The ''Luftwaffe'' () was the aerial warfare
branch of the ''Wehrmacht
'' during World War II
's military air arms during World War I
, the ''Luftstreitkräfte
'' of the Imperial Army
and the ''Marine-Fliegerabteilung
'' of the Imperial Navy
, had been disbanded in May 1920 in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force.
During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base
in the Soviet Union
. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the ''Luftwaffe''s existence was publicly acknowledged on 26 February 1935, just over two weeks before open defiance of the Versailles Treaty through German re-armament
and conscription would be announced on 16 March. The Condor Legion
, a ''Luftwaffe'' detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War
, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new tactics and aircraft. Partially as a result of this combat experience, the ''Luftwaffe'' had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, and battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II
broke out in 1939. By the summer of 1939, the ''Luftwaffe'' had twenty-eight ''Geschwader
. The ''Luftwaffe'' also operated ''Fallschirmjäger
The ''Luftwaffe'' proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe
in 1939 and 1940. During the Battle of Britain
, however, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF
's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitz
, devastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns gradually destroyed the ''Luftwaffe''s fighter arm. From late 1942, the ''Luftwaffe'' used its surplus ground support and other personnel to raise ''Luftwaffe'' Field Divisions
. In addition to its service in the West
, the ''Luftwaffe'' operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket-propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombers
, the ''Luftwaffe'' was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, and a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel. In January 1945, during the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulge
, the ''Luftwaffe'' made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority
, and met with failure. With rapidly dwindling supplies of petroleum, oil, and lubricants
after this campaign, and as part of the entire combined ''Wehrmacht
'' military forces as a whole, the ''Luftwaffe'' ceased to be an effective fighting force.
After the defeat of Germany, the ''Luftwaffe'' was disbanded in 1946. During World War II, German pilots claimed roughly 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 ''Luftwaffe'' aircraft were destroyed or significantly damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely. The ''Luftwaffe'' had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history: Hermann Göring
and later ''Generalfeldmarschall
'' Robert Ritter von Greim
for the last two weeks of the war.
The ''Luftwaffe'' was deeply involved in Nazi war crimes
. By the end of the war, a significant percentage of aircraft production originated in concentration camps
, an industry employing tens of thousands of prisoners. The ''Luftwaffe''s demand for labor was one of the factors that led to the deportation and murder of hundreds of thousands of Hungarian Jews in 1944. The ''Oberkommando der Luftwaffe
'' organized Nazi human experimentation
, and ''Luftwaffe'' ground troops committed massacres in Italy
, and Poland
The Imperial German Army Air Service was founded in 1910 with the name ''Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches'', most often shortened to ''Fliegertruppe''. It was renamed the ''Luftstreitkräfte
'' on 8 October 1916. The air war on the Western Front received the most attention in the annals of the earliest accounts of military aviation, since it produced aces such as Manfred von Richthofen
and Ernst Udet
, Oswald Boelcke
, and Max Immelmann
. After the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles
, which also mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft.
Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, German pilots trained in secret. Initially, civil aviation schools within Germany were used, yet only light trainers
could be used in order to maintain the façade that the trainees were going to fly with civil airlines such as Deutsche Luft Hansa
. To train its pilots on the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of the Soviet Union
, which was also isolated in Europe. A secret training airfield was established at Lipetsk
in 1924 and operated for approximately nine years using mostly Dutch and Soviet, but also some German, training aircraft before being closed in 1933. This base was officially known as the 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army. Hundreds of ''Luftwaffe'' pilots and technical personnel visited, studied and were trained at Soviet air force schools in several locations in Central Russia. Roessing, Blume, Fosse, Teetsemann, Heini, Makratzki, Blumendaat, and many other future ''Luftwaffe'' aces were trained in Russia in joint Russian-German schools that were set up under the patronage of Ernst August Köstring
The first steps towards the ''Luftwaffe''s formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler
came to power. Hermann Göring
, a World War I
ace, became National ''Kommissar'' for aviation with former Luft Hansa director Erhard Milch
as his deputy. In April 1933 the Reich Aviation Ministry
(''Reichsluftfahrtministerium'' or RLM) was established. The RLM was in charge of the development and production of aircraft. Göring's control over all aspects of aviation became absolute. On 25 March 1933 the German Air Sports Association
absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its 'sports' title. On 15 May 1933, all military aviation organizations in the RLM were merged, forming the ''Luftwaffe''; its official 'birthday'. The National Socialist Flyers Corps
(''Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps'' or NSFK) was formed in 1937 to give pre-military flying training to male youths, and to engage adult sport aviators in the Nazi movement. Military-age members of the NSFK were drafted into the ''Luftwaffe''. As all such prior NSFK members were also Nazi Party members, this gave the new ''Luftwaffe'' a strong Nazi ideological base in contrast to the other branches of the ''Wehrmacht
'' (the ''Heer''
(Army) and the ''Kriegsmarine
'' (Navy)). Göring played a leading role in the buildup of the ''Luftwaffe'' in 1933–36, but had little further involvement in the development of the force after 1936, and Milch became the "de facto" minister until 1937.
The absence of Göring in planning and production matters was fortunate. Göring had little knowledge of current aviation, had last flown in 1922, and had not kept himself informed of the latest events. Göring also displayed a lack of understanding of doctrine and technical issues in aerial warfare which he left to others more competent. The Commander-in-Chief left the organisation and building of the ''Luftwaffe'', after 1936, to Erhard Milch. However Göring, as a part of Hitler's inner circle, provided access to financial resources and materiel for rearming and equipping the ''Luftwaffe''.
Another prominent figure in German air power construction this time was Helmuth Wilberg
. Wilberg later played a large role in the development of German air doctrine. Having headed the ''Reichswehr
'' air staff for eight years in the 1920s, Wilberg had considerable experience and was ideal for a senior staff position. Göring considered making Wilberg Chief of Staff
(CS). However, it was revealed Wilberg had a Jewish mother. For that reason, Göring could not have him as CS. Not wishing his talent to go to waste, Göring ensured the racial laws of the Third Reich did not apply to him. Wilberg remained in the air staff, and under Walther Wever
helped draw up the ''Luftwaffe''s principle doctrinal texts, "The Conduct of the Aerial War" and "Regulation 16".
Preparing for war: 1933–39
Wever years, 1933–36
The German officer Corps was keen to develop strategic bombing
capabilities against its enemies. However, economic and geopolitical considerations had to take priority. The German air power theorists continued to develop strategic theories, but emphasis was given to army support, as Germany was a continental power and expected to face ground operations following any declaration of hostilities.
For these reasons, between 1933 and 1934, the ''Luftwaffe''s leadership was primarily concerned with tactical and operational methods. In aerial terms, the army concept of ''Truppenführung
'' was an operational concept, as well as a tactical doctrine. In World War I, the ''Fliegertruppe's'' initial, 1914–15 era ''Feldflieger Abteilung
'' observation/reconnaissance air units, each with six two-seater aircraft apiece, had been attached to specific army formations and acted as support. Dive bomber
units were considered essential to ''Truppenführung'', attacking enemy headquarters and lines of communications.
''Luftwaffe'' "Regulation 10: The Bomber" (''Dienstvorschrift 10: Das Kampfflugzeug''), published in 1934, advocated air superiority and approaches to ground attack tactics without dealing with operational matters. Until 1935, the 1926 manual "Directives for the Conduct of the Operational Air War" continued to act as the main guide for German air operations. The manual directed OKL to focus on limited operations (not strategic operations): the protection of specific areas and support of the army in combat.
With an effective tactical-operational concept, the German air power theorists needed a strategic doctrine and organisation. , a serviceman (not pilot) in the ''Luftstreitkräfte'' during World War I, and later an experienced pilot with Lufthansa, was a prominent theorist of air power. Knauss promoted the Giulio Douhet
theory that air power could win wars alone by destroying enemy industry and breaking enemy morale by "terrorizing the population" of major cities. This advocated attacks on civilians. The General Staff blocked the entry of Douhet's theory into doctrine, fearing revenge strikes against German civilians and cities.
In December 1934, Chief of the ''Luftwaffe'' General Staff Walther Wever
sought to mould the ''Luftwaffe''s battle doctrine into a strategic plan. At this time, Wever conducted war games (simulated against France) in a bid to establish his theory of a strategic bombing force that would, he thought, prove decisive by winning the war through the destruction of enemy industry, even though these exercises also included tactical strikes against enemy ground forces and communications. In 1935, "''Luftwaffe'' Regulation 16: The Conduct of the Air War" was drawn up. In the proposal, it concluded, "The mission of the ''Luftwaffe'' is to serve these goals."
Corum states that under this doctrine, the ''Luftwaffe'' leadership rejected the practice of "terror bombing
" (see ''Luftwaffe'' strategic bombing doctrine
According to Corum, terror bombing was deemed to be "counter-productive", increasing rather than destroying the enemy's will to resist. Such bombing campaigns were regarded as diversion from the ''Luftwaffe''s main operations; destruction of the enemy armed forces.
Nevertheless, Wever recognised the importance of strategic bombing
. In newly introduced doctrine, ''The Conduct of the Aerial Air War'' in 1935, Wever rejected the theory of Douhet and outlined five key points to air strategy:
#To destroy the enemy air force by bombing its bases and aircraft factories, and defeating enemy air forces attacking German targets.
#To prevent the movement of large enemy ground forces to the decisive areas by destroying railways and roads, particularly bridges and tunnels, which are indispensable for the movement and supply of forces
#To support the operations of the army formations, independent of railways, i.e, armoured forces and motorised forces, by impeding the enemy advance and participating directly in ground operations.
#To support naval operations by attacking naval bases, protecting Germany's naval bases and participating directly in naval battles
#To paralyse the enemy armed forces by stopping production in the armaments factories.
Wever began planning for a strategic bomber force and sought to incorporate strategic bombing into a war strategy. He believed that tactical aircraft should only be used as a step to developing a strategic air force. In May 1934, Wever initiated a seven-year project to develop the so-called "Ural bomber
", which could strike as far as into the heart of the Soviet Union
. In 1935, this design competition led to the Dornier Do 19
and Junkers Ju 89
prototypes, although both were underpowered. In April 1936, Wever issue requirements for the 'Bomber A' design competition: a range of 6,700 km (4,163 mi) with a 900 kg (1,984 lb) bomb load. However Wever's vision of a "Ural" bomber was never realised, and his emphasis on strategic aerial operations was lost. The only design submittal for Wever's 'Bomber A' that reached production was Heinkel
's ''Projekt 1041'', which culminated in the production and frontline service as Germany's only operational heavy bomber, the Heinkel He 177
, on 5 November 1937, the date on which it received its RLM airframe number
In 1935, the military functions of the RLM were grouped into ''Oberkommando der Luftwaffe
'' (OKL; "Air Force High Command").
Following the untimely death of Walther Wever in early June 1936 in an aviation-related accident
, by the late 1930s the ''Luftwaffe'' had no clear purpose. The air force was not subordinated to the army support role, and it was not given any particular strategic mission. German doctrine fell between the two concepts. The ''Luftwaffe'' was to be an organization capable of carrying out broad and general support tasks rather than any specific mission. Mainly, this path was chosen to encourage more flexible use of air power and offer the ground forces the right conditions for a decisive victory. In fact, on the outbreak of war, only 15% of the ''Luftwaffe''s aircraft were devoted to ground support operations, counter to the long-held myth that the ''Luftwaffe'' was designed for only tactical and operational missions.
Change of direction, 1936–37
Wever's participation in the construction of the ''Luftwaffe'' came to an abrupt end on 3 June 1936 when he was killed along with his engineer in a Heinkel He 70
Blitz, ironically on the very day that his "Bomber A" heavy bomber design competition was announced. After Wever's death, Göring began taking more of an interest in the appointment of ''Luftwaffe'' staff officers. Göring appointed his successor Albert Kesselring
as Chief of Staff and Ernst Udet
to head the Reich's Air Ministry Technical Office (''Technisches Amt''), although he was not a technical expert. Despite this Udet helped change the ''Luftwaffe''s tactical direction towards fast medium bombers to destroy enemy air power in the battle zone rather than through industrial bombing of its aviation production.
Kesselring and Udet did not get on. During Kesselring's time as CS, 1936–1937, a power struggle developed between the two as Udet attempted to extend his own power within the ''Luftwaffe''. Kesselring also had to contend with Göring appointing "yes men" to positions of importance. Udet realised his limitations, and his failures in the production and development of German aircraft would have serious long term consequences.
The failure of the ''Luftwaffe'' to progress further towards attaining a strategic bombing force was attributable to several reasons. Many in the ''Luftwaffe'' command believed medium bombers to be sufficient power to launch strategic bombing operations against Germany's most likely enemies; France, Czechoslovakia
, and Poland
. The United Kingdom
presented greater problems. ''General der Flieger
'' Hellmuth Felmy
, commander of ''Luftflotte 2
'' in 1939, was charged with devising a plan for an air war over the British Isles. Felmy was convinced that Britain could be defeated through morale bombing. Felmy noted the alleged panic that had broken out in London during the Munich crisis
, evidence he believed of British weakness. A second reason was technical. German designers had never solved the issues of the Heinkel He 177
A's design difficulties, brought on by the requirement from its inception on 5 November 1937 to have moderate dive-bombing capabilities in a 30-meter wingspan aircraft. Moreover, Germany did not possess the economic resources to match the later British and American effort of 1943–1944, particularly in large-scale mass production of high power output aircraft engines
(with output of over least 1,500 kW (2,000 hp). In addition, OKL had not foreseen the industrial and military effort strategic bombing would require. By 1939 the ''Luftwaffe'' was not much better prepared than its enemies to conduct a strategic bombing campaign,
with fatal results during the Battle of Britain
The German rearmament program faced difficulties acquiring raw materials. Germany imported most of its essential materials for rebuilding the ''Luftwaffe'', in particular rubber and aluminium. Petroleum imports were particularly vulnerable to blockade. Germany pushed for synthetic fuel plants but still failed to meet demands. In 1937 Germany imported more fuel than it had at the start of the decade. By summer 1938, only 25% of the requirements could be covered. In steel materials, industry was operating at barely 83% of capacity, and by November 1938 Göring reported the economic situation was serious. The ''Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
'' (OKW), the overall command for all German military forces, ordered reductions in raw materials and steel used for armament production. The figures for reduction were substantial: 30% steel, 20% copper, 47% aluminium, and 14% rubber. Under such circumstances, it was not possible for Milch, Udet, or Kesselring to produce a formidable strategic bombing force even had they wanted to do so.
The development of aircraft was now confined to the production of twin-engined medium bombers that required much less material, manpower and aviation production capacity than Wever's "Ural Bomber". German industry could build two medium bombers for one heavy bomber and the RLM would not gamble on developing a heavy bomber which would also take time. Göring remarked, "the ''Führer'' will not ask how big the bombers there are, but only how many there are." The premature death of Wever, one of the ''Luftwaffe''s finest officers, left the ''Luftwaffe'' without a strategic air force during World War II, which eventually proved fatal to the German war effort.
The lack of strategic capability should have been apparent much earlier. The Sudeten Crisis
highlighted German unpreparedness to conduct a strategic air war (although the British and French were in a much weaker position), and Hitler ordered the ''Luftwaffe'' be expanded to five times its earlier size. OKL badly neglected the need for transport aircraft; even in 1943, transport units were described as ''Kampfgeschwadern zur besonderen Verwendung'' (Bomber Units on Special Duties, KGzbV). and only grouping them together into dedicated cargo and personnel transport wings (''Transportgeschwader'') during that year. In March 1938, as the ''Anschluss
'' was taking place, Göring ordered Felmy to investigate the prospect of air raids against Britain. Felmy concluded it was not possible until bases in Belgium
and the Netherlands
were obtained and the ''Luftwaffe'' had heavy bombers. It mattered little, as war was avoided by the Munich Agreement, and the need for long-range aircraft did not arise.
These failures were not exposed until wartime. In the meantime, German designs of mid-1930s origin such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109
, Heinkel He 111
, Junkers Ju 87
Stuka, and Dornier Do 17
, performed very well. All first saw active service in the Condor Legion
against Soviet-supplied aircraft. The ''Luftwaffe'' also quickly realized the days of the biplane fighter were finished, the Heinkel He 51
being switched to service as a trainer. Particularly impressive were the Heinkel and Dornier, which fulfilled the ''Luftwaffe''s requirements for bombers that were faster than 1930s-era fighters, many of which were biplanes or strut-braced monoplanes.
Despite the participation of these aircraft (mainly from 1938 onward), it was the venerable Junkers Ju 52
(which soon became the backbone of the ''Transportgruppen'') that made the main contribution. During the Spanish Civil War Hitler remarked, "Franco ought to erect a monument to the glory of the Junkers Ju 52. It is the aircraft which the Spanish revolution has to thank for its victory."
Poor accuracy from level bombers in 1937 led the ''Luftwaffe'' to grasp the benefits of dive-bombing. The latter could achieve far better accuracy against tactical ground targets than heavier conventional bombers. Range was not a key criterion for this mission. It was not always feasible for the army to move heavy artillery over recently captured territory to bombard fortifications or support ground forces, and dive bombers could do the job faster. Dive bombers, often single-engine two-man machines, could achieve better results than larger six or seven-man aircraft, at a tenth of the cost and four times the accuracy. This led to Udet championing the dive bomber, particularly the Junkers Ju 87
Udet's "love affair" with dive-bombing seriously affected the long-term development of the ''Luftwaffe'', especially after General Wever's death. The tactical strike aircraft programs were meant to serve as interim solutions until the next generation of aircraft arrived. In 1936 the Junkers Ju 52
was the backbone of the German bomber fleet. This led to a rush on the part of the RLM to produce the Junkers Ju 86
, Heinkel He 111
, and Dornier Do 17
before a proper evaluation was made. The Ju 86 was poor while the He 111 showed the most promise. The Spanish Civil War
convinced Udet (along with limited output from the German munitions industry) that wastage was not acceptable in munition terms. Udet sought to build dive-bombing into the Junkers Ju 88
and conveyed the same idea, initiated specifically by OKL for the Heinkel He 177
, approved in early November 1937. In the case of the Ju 88, 50,000 modifications had to be made. The weight was increased from seven to twelve tons. This resulted in a speed loss of 200 km/h. Udet merely conveyed OKL's own dive-bombing capability request to Ernst Heinkel
concerning the He 177, who vehemently opposed such an idea, which ruined its development as a heavy bomber. Göring was not able to rescind the dive-bombing requirement for the He 177A until September 1942.
By the summer of 1939, the ''Luftwaffe'' had ready for combat nine ''Jagdgeschwader'' (fighter wings) mostly equipped with the Messerschmitt Bf 109E, four Zerstörergeschwader
'' (destroyer wings) equipped with the Messerschmitt Bf 110 heavy fighter, 11 ''Kampfgeschwader
'' (bomber wings) equipped mainly with the Heinkel He 111 and the Dornier Do 17Z, and four ''Sturzkampfgeschwader'' (dive bomber wing") primarily armed with the iconic Junkers Ju 87
B ''Stuka''. The ''Luftwaffe'' was just starting to accept the Junkers Ju 88
A for service, as it had encountered design difficulties, with only a dozen aircraft of the type considered combat-ready. The ''Luftwaffe''s strength at this time stood at 373,000 personnel (208,000 flying troops, 107,000 in the Flak Corps and 58,000 in the Signals Corps). Aircraft strength was 4,201 operational aircraft: 1,191 bombers, 361 dive bombers, 788 fighters, 431 heavy fighters, and 488 transports. Despite deficiencies, it was an impressive force.
However, even by the spring of 1940, the ''Luftwaffe'' still had not mobilized fully. Despite the shortage of raw materials, ''Generalluftzeugmeister'' Ernst Udet had increased production through introducing a 10-hour working day for aviation industries and rationalizing production. During this period 30 ''Kampfstaffeln'' and 16 ''Jagdstaffeln'' were raised and equipped. A further five ''Zerstörergruppen'' ("Destroyer groups") were created (JGr 101, 102,126,152 and 176), all equipped with the Bf 110.
The ''Luftwaffe'' also greatly expanded its aircrew training programs by 42%, to 63 flying schools. These facilities were moved to eastern Germany, away from possible Allied threats. The number of aircrew reached 4,727, an increase of 31%. However, the rush to complete this rapid expansion scheme resulted in the deaths of 997 personnel and another 700 wounded. 946 aircraft were also destroyed in these accidents. The number of aircrew completing their training was up to 3,941, The ''Luftwaffe''s entire strength was now 2.2 million personnel.
In April and May 1941, Udet headed the ''Luftwaffe'' delegation inspecting the Soviet aviation industry in compliance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
. Udet informed Göring "that Soviet air forces are very strong and technically advanced." Göring decided not to report the facts to Hitler, hoping that a surprise attack would quickly destroy the USSR.
["Боевые операции люфтваффе", Москва 2008 г., изд. Яуза-пресс, по "Rise and fall of the German Air Force", Лондон 1948 г., пер. П.Смирнов, ]
Udet realized that the upcoming war on Russia might cripple Germany. Udet, torn between truth and loyalty, suffered a psychological breakdown and even tried to tell Hitler the truth, but Göring told Hitler that Udet was lying, then took Udet under control by giving him drugs at drinking parties and hunting trips. Udet's drinking and psychological condition became a problem, but Göring used Udet's dependency to manipulate him.
[Who is who in the Third Reich (Кто был кто в Третьем рейхе. Биографический энциклопедический словарь. М., 2003)]
Throughout the history of Nazi Germany
, the ''Luftwaffe'' had only two commanders-in-chief. The first was Hermann Göring
, with the second and last being ''Generalfeldmarschall
'' Robert Ritter von Greim
. His appointment as commander-in-chief of the ''Luftwaffe'' was concomitant with his promotion to ''Generalfeldmarschall
'', the last German officer in World War II to be promoted to the highest rank. Other officers promoted to the second highest military rank in Germany were Albert Kesselring
, Hugo Sperrle
, Erhard Milch
, and Wolfram von Richthofen
At the end of the war, with Berlin surrounded by the Red Army
, Göring suggested to Hitler that he take over leadership of the Reich.
Hitler ordered his arrest and execution, but Göring's SS guards did not carry out the order, and Göring survived to be tried at Nuremberg
Sperrle was prosecuted at the OKW Trial
, one of the last twelve of the Nuremberg Trials
after the war. He was acquitted on all four counts. He died in Munich
Organization and chain of command
At the start of the war the ''Luftwaffe'' had four ''Luftflotten'' (air fleets), each responsible for roughly a quarter of Germany. As the war progressed more air fleets were created as the areas under German rule expanded. As one example, ''Luftflotte'' 5
was created in 1940 to direct operations in Norway and Denmark, and other ''Luftflotten'' were created as necessary. Each ''Luftflotte'' would contain several ''Fliegerkorps'' (Air Corps), ''Fliegerdivision'' (Air Division), ''Jagdkorps'' (Fighter Corps),''Jagddivision'' (Air Division) or ''Jagdfliegerführer'' (Fighter Air Command). Each formations would have attached to it a number of units, usually several ''Geschwader'', but also independent ''Staffeln'' and ''Kampfgruppen
''Luftflotten'' were also responsible for the training aircraft and schools in their operational areas.
A ''Geschwader'' was commanded by a ''Geschwaderkommodore
'', with the rank
of either major, ''Oberstleutnant
'' (lieutenant colonel
) or ''Oberst
). Other "staff" officers within the unit with administrative duties included the adjutant, technical officer, and operations officer, who were usually (though not always) experienced aircrew or pilots still flying on operations. Other specialist staff were navigation, signals, and intelligence personnel. A ''Stabschwarm'' (headquarters flight
) was attached to each ''Geschwader''.
A ''Jagdgeschwader'' (hunting wing) (JG) was a single-seat day fighter ''Geschwader'', typically equipped with Bf 109 or Fw 190 aircraft flying in the fighter or fighter-bomber roles. Late in the war, by 1944–45, JG 7
and JG 400
(and the jet specialist JV 44
) flew much more advanced aircraft, with JG 1 working up with jets
at war's end. A ''Geschwader'' consisted of groups (''Gruppen''), which in turn consisted of ''Jagdstaffel'' (fighter squadrons). Hence, Fighter Wing 1 was JG 1, its first ''Gruppe'' (group) was I./JG 1, using a Roman numeral
for the ''Gruppe'' number only, and its first ''Staffel'' (squadron) was 1./JG 1. ''Geschwader'' strength was usually 120 – 125 aircraft.
Each ''Gruppe'' was commanded by a ''Kommandeur'', and a ''Staffel'' by a ''Staffelkapitän''. However, these were "appointments", not ranks, within the ''Luftwaffe''. Usually, the ''Kommodore'' would hold the rank of ''Oberstleutnant'' (lieutenant colonel) or, exceptionally, an ''Oberst'' (colonel). Even a ''Leutnant'' (second lieutenant) could find himself commanding a ''Staffel''.
Similarly, a bomber wing was a ''Kampfgeschwader'' (KG), a night fighter wing was a ''Nachtjagdgeschwader'' (NJG), a dive bomber wing was a ''Stukageschwader'' (StG), and units equivalent to those in RAF Coastal Command, with specific responsibilities for coastal patrols and search and rescue duties, were ''Küstenfliegergruppen'' (Kü.Fl. Gr.). Specialist bomber groups were known as ''Kampfgruppen'' (KGr). The strength of a bomber ''Geschwader'' was about 80–90 aircraft.
The peacetime strength of the ''Luftwaffe'' in the spring of 1939 was 370,000 men. After the mobilization in 1939 almost 900,000 men served, and just before Operation Barbarossa
in 1941 the personnel strength had reached 1.5 million men.
The ''Luftwaffe'' reached its largest personnel strength during the period November 1943 to June 1944, with almost three million men and women in uniform; 1.7 million of these were male soldiers, 1 million male ''Wehrmachtsbeamte''
and civilian employees, and almost 300,000 female and male auxiliaries (''Luftwaffenhelfer
''). In October 1944, the anti-aircraft units had 600,000 soldiers and 530,000 auxiliaries, including 60,000 male members of the ''Reichsarbeitsdienst
'', 50,000 ''Luftwaffenhelfer'' (males age 15–17), 80,000 ''Flakwehrmänner'' (males above military age) and ''Flak-V-soldaten'' (males unfit for military service), and 160,000 female ''Flakwaffenhelferinnen'' and ''RAD-Maiden'', as well as 160,000 foreign personnel (Hiwis
Spanish Civil War
The ''Luftwaffe''s Condor Legion
experimented with new doctrine and aircraft during the Spanish Civil War
. It helped the ''Falange
'' under Francisco Franco
to defeat the Republican forces. Over 20,000 German airmen gained combat experience that would give the ''Luftwaffe'' an important advantage going into the Second World War. One infamous operation was the bombing of Guernica
in the Basque country
. It is commonly assumed this attack was the result of a "terror doctrine" in ''Luftwaffe'' doctrine. The raids on Guernica and Madrid
caused many civilian casualties and a wave of protests in the democracies. It has been suggested that the bombing of Guernica was carried out for military tactical reasons, in support of ground operations, but the town was not directly involved in any fighting at that point in time. It was not until 1942 that the Germans started to develop a bombing policy in which civilians were the primary targets, although The Blitz
on London and many other British cities involved indiscriminate bombing of civilian areas,
'nuisance raids' which could even involve the machine-gunning of civilians and livestock.
World War II
When World War II began, the ''Luftwaffe'' was one of the most technologically advanced air forces in the world. During the Polish Campaign
that triggered the war, it quickly established air superiority, and then air supremacy. It supported the German Army operations which ended the campaign in five weeks. The ''Luftwaffe''s performance was as OKL had hoped. The ''Luftwaffe'' rendered invaluable support to the army, mopping up pockets of resistance. Göring was delighted with the performance. Command and control problems were experienced, but owing to the flexibility and improvisation of both the army and ''Luftwaffe'', these problems were solved. The ''Luftwaffe'' was to have in place a ground-to-air communication system, which played a vital role in the success of ''Fall Gelb
In the spring of 1940, the ''Luftwaffe'' assisted the ''Kriegsmarine
'' and ''Heer'' in the invasion of Norway
. Flying in reinforcements and winning air superiority, the ''Luftwaffe'' contributed decisively to the German conquest.
In the spring of 1940, the ''Luftwaffe'' contributed to the unexpected success in the Battle of France
. It destroyed three Allied Air Forces and helped secure the defeat of France in just over six weeks. However, it could not destroy the British Expeditionary Force at Dunkirk
despite intense bombing. The BEF escaped to continue the war.
During the Battle of Britain
in summer 1940, the ''Luftwaffe'' inflicted severe damage to the Royal Air Force
, but did not achieve the air superiority that Hitler demanded for the proposed invasion of Britain
, which was postponed and then cancelled in December 1940. The ''Luftwaffe'' ravaged British cities during The Blitz
, but failed to break British morale. Hitler had already ordered preparations to be made for Operation Barbarossa
, the invasion of the Soviet Union
In spring 1941, the ''Luftwaffe'' helped its Axis
partner, Italy, secure victory in the Balkans Campaign
and continued to support Italy in the Mediterranean, Middle East and African theatres
until May 1945.
In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The ''Luftwaffe'' destroyed thousands of Soviet aircraft, yet it failed to destroy the Red Air Force
altogether. Lacking strategic bombers (the very "Ural bombers" that General Wever had asked for six years before) the ''Luftwaffe'' could not strike at Soviet production centers regularly or with the needed force. The Axis and Soviet air operations during Operation Barbarossa
consumed vast numbers of men and planes. As the war dragged on, the ''Luftwaffe'' was eroded in strength. The defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad
and Battle of Kursk
ensured the gradual decline of the ''Wehrmacht'' on the Eastern Front
British historian Frederick Taylor
asserts that "all sides bombed each other's cities during the war. Half a million Soviet
citizens, for example, died from German bombing
during the invasion and occupation of Russia. That's roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids."
Meanwhile, the ''Luftwaffe'' continued to defend German-occupied Europe
against the growing offensive power of RAF Bomber Command
and, starting in the summer of 1942, the steadily building strength of the United States Army Air Forces
. The mounting demands of the Defence of the Reich
campaign gradually destroyed the ''Luftwaffe''s fighter arm. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket-propelled aircraft for bomber destroyer duties, it was overwhelmed by Allied numbers and a lack of trained pilots and fuel. A last-ditch attempt, known as Operation Bodenplatte
, to win air superiority on 1 January 1945 failed. After the ''Bodenplatte'' effort, the ''Luftwaffe'' ceased to be an effective fighting force.
German day and night fighter pilots claimed more than 70,000 aerial victories during World War II. Of these, about 745 victories are estimated to be achieved by jet fighters
shot down 25,000–30,000 Allied planes. Broken down on the different Allies, about 25,000 were American planes, about 20,000 British, 46,100 Soviet, 1,274 French, 375 Polish, and 81 Dutch as well as aircraft from other Allied nationalities.
The highest-scoring day fighter pilot was Erich Hartmann
with 352 confirmed kills, all of them at the Eastern front against the Soviets. The leading aces in the west were Hans-Joachim Marseille
with 158 kills against planes from the British Empire (RAF
, and SAAF
) and Georg-Peter Eder
with 56 kills of aircraft from the USAAF
(of a total of 78). The most successful night fighter pilot was Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer
, who is credited with 121 kills. 103 German fighter pilots shot down more than 100 enemy aircraft for a total of roughly 15,400 aerial victories. Roughly a further 360 pilots claimed between 40 and 100 aerial victories for round about 21,000 victories. Another 500 fighter pilots claimed between 20 and 40 victories for a total of 15,000 victories. Part of the reason German pilots scored such high victory totals was that they were in combat for the duration of the war-unlike the Allies, who rotated their flyers out of combat after a certain amount of time, German pilots flew until they were killed, captured or too badly wounded to keep flying. It is relatively certain that 2,500 German fighter pilots attained ace status, having achieved at least five aerial victories.
These achievements were honored with 453 German single and twin-engine (Messerschmitt Bf 110
) day fighter pilots having received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
. 85 night fighter pilots, including 14 crew members, were awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.
Some Bomber pilots were also highly successful. The ''Stuka''
and ''Schlachtflieger'' pilot Hans-Ulrich Rudel
flew 2,530 ground-attack missions and claimed the destruction of more than 519 tanks and a battleship, among others. He was the most highly decorated German serviceman of the Second World War. The Bomber pilot Hansgeorg Bätcher
flew more than 658 combat missions destroying numerous ships and other targets.
Losses, on the other hand, were high as well. The estimated total number of destroyed and damaged for the war totaled 76,875 aircraft. Of these, about 43,000 were lost in combat, the rest in operational accidents and during training. By type, losses totaled 21,452 fighters, 12,037 bombers, 15,428 trainers, 10,221 twin-engine fighters, 5,548 ground attack, 6,733 reconnaissance, and 6,141 transports.
According to the General Staff of the ''Wehrmacht'' the losses of the flight personnel until February 1945 amounted to:
[Hahn, Fritz. Waffen und Geheimwaffen des deutschen Heeres 1933–1945. Band I. Infanteriewaffen, Pionierwaffen, Artilleriewaffen, Pulver, Spreng- und Kampfstoffe – Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe Verlag, 1986 — ]
*KIA: 6,527 officers and 43,517 enlisted men
*WIA: 4,194 officers and 27,811 enlisted men
*MIA: 4,361 officers and 27,240 enlisted men
total: 15,082 officers and 98,568 enlisted men
According to official statistics, total ''Luftwaffe'' casualties, including ground personnel, amounted to 138,596 killed and 156,132 missing through 31 January 1945.
Omissions and failures
Lack of aerial defence
The failure of the ''Luftwaffe'' in the Defence of the Reich
campaign was a result of a number of factors. The ''Luftwaffe'' lacked an effective air defence system early in the war. Adolf Hitler
's foreign policy had pushed Germany into war before these defences could be fully developed. The ''Luftwaffe'' was forced to improvise and construct its defences during the war.
The daylight actions over German-controlled territory were sparse in 1939–1940. The responsibility of the defence of German air space fell to the ''Luftgaukommandos'' (air district commands). The defence systems relied mostly on the "flak" arm. The defences were not coordinated and communication was poor. This lack of understanding between the flak and flying branches of the defence would plague the ''Luftwaffe'' throughout the war.
Hitler, in particular, wanted the defence to rest on anti-aircraft artillery as it gave the civilian population a "psychological crutch" no matter how ineffective the weapons.
Most of the battles fought by the ''Luftwaffe'' on the Western Front were against the RAF's "Circus" raids
and the occasional daylight raid into German air space. This was a fortunate position since the ''Luftwaffe''s strategy of focusing its striking power on one front started to unravel with the failure of the invasion of the Soviet Union. The "peripheral" strategy of the ''Luftwaffe'' between 1939 and 1940 had been to deploy its fighter defences at the edges of Axis occupied territory, with little protecting the inner depths.
Moreover, the front line units in the West were complaining about the poor numbers and performance of aircraft. Units complained of lack of ''Zerstörer'' aircraft with all-weather capabilities and the "lack of climbing power of the Bf 109".
The ''Luftwaffe''s technical edge was slipping as the only formidable new aircraft in the German arsenal was the Focke-Wulf Fw 190
'' Erhard Milch was to assist Ernst Udet with aircraft production increases and the introduction of more modern types of fighter aircraft. However, they explained at a meeting of the Reich Industrial Council on 18 September 1941 that the new next-generation aircraft had failed to materialize, and production of obsolete types had to continue to meet the growing need for replacements.
The buildup of the ''Jagdwaffe
'' ("Fighter Force") was too rapid and its quality suffered. It was not put under a unified command until 1943, which also affected the performance of the nine ''Jagdgeschwader'' fighter wings in existence in 1939. No further units were formed until 1942, and the years of 1940–1941 were wasted. OKL failed to construct a strategy; instead, its command style was reactionary, and its measures not as effective without thorough planning. This was particularly apparent with the ''Sturmböck
'' squadrons, formed to replace the increasingly ineffective twin-engined ''Zerstörer'' heavy fighter wings as the primary defense against USAAF daylight raids. The ''Sturmböcke''
flew Fw 190A fighters armed with heavy 20 mm and 30 mm cannon to destroy heavy bombers, but this increased the weight and affected the performance of the Fw 190 at a time when the aircraft were meeting large numbers of equal if not superior Allied types.
Daytime aerial defense against the USAAF's strongly defended heavy bomber forces, particularly the Eighth Air Force
and the Fifteenth Air Force
, had its successes through the calendar year of 1943. But at the start of 1944, Eighth AF commander Jimmy Doolittle made a major change in offensive fighter tactics
, which defeated the ''Luftwaffe''s day fighter force from that time onwards. Steadily increasing numbers of the superlative North American P-51 Mustang
single-engine fighter, leading the USAAF's bombers into German airspace defeated first the Bf 110 ''Zerstörer''
wings, then the Fw 190A Sturmböcke
Development and equipment
In terms of technological development, the failure to develop a long-range bomber and capable long-range fighters during this period left the ''Luftwaffe'' unable to conduct a meaningful strategic bombing campaign throughout the war. However, Germany at that time suffered from limitations in raw materials such as oil and aluminium, which meant that there were insufficient resources for much beyond a tactical air force: given these circumstances, the ''Luftwaffe''s reliance on tactical mid-range, twin-engined medium bombers and short-range dive-bombers was a pragmatic choice of strategy. It might also be argued that the ''Luftwaffe''s ''Kampfgeschwader'' medium and heavy bomber wings were perfectly capable of attacking strategic targets, but the lack of capable long-range escort fighters left the bombers unable to carry out their missions effectively against determined and well-organised fighter opposition.
The greatest failure for the ''Kampfgeschwader'', however, was being saddled with an aircraft intended as a capable four-engined heavy bomber: the perpetually troubled Heinkel He 177
, whose engines were prone to catch fire
in flight. Of the three parallel proposals
from the Heinkel engineering departments for a four-engined version of the A-series He 177 by February 1943
, one of these being the Heinkel firm's ''Amerikabomber'' candidate
, only one, the He 177B
, emerged in the concluding months of 1943. Only three airworthy prototypes of the B-series He 177 design were produced by early 1944, some three years after the first prototype flights of the Avro Lancaster
, the most successful RAF heavy bomber.
Another failure of procurement and equipment was the lack of a dedicated naval air arm
. General Felmy had already expressed a desire to build a naval air arm to support ''Kriegsmarine'' operations in the Atlantic and British waters. Britain was dependent on food and raw materials from its Empire and North America. Felmy pressed this case firmly throughout 1938 and 1939, and, on 31 October 1939, ''Großadmiral
'' Erich Raeder
sent a strongly worded letter to Göring in support of such proposals. The early-war twin-engined Heinkel He 115
floatplane and Dornier Do 18 flying boat
were too slow and short-ranged. The then-contemporary Blohm & Voss BV 138
''Seedrache'' (seadragon) trimotor flying boat became the ''Luftwaffe''s primary seaborne maritime patrol platform, with nearly 300 examples built; its trio of Junkers Jumo 205
diesel engines gave it a 4,300 km (2,670 mi) maximum range. Another Blohm und Voss design of 1940, the enormous, 46-meter wingspan six-engined Blohm und Voss BV 222
''Wiking'' maritime patrol flying boat, would see it capable of a 6,800 km (4,200-mile) range at maximum endurance when using higher-output versions of the same Jumo 205
powerplants as used by the BV 138, in later years. The Dornier Do 217
would have been ideal as a land-based choice but suffered production problems. Raeder also complained about the poor standard of aerial torpedoes, although their design was the responsibility of the ''Wehrmacht'' combined military's naval arm (the ''Kriegsmarine''), even considering production of the Japanese Type 91 torpedo
used at Pearl Harbor
as the ''Lufttorpedo'' LT 850 by August 1942. (See both:Yanagi missions
and Heinkel He 111 torpedo bomber operations
Without specialised naval or land-based, purpose-designed maritime patrol aircraft, the ''Luftwaffe'' was forced to improvise. The Focke-Wulf Fw 200
Condor airliner's airframe – engineered for civilian airliner use – lacked the structural strength for combat maneuvering at lower altitudes, making it unsuitable for use as a bomber in maritime patrol duties. The Condor lacked speed, armour and bomb load capacity. Sometimes the fuselage literally "broke its back" or a wing panel dropped loose from the wing root
after a hard landing. Nevertheless, this civilian transport was adapted for the long-range reconnaissance and anti-shipping roles and, between August 1940 and February 1941, Fw 200s sank 85 vessels for a claimed total of 363,000 Grt. Had the ''Luftwaffe'' focused on naval aviation – particularly maritime patrol aircraft with long range, like the aforementioned diesel-powered multi-engine Blohm & Voss flying boats – Germany might well have been in a position to win the Battle of the Atlantic
. However, Raeder and the ''Kriegsmarine'' failed to press for naval air power until the war began, mitigating the ''Luftwaffe''s responsibility. In addition, Göring regarded any other branch of the German military developing its own aviation as an encroachment on his authority and continually frustrated the Navy's attempts to build its own airpower.
The absence of a strategic bomber force for the ''Luftwaffe'', following General Wever's accidental death in the early summer of 1936 and the end of the Ural bomber
program he fostered before the invasion of Poland, would not be addressed again until the authorization of the "Bomber B
" design competition in July 1939, which sought to replace the medium bomber force with which the ''Luftwaffe'' was to begin the war, and the partly achieved ''Schnellbomber
'' high-speed medium bomber concept with more advanced, twin-engined high-speed bomber aircraft fitted with pairs of relatively "high-power" engines
of 1,500 kW (2,000 hp) output levels and upwards each as a follow-on to the earlier ''Schnellbomber'' project, that would also be able to function as shorter-range heavy bombers. The spring 1942 ''Amerika Bomber
'' program also sought to produce useful strategic bomber designs for the ''Luftwaffe'', with their prime design priority being an advanced trans-oceanic range capability as the main aim of the project to directly attack the United States from Europe or the Azores. Inevitably, both the Bomber B and Amerika Bomber programs were victims of the continued emphasis of the ''Wehrmacht'' combined military's insistence for its ''Luftwaffe'' air arm to support the ''Heer'' as its primary mission, and the damage to the German aviation industry from Allied bomber attacks.
Challenges in directly addressing combat pilots' issues
The RLM's apparent lack of a dedicated "technical-tactical" department, that would have directly been in contact with combat pilots to assess their needs for weaponry upgrades and tactical advice, had never been seriously envisioned as a critically ongoing necessity in the planning of the original German air arm.
The RLM did have its own ''Technisches Amt'' (T-Amt) department to handle aviation technology issues, but this was tasked with handling all aviation technology issues in the Third Reich, both military and civilian in nature, and also not known to have ever had any clear and actively administrative and consultative links with the front-line forces established for such purposes. On the front-line combat side of the issue, and for direct contact with the German aviation firms making the ''Luftwaffe''s warplanes, the ''Luftwaffe'' did have its own reasonably effective system of four military aviation test facilities, or ''Erprobungstellen'' located at three coastal sites – Peenemünde-West
(also incorporating a separate facility in nearby Karlshagen
– and the central inland site of Rechlin
, itself first established as a military airfield in late August 1918 by the German Empire, with the four-facility system commanded later in World War II by ''Oberst'' (Colonel) Edgar Petersen
. However, due to lack of co-ordination between the RLM and OKL, all fighter and bomber development was oriented toward short-range aircraft, as they could be produced in greater numbers, rather than quality long-range aircraft, something that put the ''Luftwaffe'' at a disadvantage as early as the Battle of Britain
The "ramp-up" to production levels required to fulfill the ''Luftwaffe''s front-line needs was also slow, not reaching maximum output until 1944.
Production of fighters was not given priority until 1944
; Adolf Galland
commented that this should have occurred at least a year earlier.
Galland also pointed to the mistakes and challenges made in the development of the Messerschmitt Me 262
jet – which included the protracted development time required for its Junkers Jumo 004
jet engines to achieve reliability. German combat aircraft types that were first designed and flown in the mid-1930s had become obsolete, yet were kept in production, in particular the Ju 87 Stuka, and the Bf 109, because there were no well-developed replacement designs.
The failure of German production was evident from the start of the Battle of Britain. By the end of 1940, the ''Luftwaffe'' had suffered heavy losses and needed to regroup. Deliveries of new aircraft were insufficient to meet the drain on resources; the ''Luftwaffe'', unlike the RAF, was failing to expand its pilot and aircraft numbers.
This was partly owing to production planning failures before the war and the demands of the army. Nevertheless, the German aircraft industry was being outproduced in 1940. In terms of fighter aircraft production, the British exceeded their production plans by 43%, while the Germans remained 40% "behind" target by summer 1940. In fact, German production in fighters fell from 227 to 177 per month between July and September 1940.
One of the many reasons for the failure of the ''Luftwaffe'' in 1940 was that it did not have the operational and material means to destroy the British aircraft industry, something that the much-anticipated ''Bomber B'' design competition was intended to address.
The so-called "Göring program", had largely been predicated on the defeat of the Soviet Union in 1941. After the ''Wehrmacht''
's failure in front of Moscow, industrial priorities for a possibility in increasing aircraft production were largely abandoned in favor to support the army's increased attrition rates and heavy equipment losses.
Erhard Milch's reforms expanded production rates. In 1941 an average of 981 aircraft (including 311 fighters) were produced each month.
In 1942 this rose to 1,296 aircraft of which 434 were fighters.
Milch's planned production increases were initially opposed. But in June, he was granted materials for 900 fighters per month as the average output. By the Summer of 1942, ''Luftwaffe's'' operational fighter force had recovered from a low of 39% (44% for fighters and 31% for bombers) in Winter of 1941–1942, to 69% by late June (75% for fighters and 66% for bombers) in 1942. However, after increased commitments in the east, overall operational ready rates fluctuated between 59% and 65% for the remaining year.
Throughout 1942 the ''Luftwaffe'' was out produced in fighter aircraft by 250% and in twin-engine aircraft by 196%.
The appointment of Albert Speer
as Minister of Armaments increased production of existing designs and the few new designs that had originated from earlier in the war. However, the intensification of Allied bombing caused the dispersion of production and prevented an efficient acceleration of expansion. German aviation production reached about 36,000 combat aircraft for 1944. However, by the time this was achieved the ''Luftwaffe'' lacked the fuel and trained pilots to make this achievement worthwhile.
The failure to maximize production immediately after the failures in the Soviet Union and North Africa ensured the ''Luftwaffe''s effective defeat in the period of September 1943 – February 1944. Despite the tactical victories won, they failed to achieve a decisive victory. By the time production reached acceptable levels, as so many other factors had for the ''Luftwaffe'' – and for the entire ''Wehrmacht''
's weapons and ordnance technology as a whole – late in the war, it was "too little, too late".
By the late 1930s, airframe
construction methods had progressed to the point where airframes could be built to any required size, founded on the all-metal airframe design technologies pioneered by Hugo Junkers in 1915
and constantly improved upon for over two decades to follow – especially in Germany with aircraft like the Dornier Do X
flying boat and the Junkers G 38
airliner. However, powering such designs was a major challenge. Mid-1930s aero engines were limited to about 600 hp and the first 1000 hp engines were just entering the prototype stage – for the then-new Third Reich's ''Luftwaffe'' air arm, this meant liquid-cooled inverted V12 designs like the Daimler-Benz DB 601
The United States
had already gotten its start towards this goal by 1937 with two large displacement, twin-row 18-cylinder air-cooled radial engine designs of at least 46 litres (2,800 in) displacement each: the Pratt & Whitney ''Double Wasp''
and the Wright ''Duplex-Cyclone''
Nazi Germany's initial need for substantially more powerful aviation engines originated with the private venture Heinkel He 119
high-speed reconnaissance design, and the ostensibly twin-"engined" Messerschmitt Me 261
for maritime reconnaissance duties – to power each of these designs, Daimler-Benz literally "doubled-up" their new, fuel-injected DB 601 engines. This "doubling-up" involved placing two DB 601s side by side on either side of a common vertical-plane space frame with their crankcases' outer sides each having a mount similar to what would be used in a single-engine installation, creating a "mirror-image" centrifugal supercharger for the starboard-side component DB 601, inclining the top ends of their crankcases inwards by roughly 30º to mate with the space-frame central mount, and placing a common propeller gear reduction housing across the front ends of the two engines. Such a twin-crankcase "power system" aviation engine crafted from a pair of DB 601s resulted in the 2,700 PS (1,986 kW) maximum output DB 606 "coupled" engine design for these two aircraft in February 1937, but with each of the DB 606 "coupled" engines weighing in at around 1.5 tonnes apiece.
The early development of the DB 606 "coupled" engines, was paralleled during the late 1930s with Daimler-Benz's simultaneous development of a 1,500 kW class engine design using a single crankcase. The result was the twenty-four cylinder Daimler-Benz DB 604 X-configuration
engine, with four banks of six cylinders each. Possessing essentially the same displacement of 46.5 litres (2830 in3
) as the initial version of the liquid-cooled Junkers Jumo 222
multibank engine, itself a "converse" choice in configuration to the DB 604 in possessing six banks of four inline cylinders apiece instead; coincidentally, both the original Jumo 222 design and the DB 604 each weighed about a third less (at some 1,080 kg/2,379 lb of dry weight) than the DB 606, but the DB 604's protracted development was diverting valuable German aviation powerplant research resources, and with more development of the "twinned-DB 605
" based DB 610 coupled engine (itself initiated in June 1940 with a top output level of 2950 PS (2,909 hp),
and brought together in the same way – with the same all-up weight of 1.5 tonnes – as the DB 606 had been) giving improved results at the time, the Reich Air Ministry stopped all work on the DB 604 in September 1942. Such "coupled powerplants" were the exclusive choice of power for the Heinkel He 177
A ''Greif'' heavy bomber, mistasked from its beginnings in being intended to do moderate-angle "dive bombing" for a 30-meter wingspan class, heavy bomber design – the twin nacelles for a pair of DB 606s or 610s did reduce drag for such a combat "requirement", but the poor design of the He 177A's engine accommodations for these twin-crankcase "power systems" caused repeated outbreaks of engine fires
, causing the "dive bombing" requirement for the He 177A to be cancelled by mid-September 1942.
BMW worked on what was essentially an enlarged version of its highly successful BMW 801
design from the Focke-Wulf Fw 190
A. This led to the 53.7-litre displacement BMW 802
in 1943, an eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radial, which nearly matched the American ''Duplex-Cyclone's'' 54.9-litre figure, but with a weight of some matching that of the 24-cylinder liquid-cooled inline DB 606; and the even larger, 83.5-litre displacement BMW 803
28-cylinder liquid-cooled radial, which from post-war statements from BMW development personnel were each considered to be "secondary priority" development programs at best. This situation with the 802 and 803 designs led to the company's engineering personnel being redirected to place all efforts on improving the 801 to develop it to its full potential. The BMW 801F radial development, through its use of features coming from the 801E subtype, was able to substantially exceed the over-1,500 kW output level. The two closest Allied equivalents to the 801 in configuration and displacement – the American Wright ''Twin Cyclone''
, and the Soviet Shvetsov ASh-82
radials – never had any need to be developed beyond a 1,500 kW output level, as larger-displacement, 18-cylinder radial aviation engines in both nations (the aforementioned American ''Double Wasp'' and ''Duplex-Cyclone'') and the eventual 1945 premiere of the Soviet Shvetsov ASh-73
design, all three of which started their development before 1940, handled needs for even greater power from large radial aviation engines.
The twinned-up Daimler-Benz DB 601
-based, 1,750 kW output DB 606, and its more powerful descendant, the 2,130 kW output DB 605-based DB 610, weighing some 1.5 tonnes apiece, were the only 1,500 kW-plus output level aircraft powerplants to ever be produced by Germany for ''Luftwaffe'' combat aircraft, mostly for the aforementioned Heinkel He 177A heavy bomber. Even the largest-displacement inverted V12 aircraft powerplant built in Germany, the 44.52-litre (2,717 cu. in.) Daimler-Benz DB 603
, which saw widespread use in twin-engined designs, could not exceed the 1,500 kW output level without more development. By March 1940, even the DB 603 was being "twinned-up"
as the 601/606 and 605/610 had been, to become their replacement "power system": this was the strictly experimental, approximately 1.8-tonne weight apiece, twin-crankcase DB 613; capable of over 2,570 kW (3,495 PS) output, but which never left its test phase.
The proposed over-1,500 kW output subtypes of German aviation industry's existing piston aviation engine designs—which adhered to using just a single crankcase that ''were'' able to substantially exceed the aforementioned over-1,500 kW output level—were the DB 603 LM (1,800 kW at take-off, in production), the DB 603 N (2,205 kW at take-off, planned for 1946) and the BMW 801F (1,765 kW (2,400 PS) engines. The pioneering nature of jet engine technology in the 1940s resulted in numerous development problems for both of Germany's major jet engine designs to see mass production, the Jumo 004
and BMW 003
(both of pioneering axial flow
design), with the more powerful Heinkel HeS 011
never leaving the test phase, as only 19 examples of the HeS 011 would ever be built for development. Even with such dismal degrees of success for such advanced aviation powerplant designs, more and more design proposals for new German combat aircraft in the 1943–45 period centered either around the failed Jumo 222 or HeS 011 aviation powerplants for their propulsion.
Personnel and leadership
The bomber arm was given preference and received the "better" pilots. Later, fighter pilot leaders were few in numbers as a result of this. As with the late shift to fighter production, the ''Luftwaffe'' pilot schools did not give the fighter pilot schools preference soon enough. The ''Luftwaffe'', OKW argued, was still an offensive weapon, and its primary focus was on producing bomber pilots. This attitude prevailed until the second half of 1943.
During the Defence of the Reich
campaign in 1943 and 1944, there were not enough commissioned fighter pilots and leaders to meet attrition rates;
as the need arose to replace aircrew (as attrition rates increased), the quality of pilot training deteriorated
rapidly. Later this was made worse by fuel shortages for pilot training
. Overall this meant reduced training on operational types, formation flying, gunnery training, and combat training, and a total lack of instrument training.
At the beginning of the war, commanders were replaced with younger commanders too quickly. These younger commanders had to learn "in the field" rather than entering a front-line post fully qualified. Training of formation leaders was not systematic until 1943, which was far too late, with the ''Luftwaffe'' already stretched. The ''Luftwaffe'' thus lacked a cadre of staff officers to set up new combat units with carefully selected and skilled combat personnel, and pass on experience.
Moreover, ''Luftwaffe'' leadership from the start poached the training command, which undermined its ability to replace losses,
while also planning for "short sharp campaigns",
which did not pertain. Moreover, no plans were laid for night fighter
In fact, when protests were raised, Hans Jeschonnek
, Chief of the General Staff of the ''Luftwaffe'', said, "First we've got to beat Russia, then we can start training!"
''Luftwaffe'' ground forces
The ''Luftwaffe'' was unusual among contemporary independent air forces in possessing an organic paratrooper
force called ''Fallschirmjäger
''. Established in 1938, they were deployed in parachute operations in 1940 and 1941 and participated in the Battle of Fort Eben-Emael
and the Battle for The Hague
in May 1940, and during the Battle of Crete
in May 1941. However, more than 4,000 ''Fallschirmjäger'' were killed during the Crete operation. Afterwards, although continuing to be trained in parachute delivery, paratroopers were only used in a parachute role for smaller-scale operations, such as the rescue of Benito Mussolini in 1943
. ''Fallschirmjäger'' formations were mainly used as light infantry
in all theatres of the war. Their losses were 22,041 KIA, 57,594 WIA and 44,785 MIA (until February 1945).
During 1942 surplus ''Luftwaffe'' personnel was used to form the ''Luftwaffe'' Field Division
s, standard infantry divisions that were used chiefly as rear echelon units
to free up front line troops. From 1943, the ''Luftwaffe'' also had an armoured division called ''Fallschirm-Panzer'' Division 1 Hermann Göring
, which was expanded to a ''Panzerkorps
'' in 1944.
Ground support and combat units from the ''Reichsarbeitsdienst
'' (RAD) and the National Socialist Motor Corps
(NSKK) were also put at the ''Luftwaffe''s disposal during the war. In 1942 56 RAD companies served with the ''Luftwaffe'' in the West as airfield construction troops. In 1943 420 RAD companies were trained as anti-aircraft artillery
(AAA) and posted to existing ''Luftwaffe'' AAA battalions in the homeland. At the end of the war, these units were also fighting allied tanks. Beginning in 1939 with a transport regiment, the NSKK had in 1942 a complete division-sized transportation unit serving the ''Luftwaffe'', the ''NSKK Transportgruppe Luftwaffe'' serving in France and at the Eastern front. The overwhelming number of its 12,000 members were Belgian, Dutch and French collaborators.
War crimes and bombing of non-military targets
In 1943 and 1944, aircraft production was moved to concentration camps in order to alleviate labor shortages and to protect production from Allied air raids. The two largest aircraft factories in Germany were located at Mauthausen-Gusen
concentration camps. Aircraft parts were also manufactured at Flossenbürg
, and Neuengamme
. In 1944 and 1945, as many as 90,000 concentration prisoners worked in the aviation industry, and were about one tenth of the concentration camp population over the winter of 1944–45. Partly in response to the ''Luftwaffe''s demand for more forced laborers to increase fighter production, the concentration camp more than doubled between mid-1943 (224,000) and mid-1944 (524,000). Part of this increase was due to the deportation of the Hungarian Jews; the ''Jägerstab
'' program was used to justify the deportations to the Hungarian government. Of the 437,000 Hungarian Jews deported between May and July 1944, about 320,000 were gassed on arrival at Auschwitz
and the remainder forced to work. Only 50,000 survived.
Almost 1,000 fuselages of the jet fighter Messerschmitt Me 262
were produced at Gusen, a subcamp of Mauthausen and brutal Nazi labor camp,
where the average life expectancy was six months. By 1944, one-third of production at the crucial Regensburg
plant that produced the Bf 109, the backbone of the ''Luftwaffe'' fighter arm, originated in Gusen and Flossenbürg alone.
was produced from shale oil
deposits by prisoners of Mittlebau-Dora as part of Operation Desert
directed by Edmund Geilenberg
in order to make up for the decrease in oil production due to Allied bombing
. For oil production, three subcamps were constructed and 15,000 prisoners forced to work in the plant. More than 3,500 people died. Vaivara concentration camp
was also established for shale oil extraction; about 20,000 prisoners worked there and more than 1,500 died at Vaivara.
''Luftwaffe'' airfields were frequently maintained using forced labor. Thousands of inmates from five subcamps of Stutthof
worked on the airfields. Airfields and bases near several other concentration camps and ghettos
were constructed or maintained by prisoners. On the orders of the ''Luftwaffe'', prisoners from Buchenwald and Herzogenbusch were forced to defuse bombs that had fallen around Düsseldorf and Leeuwarden respectively.
Thousands of ''Luftwaffe'' personnel worked as concentration camp guards
included a munitions factory guarded by ''Luftwaffe'' soldiers; 2,700 ''Luftwaffe'' personnel worked as guards at Buchenwald. Dozens of camps and subcamps were staffed primarily by ''Luftwaffe'' soldiers. According to the ''Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos
'', it was typical for camps devoted to armaments production to be run by the branch of the ''Wehrmacht'' that used the products. In 1944, many ''Luftwaffe'' soldiers were transferred to concentration camps to alleviate personnel shortages.
committed many war crimes in Crete
following the Battle of Crete
, including the Alikianos executions
, Massacre of Kondomari
, and the Razing of Kandanos
. Several ''Luftwaffe'' divisions, including the 1st Parachute Division
2nd Parachute Division
, 4th Parachute Division
, 19th Luftwaffe Field Division
, 20th Luftwaffe Field Division
and the 1st ''Fallschirm-Panzer'' Division
, committed war crimes in Italy, murdering hundreds of civilians.
''Luftwaffe'' troops participated in the murder of Jews imprisoned in ghettos in Eastern Europe. For example, they assisted in the murder of 2,680 Jews at the Nemirov ghetto, participated in a series of massacres at the Opoczno ghetto, and helped to liquidate the Dęblin–Irena Ghetto
by deporting thousands of Jews to the Treblinka extermination camp
. Between 1942 and 1944, two ''Luftwaffe'' security battalions were stationed in the Białowieża Forest
'' operations. Encouraged by Göring, they murdered thousands of Jews and other civilians. ''Luftwaffe'' soldiers frequently executed
Polish civilians at random with baseless accuastions of being "Bolshevik
agents", in order to keep the population in line, or as reprisal for partisan activities. The performance of the troops was measured by the body count
of people murdered. Ten thousand ''Luftwaffe'' troops were stationed on the Eastern Front for such "anti-partisan" operations.
Throughout the war, concentration camp prisoners were forced to serve as human guinea pigs
in testing ''Luftwaffe'' equipment. Some of these experiments were carried out by ''Luftwaffe'' personnel and others were performed by the SS on the orders of the OKL.
In 1941, experiments with the intent of discovering how to prevent and treat hypothermia
were carried out for the ''Luftwaffe'', which had lost aircrew to immersion hypothermia after ditching
s. The experiments were conducted at Dachau and Auschwitz. Sigmund Rascher
, a ''Luftwaffe'' doctor based at Dachau, published the results at the 1942 medical conference entitled "Medical Problems Arising from Sea and Winter".
"Holocaust on Trial: The Experiments."
''NOVA Online''. Retrieved: 23 March 2008.
Of about 400 prisoners forced to participate in cold-water experiments, 80 to 90 were killed.
In early 1942, prisoners at Dachau were used by Rascher in experiments to perfect ejection seat
s at high altitudes. A low-pressure chamber
containing these prisoners was used to simulate conditions at altitudes of up to . It was rumoured that Rascher performed vivisection
s on the brains of victims who survived the initial experiment. Of the 200 subjects, 80 died from the experimentation, and the others were executed.
Eugen Hagen, head doctor of the ''Luftwaffe'', infected inmates of Natzweiler concentration camp with typhus
in order to test the efficacy of proposed vaccines.
Aerial bombing of non-military targets
Bomb-damaged buildings in Belgrade in April 1941|thumb
or specific customary international humanitarian law
with respect to aerial warfare
existed prior to or during World War II. This is also why no ''Luftwaffe'' officers were prosecuted at the post-World War II Allied war crime trials for the aerial raids.
The bombing of Wieluń
was an air raid on the Polish
town of Wieluń
by the ''Luftwaffe'' on 1 September 1939. The ''Luftwaffe'' started bombing Wieluń at 04:40, five minutes before the shelling of Westerplatte
, which has traditionally been considered the beginning of World War II
in Europe. The air raid on the town was one of the first aerial bombings of the war
[ About 1,300 civilians were killed, hundreds were injured, and 90 percent of the town centre was destroyed. The casualty rate was more than twice as high as Guernica.] A 1989 Sender Freies Berlin documentary stated that there were no military or industrial targets in the area, except for a small sugar factory in the outskirts of the town. Furthermore, Trenkner stated that German bombers first destroyed the town's hospital. Two attempts, in 1978 and 1983, to prosecute individuals for the bombing of the Wieluń hospital were dismissed by West German judges when prosecutors stated that the pilots had been unable to make out the nature of the structure due to fog.
Operation Retribution was the April 1941 German bombing of Belgrade, the capital of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The bombing deliberately targeted the killing of civilians as punishment and resulted in 17,000 civilian deaths. It occurred in the first days of the World War II German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia. The operation commenced on 6 April and concluded on 7 or 8 April, resulting in the paralysis of Yugoslav civilian and military command and control, widespread destruction in the centre of the city and many civilian casualties. Following the Yugoslav capitulation, ''Luftwaffe'' engineers conducted a bomb damage assessment in Belgrade. The report stated that of bombs were dropped, with 10 to 14 percent being incendiaries. It listed all the targets of the bombing, which included: the royal palace, the war ministry, military headquarters, the central post office, the telegraph office, passenger and goods railway stations, power stations and barracks. It also mentioned that seven aerial mines were dropped and that areas in the centre and northwest of the city had been destroyed, comprising 20 to 25 percent of its total area. Some aspects of the bombing remain unexplained, particularly the use of the aerial mines. In contrast, Pavlowitch states that almost 50 percent of housing in Belgrade was destroyed. After the invasion, the Germans forced between 3,500 and 4,000 Jews to collect rubble that was caused by the bombing.
Several prominent ''Luftwaffe'' commanders were convicted of war crimes, including General Alexander Löhr and Field Marshal Albert Kesselring.
* ''Der Adler'', Luftwaffe's propaganda magazine
* Emergency Fighter Program
* German Air Fleets in World War II
* List of flags of ''Luftwaffe'' (1933–45)
* List of German aircraft projects, 1939-45
* List of German World War II jet aces
* List of German World War II night fighter aces
* List of Luftwaffe personnel convicted of war crimes
* List of weapons of military aircraft of Germany during World War II
* List of World War II aces from Germany
* List of World War II military aircraft of Germany
* ''Luftwaffe'' serviceable aircraft strengths (1940–45)
* ''Luftwaffe'' Signal Intelligence Organisation
* Military Ranks of the ''Luftwaffe'' (1935–45)
* Trial of Erhardt Milch
* Uniforms of the ''Luftwaffe'' (1935–45)
* Bekkerm Cajus. ''Angriffshohe 4000'' (in German). Munich, Germany: Heyne, 1964.
* Bergstrom, Christer. ''Stalingrad: The Air Battle: November 1942 – February 1943.'' London: Chevron/Ian Allan, 2008. .
* Bergström, Christer, ''Kursk: The Air Battle: July 1943.'' London: Chevron/Ian Allan, 2008. .
* Bergström, Christer and Andrey Mikhailov. Black Cross/Red Star-Vol. 1, Operation Barbarossa 1941. London: Classic Colours, 2003. .
* Bergström, Christer and Martin Pegg. ''Jagdwaffe: The War in Russia: January–October 1942''. London: Classic Colours, 2003. .
* Bowmen, Martin and Theo Boiten. ''Battles with the Luftwaffe: The Air War Over Germany 1942–1945''. London: Collins, 2001. .
* Bungay, Stephen. ''The Most Dangerous Enemy: A History of the Battle of Britain''. London: Aurum Press, 2000..
* Cooper, Matthew. ''The German Air Force 1933–1945: An Anatomy of Failure''. New York: Jane's Publishing Incorporated, 1981. .
* Corum, James. "The Luftwaffe's Army Support Doctrine, 1918–1941". ''The Journal of Military History'', Vol. 59, No. 1, January 1995, pp. 53–76.
* Corum, James. ''The Roots of Blitzkrieg: Hans von Seeckt and German Military Reform. Modern War Studies''. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. 1992. .
* Corum, James F. (Mueller, R. and H.E. Volkmann, eds.). "Staerken und Schwaechen der Luftwaffe". '' Die Wehrmacht: Mythos und Realitaet'' (in German). Munich, Germany: Oldenbourg Verlag, 1999.
* Crawford, Steve. ''Eastern Front, Day by Day''. London: Spellmount Publications, 2006. .
* de Zeng IV, Henry L. and Douglas G. Stankey. ''Bomber Units of the Luftwaffe 1933–1945: A Reference Source: Volume 1''. London: Midland Publishing, 2007. .
* Drabkin, Artem.''The Red Air Force at War: Barbarossa and the Retreat to Moscow: Recollections of Soviet Fighter Pilots on the Eastern Front''. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword Books, 2007..
* Dye, Peter J. "Logistics in the Battle of Britain". ''Air Force Journal of Logistics'', Winter 2000.
* Faber, Harold. ''Luftwaffe: An analysis by Former Luftwaffe Generals''. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1979. .
* Goss, Chris. ''Dornier 17'' (In Focus). Surrey, UK: Red Kite, 2005. .
* Goss, Chris. ''The Bombers' Battle: Personal Accounts of the Battle of Britain by Luftwaffe Bomber Crews July–October 1940''. London: Crécy Publishing, 2000. .
* Hayward, Joel S. ''Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler's Defeat in the East 1942–1943''. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2001. .
* Hall, Steve and Lionel Quinlan.''KG55''. Surrey, UK: Red Kite, 2000. . photo history of a bomber group
* Hess, William N. ''B-17 Flying Fortress: Combat and Development History''. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbook International, 1994.
* Holmes, Tony. ''Spitfire vs Bf 109: Battle of Britain''. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2007. .
* Hooton, E.R. ''Phoenix Triumphant: The Rise and Rise of the Luftwaffe''. London: Brockhampton Press, 1994. .
* Hooton, E.R. ''Eagle in Flames: The Fall of the Luftwaffe''. London: Weidenfeld Military, 1997. .
* Manrho, John and Ron Putz. ''Bodenplatte: The Luftwaffe's Last Hope–The Attack on Allied Airfields, New Year's Day 1945''. Aldershot, UK: Hikoki Publications, 2004. .
* Macksey, K. ''The Memoirs of Field-Marshal Kesselring''. London: Greenhill Books, 2006.
* Neitzel, Söhnke. ''Der Einsatz der Deutschen Luftwaffe über der Nordsee und dem Atlantik: 1939–45'' (in German). Bonn, Germany: Bernard & Graefe, 1995. .
* Pegg, M. ''Transporter Vol. 1: Luftwaffe Transport Units 1937–1943''. London: Classic Publications, 2007. .
* Price, Alfred. ''The Last Year of the Luftwaffe: May 1944 – May 1945''. London: Greenhill Books, 2001. .
* Probert, H. A. ''The Rise and Fall of the German Air Force 1933–1945''. official, detailed British history written in 1947
* Ruffner, Kevin. ''Luftwaffe Field Divisions, 1941–45''. Oxford, UK: Osprey, 1997.
* Scutts, Jerry. ''Mustang Aces of the Eighth Air Force''. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 1994. .
* Scutts, Jerry. ''Bf 109 Aces of North Africa and the Mediterranean''. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 1994. .
* Smith, Peter. ''Luftwaffe at War: Defeat in the West 1943–1945'' (Luftwaffe at War, Vol. 6). London: Greenhill Books, 1998. .
* Smith, Peter. ''Luftwaffe at War: The Sea Eagles: The Luftwaffe's Maritime Operations''. London: Greenhill Books, 2001. .
* Smith, Peter. ''Luftwaffe at War: Stukas Over Steppe, Blitzkrieg in the East 1941–1944'' (Luftwaffe at War Series, Vol. 9). London: Greenhill Books, 1999. .
* Smith, Peter and E.J. Creek. ''Kampfflieger: Bombers of the Luftwaffe: 1942–1943''. London: Classic Publications, 2004. .
* Stenman, K. ''Luftwaffe Over Finland'' (Luftwaffe at War Series, Vol. 18). London: Greenhill Books, 2002. .
* Tooze, Adam. ''The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy''. London: Allen Lane, 2006. .
"US Strategic Bombing Survey".
Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press (US Air Force), 1987. (Reprint of the Summary Reports (Europe and the Pacific) of the strategic bombing surveys conducted near the close of World War II.)
* van Creveld, M., S. Cranby and K. Brower. ''Airpower and Maneuver Warfare Air''. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press (US Air Force), 1994.
* Vasco, John. ''Zerstorer: Luftwaffe Fighter Bombers and Destroyers 1939–1945: Volume 1''. London: Classic Publications, 2005. .
Myths of the Luftwaffe
lecture on YouTube, via the Museum of Flight
The Nazi German Air Force 1935-1945 (Luftwaffe)
Category:Air force history
Category:German military aviation
Category:Disbanded air forces
Category:German words and phrases