Trophy
in 1945 "for his conspicuous and outstanding initiative in the concept and development of the Ground Control Approach system for safe landing of aircraft under all weather and traffic conditions".[29] Alvarez spent the summer of 1943 in England testing GCA, landing planes returning from battle in bad weather, and also training the British in the use of the system. While there he encountered the young Arthur C. Clarke, who was an RAF radar technician. Clarke subsequently used his experiences at the radar research station as the basis for his novel Glide Path, which contains a thinly disguised version of Alvarez.[30] Clarke and Alvarez developed a long-term friendship.[31] Manhattan Project[edit] In the fall of 1943, Alvarez returned to the United States
United States
with an offer from Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer
to work at Los Alamos on the Manhattan project. But Oppenheimer suggested that he first spend a few months at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
working with Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
before coming to Los Alamos. During these months, General Leslie Groves
Leslie Groves
asked Alvarez to think of a way that the US could find out if the Germans were operating any nuclear reactors, and, if so, where they were. Alvarez suggested that an airplane could carry a system to detect the radioactive gases that a reactor produces, particularly xenon 133. The equipment did fly over Germany, but detected no radioactive xenon because the Germans had not built a reactor capable of a chain reaction. This was the first idea of monitoring fission products for intelligence gathering. It would become extremely important after the war.[32]

Wearing a helmet and flak jacket and standing in front of The Great Artiste, Tinian
Tinian
1945

As a result of his radar work and the few months spent with Fermi, Alvarez arrived at Los Alamos in the spring of 1944, later than many of his contemporaries. The work on the "Little Boy" (a uranium bomb) was far along so Alvarez became involved in the design of the "Fat Man" (a plutonium bomb). The technique used for uranium, that of forcing the two sub-critical masses together using a type of gun, would not work with plutonium because the high level of background spontaneous neutrons would cause fissions as soon as the two parts approached each other, so heat and expansion would force the system apart before much energy has been released. It was decided to use a nearly critical sphere of plutonium and compress it quickly by explosives into a much smaller and denser core, a technical challenge at the time.[33] To create the symmetrical implosion required to compress the plutonium core to the required density, thirty two explosive charges were to be simultaneously detonated around the spherical core. Using conventional explosive techniques with blasting caps, progress towards achieving simultaneity to within a small fraction of a microsecond was discouraging. Alvarez directed his graduate student, Lawrence H. Johnston, to use a large capacitor to deliver a high voltage charge directly to each explosive lens, replacing blasting caps with exploding-bridgewire detonators. The exploding wire detonated the thirty two charges to within a few tenths of a microsecond. The invention was critical to the success of the implosion-type nuclear weapon. He also supervised the RaLa Experiments.[34] Alvarez later wrote that:

With modern weapons-grade uranium, the background neutron rate is so low that terrorists, if they had such material, would have a good chance of setting off a high-yield explosion simply by dropping one half of the material onto the other half. Most people seem unaware that if separated U-235 is at hand, it's a trivial job to set off a nuclear explosion, whereas if only plutonium is available, making it explode is the most difficult technical job I know.[35]

Alvarez (top right) on Tinian
Tinian
with Harold Agnew
Harold Agnew
(top left), Lawrence H. Johnston (bottom left) and Bernard Waldman
Bernard Waldman
(bottom right)

Again working with Johnston, Alvarez's last task for the Manhattan Project was to develop a set of calibrated microphone/transmitters to be parachuted from an aircraft to measure the strength of the blast wave from the atomic explosion, so as to allow the scientists to calculate the bomb's energy. He observed the Trinity nuclear test from a B-29 Superfortress
B-29 Superfortress
that also carried fellow Project Alberta
Project Alberta
members Harold Agnew
Harold Agnew
and Deak Parsons.[36] Flying in the B-29 Superfortress
B-29 Superfortress
The Great Artiste
The Great Artiste
in formation with the Enola Gay, Alvarez and Johnston measured the blast effect of the Little Boy
Little Boy
bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima.[37] A few days later, again flying in The Great Artiste, Johnston used the same equipment to measure the strength of the Nagasaki explosion.[38] Bubble chamber[edit]

Celebrating winning the Nobel Prize, October 30, 1968. The balloons are inscribed with the names of subatomic particles that his group discovered.

Returning to the University of California
University of California
as a full professor, Alvarez had many ideas about how to use his wartime radar knowledge to improve particle accelerators. Though some of these were to bear fruit, the "big idea" of this time would come from Edwin McMillan
Edwin McMillan
with his concept of phase stability which led to the synchrocyclotron. Refining and extending this concept, the Lawrence team would build the world's then-largest proton accelerator, the Bevatron, which began operating in 1954. Though the Bevatron
Bevatron
could produce copious amounts of interesting particles, particularly in secondary collisions, these complex interactions were hard to detect and analyze at the time.[39] Seizing upon a new development to visualize particle tracks, created by Donald Glaser and known as a bubble chamber, Alvarez realized the device was just what was needed, if only it could be made to function with liquid hydrogen. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
nuclei, which are protons, made the simplest and most desirable target for interactions with the particles produced by the Bevatron. He began a development program to build a series of small chambers, and championed the device to Ernest Lawrence.[40] The Glaser device was a small glass cylinder (1 cm × 2 cm) filled with ether. By suddenly reducing the pressure in the device, the liquid could be placed into a temporary superheated state, which would boil along the disturbed track of a particle passing through. Glaser was able to maintain the superheated state for a few seconds before spontaneous boiling took place. The Alvarez team built chambers of 1.5 in, 2.5 in, 4 in, 10 in, and 15 in using liquid hydrogen, and constructed of metal with glass windows, so that the tracks could be photographed. The chamber could be cycled in synchronization with the accelerator beam, a picture could be taken, and the chamber recompressed in time for the next beam cycle.[41] This program built a liquid hydrogen bubble chamber almost 7 feet (2 meters) long, employed dozens of physicists and graduate students together with hundreds of engineers and technicians, took millions of photographs of particle interactions, developed computer systems to measure and analyze the interactions, and discovered families of new particles and resonance states. This work resulted in the Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
for Alvarez in 1968,[42] "For his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonant states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chambers and data analysis."[43] Scientific detective[edit] In 1964 Alvarez proposed what became known as the High Altitude Particle Physics
Physics
Experiment (HAPPE), originally conceived as a large superconducting magnet carried to high altitude by a balloon in order to study extremely high-energy particle interactions.[44] In time the focus of the experiment changed toward the study of cosmology and the role of both particles and radiation in the early universe. This work was a large effort, carrying detectors aloft with high-altitude balloon flights and high-flying U-2 aircraft, and an early precursor of the COBE satellite-born experiments on the cosmic background radiation (which resulted in the award of the 2006 Nobel Prize, shared by George Smoot
George Smoot
and John Mather.[44])

X-Raying the Pyramids with Egyptologist Ahmed Fakhry
Ahmed Fakhry
and Team Leader Jerry Anderson, Berkeley, 1967

Alvarez proposed Muon tomography
Muon tomography
in 1965 to search the Egyptian pyramids for unknown chambers. Using naturally occurring cosmic rays, his scheme was to place spark chambers, standard equipment in the high-energy particle physics of this time, beneath the second pyramid of Chephren in a known chamber. By measuring the counting rate of the cosmic rays in different directions the detector would reveal the existence of any void in the overlaying rock structure.[45] Alvarez assembled a team of physicists and archeologists from the United States
United States
and Egypt, the recording equipment was constructed and the experiment carried out, though it was interrupted by the 1967 Six-Day War. Restarted after the war, the effort continued, recording and analyzing the penetrating cosmic rays until 1969 when Alvarez reported to the American Physical Society
American Physical Society
that no chambers had been found in the 19% of the pyramid surveyed.[46] In November 1966 Life published a series of photographs from the film that Abraham Zapruder
Abraham Zapruder
took of the Kennedy assassination. Alvarez, an expert in optics and photoanalysis, became intrigued by the pictures and began to study what could be learned from the film. Alvarez demonstrated both in theory and experiment that the backward snap of the President's head was fully consistent with his being shot from behind. He also investigated the timing of the gunshots and the shockwave which disturbed the camera, and the speed of the camera, pointing out a number of things which the FBI photoanalysts either overlooked or got wrong. He produced a paper intended as a tutorial, with informal advice for the physicist intent on arriving at the truth.[47]

Dinosaur
Dinosaur
extinction[edit] Main article: Alvarez hypothesis

Luis and Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
at the K-T Boundary
K-T Boundary
in Gubbio, Italy, 1981

In 1980 Alvarez and his son, geologist Walter Alvarez, along with nuclear chemists Frank Asaro
Frank Asaro
and Helen Michel, "uncovered a calamity that literally shook the Earth and is one of the great discoveries about Earth's history".[1] During the 1970s, Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
was doing geologic research in central Italy. There he had located an outcrop on the walls of a gorge whose limestone layers included strata both above and below the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Exactly at the boundary is a thin layer of clay. Walter told his father that the layer marked where the dinosaurs and much else became extinct and that nobody knew why, or what the clay was about — it was a big mystery and he intended to solve it.[1] Alvarez had access to the nuclear chemists at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and was able to work with Frank Asaro
Frank Asaro
and Helen Michel, who used the technique of neutron activation analysis. In 1980, Alvarez, Alvarez, Asaro, and Michel published a seminal paper proposing an extraterrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction (then called the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction).[48] In the years following the publication of their article, the clay was also found to contain soot, glassy spherules, shocked quartz crystals, microscopic diamonds, and rare minerals formed only under conditions of great temperature and pressure.[1] Publication of the 1980 paper brought criticism from the geologic community, and an often acrimonious scientific debate ensued. Ten years later, and after Alvarez's death, evidence of a large impact crater called Chicxulub was found off the coast of Mexico, providing support for the theory. Other researchers later found that the end-Cretaceous extinction of the dinosaurs may have occurred rapidly in geologic terms, over thousands of years, rather than millions of years as had previously been supposed. Others continue to study alternative extinction causes such as increased volcanism, particularly the massive Deccan Traps
Deccan Traps
eruptions that occurred around the same time, and climate change, checking against the fossil record. However, on March 4, 2010, a panel of 41 scientists agreed that the Chicxulub asteroid impact triggered the mass extinction.[49] Aviation[edit] In his autobiography, Alvarez said, "I think of myself as having had two separate careers, one in science and one in aviation. I've found the two almost equally rewarding." An important contributor to this was his enjoyment of flying. He learned to fly in 1933, later earning instrument and multi-engine ratings. Over the next 50 years he accumulated over 1000 hours of flight time, most of it as pilot in command.[50] He said, "I found few activities as satisfying as being pilot in command with responsibility for my passengers' lives."[51] Alvarez made numerous professional contributions to aviation. During World War II
World War II
he led the development of multiple aviation-related technologies. Several of his projects are described above, including Ground Controlled Approach
Ground Controlled Approach
(GCA) for which he was awarded the Collier Trophy in 1945. He also held the basic patent for the radar transponder, for which he assigned rights to the U.S. government for $1.[50] Later in his career Alvarez served on multiple high level advisory committees related to civilian and military aviation. These included a Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
task group on future air navigation and air traffic control systems, the President's Science Advisory Committee Military Aircraft Panel, and a committee studying how the scientific community could help improve the United States' capabilities for fighting a nonnuclear war.[52] Alvarez's aviation responsibilities led to many adventures. For example, while working on GCA he became the first civilian to fly a low approach with his view outside the cockpit obstructed. He also flew many military aircraft from the co-pilot's seat, including a B-29 Superfortress[51] and a Lockheed F-104 Starfighter.[53] In addition, he survived a crash during World War II
World War II
as a passenger in a Miles Master.[54] Death[edit] Alvarez died on September 1, 1988, due to complications from a succession of recent operations for cancer of the esophagus.[55] He was cremated, and his ashes were scattered over Monterey Bay.[56] His papers are in The Bancroft Library
The Bancroft Library
at the University of California, Berkeley.[57] Awards and honors[edit]

Fellow of the American Physical Society
American Physical Society
(1939) and President (1969) [7] Collier Trophy
Collier Trophy
of the National Aeronautics Association (1946)[58] Member of the National Academy of Science
National Academy of Science
(1947)[59] Medal for Merit
Medal for Merit
(1947)[9] Fellow of the American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society
(1953)[60] Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
(1958)[61] California Scientist of the Year (1960)[62] Albert Einstein Award
Albert Einstein Award
(1961)[9] National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
(1963)[63] Michelson Award (1965)[64] Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
(1968)[9] Member of the National Academy of Engineering
National Academy of Engineering
(1969)[65] University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Alumni Medal (1978)[66] National Inventors Hall of Fame
National Inventors Hall of Fame
(1978)[67] Enrico Fermi award of the US Department of Energy (1987)[68] IEEE Honorary Membership (1988)[69] The Boy Scouts of America named their Cub Scout SUPERNOVA award for Alvarez (2012)[70]

Selected publications[edit]

"Berkeley Proton
Proton
Linear Accelerator," Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley (October 13, 1953). "High-energy Physics
Physics
with Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Bubble Chambers," Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
(March 7, 1958). "LRL 25-inch Bubble Chamber," Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
(July 8, 1964). "Two-element variable-power spherical lens," Patent US3305294A (December 1964) "Early Days of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry," Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (May 1981). "The Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Bubble Chamber and the Strange Resonances," Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (June 1985). "History of Proton
Proton
Linear Accelerators," Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (Jan. 1987).

Patents[edit]

Golf training device[71] Electronuclear Reactor [72] Optical range finder with variable angle exponential prism[73] Two-element variable-power spherical lens[74] Variable-power lens and system[75] Subatomic particle detector with liquid electron multiplication medium[76] Method of making Fresnelled optical element matrix[77] Optical element of reduced thickness[78] Method of forming an optical element of reduced thickness[79] Deuterium
Deuterium
tagged articles such as explosives and method for detection thereof [80] Stabilized zoom binocular [81] Stand alone collision avoidance system [82] Television viewer[83] Stabilized zoom binocular [84] Optically stabilized camera lens system [85] Nitrogen detection [86]

Inertial pendulum optical stabilizer [87]

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d Wohl, C. G. (2007). "Scientist as detective: Luis Alvarez and the pyramid burial chambers, the JFK assassination, and the end of the dinosaurs". American Journal of Physics. 75 (11): 968. Bibcode:2007AmJPh..75..968W. doi:10.1119/1.2772290.  ^ Alvarez, L. W. (1987). Alvarez: Adventures of a Physicist. Basic Books, p.92, last paragraph, et seq., ISBN 0-465-00115-7. ^ Fractals, Chaos and Power Laws, Manfred Schroeder, Dover, 1991, p.33. ^ Trower, W. P. (2009). Luis Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
1911–1988 (PDF). Biographical Memoirs. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved March 21, 2013.  ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 9–10. ^ Fernandez, R. M. (September 2011). "A Finding Aid to the Mabel Alvarez Papers, 1898–1987, in the Archives of American Art". Archives of American Art. Retrieved June 15, 2011.  ^ a b Trower 1987, p. 259. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 12–16. ^ a b c d "Luis W. Alvarez – Biography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved April 17, 2011.  ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 23–24. ^ Alfred B. Bortz. Physics: Decade by Decade. Facts On File, Incorporated; 2007. ISBN 978-0-8160-5532-6. p. 168. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 25–27. ^ Alvarez: adventures of a physicist. Basic Books. 1987. p. 279. ISBN 9780465001156. "Physicists feel that the subject of religion is taboo. Almost all consider themselves agnostics. We talk about the big bang that started the present universe and wonder what caused it and what came before. To me the idea of a Supreme Being is attractive, but I'm sure that such a Being isn't the one described in any holy book. Since we learn about people by examining what they have done, I conclude that any Supreme Being must have been a great mathematician. The universe operates with precision according to mathematical laws of enormous complexity. I'm unable to identify its creator with the Jesus to whom my maternal grandparents, missionaries in China, devoted their lives." ^ Alvarez 1987, p. 31. ^ Alvarez 1987, p. 38. ^ Alvarez 1987, p. 284. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 205–207, 281. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 46–48. ^ Alvarez, L. W. (1937). "Nuclear K Electron
Electron
Capture". Physical Review. 52 (2): 134–135. Bibcode:1937PhRv...52..134A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.52.134.  ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 54–55. ^ Alvarez, L. W.; Cornog, R. (1939). "Helium and Hydrogen
Hydrogen
of Mass 3". Physical Review. 56 (6): 613–613. Bibcode:1939PhRv...56..613A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.56.613.  ^ Trower 2009, p. 6. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 67–71. ^ Alvarez, Luis W.; Bloch, F. (1940). "A Quantitative Determination of the Neutron
Neutron
Moment in Absolute Nuclear Magnetons". Physical Review. 57 (2): 111–122. Bibcode:1940PhRv...57..111A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.57.111.  ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 78–85. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 90–93. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 101–103. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 96–100. ^ "Collier 1940–1949 Winners". National Aeronautic Association. Retrieved March 21, 2013.  ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 104–110. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 110. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 114–121. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 123–128. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 131–136. ^ Alvarez 1987, p. 125. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 137–142. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 6–8. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 144–146. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 153–159. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 185–189. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 190–194. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 196–199. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
1968". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved March 21, 2013.  ^ a b Alvarez, L. W. (1964). "A Study of High Energy Interactions Using a "Beam" of Primary Cosmic Ray Protons" (PDF). Alvarez Physics Memo (503). Retrieved March 21, 2013.  ^ Alvarez, L. W. (1965). "A Proposal to "X-Ray" the Egyptian Pyramids to Search for Presently Unknown Chambers" (PDF). Alvarez Physics
Physics
Memo (544). Retrieved March 21, 2013.  ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 232–236. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 239–250. ^ Alvarez, L. W.; Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H. V. (1980). "Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction: Experiment and Theory" (PDF). Science. 208 (4448): 1095–1108. Bibcode:1980Sci...208.1095A. doi:10.1126/science.208.4448.1095. JSTOR 1683699. PMID 17783054.  ^ Schulte, P.; et al. (2010). "The Chicxulub Asteroid Impact and Mass Extinction at the Cretaceous- Paleogene Boundary". Science. 327 (5970): 1214–1218. Bibcode:2010Sci...327.1214S. doi:10.1126/science.1177265. PMID 20203042.  ^ a b Alvarez 1987, pp. 30–31. ^ a b Alvarez 1987, pp. 268. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 218–223. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 224. ^ Alvarez 1987, pp. 108. ^ Sullivan, Walter (1988-09-02). "Luis W. Alvarez, Nobel Physicist Who Explored Atom, Dies at 77". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-01-23.  ^ "Luis W. Alvarez". Soylent Communications. Retrieved March 21, 2013.  ^ "Finding Aid to the Luis W. Alvarez Papers, 1932–1988, bulk 1943–1987". Online Archive of California. Retrieved March 21, 2013.  ^ "Collier Trophy: Collier 1940–1949 Winners". National Aeronautical Association. Retrieved April 17, 2011.  ^ "Luis Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
1911–1988" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved April 17, 2011.  ^ "Dr. Luis Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
– Public Profile". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved April 17, 2011.  ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 17, 2011.  ^ "California Scientist of the Year Award Recipients". California Science Center. Archived from the original on September 12, 2012. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  ^ "National Medal of Science". American Institute of Physics. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  ^ "The Michelson Lectures and Award" (PDF). Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  ^ "Dr. Luis W. Alvarez". National Academy of Engineering. Retrieved April 17, 2011.  ^ "Alumni Awards winners". University of Chicago. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  ^ "Hall of Fame / Inventor Profile – Luis Walter Alvarez". National Inventors Hall of Fame. Retrieved March 21, 2012.  ^ "Luis Alvarez, 1987". The Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
Award. US Department of Energy. Retrieved April 17, 2011.  ^ " IEEE
IEEE
Honorary membership recipients" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved April 17, 2011.  ^ "Boy Scout award requirements". Retrieved January 20, 2015.  ^ Alvarez, Luis W. (4 March 1958). "Golf training device." U.S. Patent No. 2,825,569. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Lawrence, E. O., McMillan, E. M., & Alvarez, L. W. (1960). Electronuclear Reactor (No. US 2933442). ^ Alvarez, L. W. (24 January 1967). "Optical range finder with variable angle exponential prism." U.S. Patent No. 3,299,768. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W. (21 February 1967). "Two-element variable-power spherical lens." U.S. Patent 3,305,294. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W., and William E. Humphrey. (21 April 1970). "Variable-power lens and system." U.S. Patent No. 3,507,565. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W., Stephen E. Derenzo, Richard A. Muller, Robert G. Smits, and Haim Zaklad. (25 April 1972). "Subatomic particle detector with liquid electron multiplication medium." U.S. Patent No. 3,659,105. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, L. (19 June 1973). "Method of making fresnelled optical element matrix." U.S. Patent No. 3,739,455. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, L. (6 August 1974). "Optical element of reduced thickness." U.S. Patent No. 3,827,798. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, L. (13 August 1974). "Method of forming an optical element of reduced thickness." U.S. Patent No. 3,829,536. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W.,(17 February, 1981). " Deuterium
Deuterium
tagged articles such as explosives and method for detection thereof." U.S. Patent No. 4,251,726. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W., and Schwemin, Arnold J. (23 February, 1982). "Stabilized zoom binocular." U.S. Patent No. 4,316,649 . Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W. (23 February, 1982). "Stand alone collision avoidance system." U.S. Patent No. 4,317,119. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W., (16 August 1983). "Television viewer." U.S. Patent No. 4,399,455. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W., and Schwemin, Arnold J. (29 November, 1983). "Stabilized zoom binocular." U.S. Patent No. 4,417,788. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W., and Schwemin, Arnold J. (7 October, 1986). "Optically stabilized camera lens system." U.S. Patent No. 4,615,590. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W. (12 July, 1988). "Nitrogen detection." U.S. Patent No. 4,756,866. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. ^ Alvarez, Luis W., and Sporer, Stephen F. (27 March, 1990). "Inertial pendulum optical stabilizer." U.S. Patent No. 4,911,541. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

References[edit]

Alvarez, L. W. (1987). Alvarez: Adventures of a Physicist. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00115-7.  Heilbron, J. L.; Seidel, R. W. (1989). Lawrence and His Laboratory. University of California
University of California
Press. ISBN 0-520-06426-7.  Trower, W. P. (2009). Luis Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
1911–1988 (PDF). Biographical Memoirs. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved March 21, 2013.  Trower, W. P. (1987). Discovering Alvarez: Selected Works of Luis W. Alvarez with Commentary by His Students and Colleagues. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-81304-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luis Walter Alvarez.

Nobel biography About Luis Alvarez IEEE
IEEE
interview with Johnston, patentholder of the exploding-bridgewire detonator Weisstein, Eric Wolfgang (ed.). "Alvarez, Luis W. (1911–1988)". ScienceWorld.  Annotated bibliography for Luis Alvarez from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues Garwin, Richard L., 1992, "Memorial Tribute For Luis W. Alvarez" in Memorial Tributes, National Academy of Engineering, Vol. 5. Washington DC: National Academy Press. Biography and Bibliographic Resources, from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States
United States
Department of Energy Oral History interview transcript with Luiz Alvarez 14, 15 February 1967, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
Library and Archives

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics

1901–1925

1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz

1926–1950

1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell

1951–1975

1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater

1976–2000

1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

v t e

United States
United States
National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

Presidents of the American Physical Society

1899–1925

Henry Augustus Rowland
Henry Augustus Rowland
(1899) Albert A. Michelson
Albert A. Michelson
(1901) Arthur Gordon Webster
Arthur Gordon Webster
(1903) Carl Barus
Carl Barus
(1905) Edward Leamington Nichols
Edward Leamington Nichols
(1907) Henry Crew
Henry Crew
(1909) William Francis Magie
William Francis Magie
(1911) Benjamin Osgood Peirce
Benjamin Osgood Peirce
(1913) Ernest Merritt
Ernest Merritt
(1914) Robert Andrews Millikan
Robert Andrews Millikan
(1916) Henry Andrews Bumstead (1918) Joseph Sweetman Ames
Joseph Sweetman Ames
(1919) Theodore Lyman (1921) Thomas Corwin Mendenhall
Thomas Corwin Mendenhall
(1923) Dayton Miller
Dayton Miller
(1925)

1926–1950

Karl Taylor Compton (1927) Henry Gale (1929) William Francis Gray Swann (1931) Paul D. Foote (1933) Arthur Compton
Arthur Compton
(1934) Robert W. Wood
Robert W. Wood
(1935) Floyd K. Richtmyer (1936) Harrison M. Randall (1937) Lyman James Briggs
Lyman James Briggs
(1938) John Torrence Tate, Sr. (1939) John Zeleny (1940) George Braxton Pegram (1941) G. Stewart (1941) Percy Williams Bridgman
Percy Williams Bridgman
(1942) Albert Hull
Albert Hull
(1943) Arthur Jeffrey Dempster
Arthur Jeffrey Dempster
(1944) Harvey Fletcher
Harvey Fletcher
(1945) Edward Condon
Edward Condon
(1946) Lee Alvin DuBridge
Lee Alvin DuBridge
(1947) J. Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer
(1948) Francis Wheeler Loomis (1949) Isidor Isaac Rabi
Isidor Isaac Rabi
(1950)

1951–1975

Charles Christian Lauritsen (1951) John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
(1952) Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
(1953) H. Bethe (1954) Raymond Thayer Birge (1955) E. Wigner (1956) Henry DeWolf Smyth
Henry DeWolf Smyth
(1957) Jesse Beams
Jesse Beams
(1958) George Eugene Uhlenbeck
George Eugene Uhlenbeck
(1959) Victor Frederick Weisskopf
Victor Frederick Weisskopf
(1960) Frederick Seitz
Frederick Seitz
(1961) William V. Houston
William V. Houston
(1962) John Harry Williams (1963) Robert Bacher
Robert Bacher
(1964) Felix Bloch
Felix Bloch
(1965) John Archibald Wheeler
John Archibald Wheeler
(1966) Charles H. Townes
Charles H. Townes
(1967) John Bardeen
John Bardeen
(1968) Luis Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
(1969) Edward Mills Purcell
Edward Mills Purcell
(1970) Robert Serber
Robert Serber
(1971) Philip M. Morse (1972) Joseph Edward Mayer (1973) Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky (1974) Chien-Shiung Wu
Chien-Shiung Wu
(1975)

1976–2000

William A. Fowler (1976) George Pake (1977) Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.
Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.
(1978) Lewis M. Branscomb
Lewis M. Branscomb
(1979) Herman Feshbach (1980) Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1981) Maurice Goldhaber
Maurice Goldhaber
(1982) Robert Marshak (1983) Mildred Dresselhaus
Mildred Dresselhaus
(1984) Robert R. Wilson
Robert R. Wilson
(1985) Sidney Drell (1986) Val Logsdon Fitch
Val Logsdon Fitch
(1987) James A. Krumhansl (1989) Eugen Merzbacher (1990) Nicolaas Bloembergen
Nicolaas Bloembergen
(1991) Ernest M. Henley (1992) Donald N. Langenberg (1993) Burton Richter
Burton Richter
(1994) C. Kumar Patel (1995) J.R. Schrieffer (1996) D. Allan Bromley
D. Allan Bromley
(1997) Andrew Sessler
Andrew Sessler
(1998) Jerome I. Friedman
Jerome I. Friedman
(1999) James S. Langer (2000)

2001–future

George Trilling (2001) William Brinkman (2002) Myriam Sarachik (2003) Helen Quinn
Helen Quinn
(2004) Marvin Cohen (2005) John Hopfield (2006) Leo Kadanoff
Leo Kadanoff
(2007) Arthur Bienenstock (2008) Cherry A. Murray
Cherry A. Murray
(2009) Curtis Callan
Curtis Callan
(2010) Barry Barish
Barry Barish
(2011) Robert L. Byer
Robert L. Byer
(2012) Michael Turner (2013) Malcolm R. Beasley (2014) Sam Aronson (2015) Homer Neal (2016) Laura Greene (2017) Roger Falcone (2018) David Gross
David Gross
(2019) Philip H. Bucksbaum
Philip H. Bucksbaum
(2020)

v t e

Manhattan Project

Timeline

Sites

Ames Berkeley Chicago Dayton Hanford Inyokern Los Alamos Montreal New York Oak Ridge Trinity Wendover Heavy water sites

Administrators

Vannevar Bush Arthur Compton James Conant Priscilla Duffield Thomas Farrell Leslie Groves John Lansdale Ernest Lawrence James Marshall Franklin Matthias Dorothy McKibbin Kenneth Nichols Robert Oppenheimer Deak Parsons William Purnell Frank Spedding Charles Thomas Paul Tibbets Bud Uanna Harold Urey Stafford Warren Ed Westcott Roscoe Wilson

Scientists

Luis Alvarez Robert Bacher Hans Bethe Aage Bohr Niels Bohr Norris Bradbury James Chadwick John Cockcroft Harry Daghlian Enrico Fermi Richard Feynman Val Fitch James Franck Klaus Fuchs Maria Goeppert-Mayer George Kistiakowsky George Koval Willard Libby Edwin McMillan Mark Oliphant Norman Ramsey Isidor Isaac Rabi James Rainwater Bruno Rossi Glenn Seaborg Emilio Segrè Louis Slotin Henry DeWolf Smyth Leo Szilard Edward Teller Stanisław Ulam John von Neumann John Wheeler Eugene Wigner Robert Wilson Leona Woods

Operations

Alsos Mission Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Operation Crossroads Operation Peppermint Project Alberta Silverplate 509th Composite Group Enola Gay Bockscar The Great Artiste

Weapons

Fat Man Little Boy Pumpkin bomb Thin Man

Related topics

Atomic Energy Act of 1946 British contribution Chicago Pile-1 Demon core Einstein–Szilárd letter Interim Committee Oppenheimer security hearing Plutonium Quebec Agreement RaLa Experiment S-1 Executive Committee S-50 Project Smyth Report Uranium X-10 Graphite Reactor

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 30988204 LCCN: n85280938 ISNI: 0000 0001 1755 7313 GND: 132172100 SUDOC: 151800162 BNF: cb14149416c (data) BIBSYS: 90191558 NLA: 36009390 BNE: XX1698745 SN

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