LUDVIG HOLBERG, BARON OF HOLBERG (3 December 1684 – 28 January
1754) was a writer, essayist, philosopher, historian and playwright
* 1 Studies and teaching * 2 Writings * 3 Ideology * 4 Influence on science
* 5 Holberg\'s finances
* 5.1 In youth * 5.2 Investments * 5.3 Sorø Academy and Holberg\'s will * 5.4 Examples of Holberg\'s financial management
* 6 Tributes
* 7 Written works
* 7.1 Comedies * 7.2 Poems * 7.3 Novels * 7.4 Essays * 7.5 Historical works
* 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links
STUDIES AND TEACHING
Holberg was the youngest of six brothers. His father, Christian
Nielsen Holberg , died before Ludvig was one year old. He was educated
He began to study theology at the University of
Holberg was well-educated and well-traveled. In his adolescence, he
visited large cities in countries such as The Netherlands and France,
and lived for a short period of time in
Statue of Holberg in
Holberg's travels were a main inspiration in his later writings –
these experiences matured him both artistically and morally. Holberg
let himself be inspired by old
His writings can be divided into three periods, during which he
produced mainly history, 1711–1718; mainly satirical poetry and
stage comedies, 1719–1731; and mainly philosophy, 1731–1750. His
rich output of comedies during the middle period was shaped by his
role as house dramatist at Denmark's first public theater, opened in
In Paris, Holberg met the Danish scientist
Jacob Winsløw , who was
Catholic . Winsløw tried to convert Holberg, without success.
Holberg enjoyed the debate, but it started a rumor in
Holberg criticized school doctrines in Christianity, arguing that "Children must be made into men, before they can become Christians" and "If one learns Theology, before learning to become a man, one will never become a man."
Holberg believed in people's inner divine light of reason, and to him it was important that the first goal of education was to teach students to use their senses and intellect, instead of uselessly memorising school books. This was a new, modern understanding of the question of religion, and it shows he was a man of the Age of Enlightenment . Holberg was interested in intellect because he felt that this is what binds society together. He also wondered why there was so much evil in the world, especially when one could let reason lead the way. One could say that he distanced himself from a religious explanation of evil towards a rational/empirical train of thought , and this is important because of his status as an author; both in his time and ours.
Holberg was open to biblical criticism, and Holberg's religious representation was, for the most part, deism . He was critical of the notion of original sin , instead subscribing to the notion of man's free will.
Holberg's declared intentions with his authorship were to enlighten people to better society. This also fits in with the picture of Holberg as of the age of enlightenment. It is worth noting that Holberg enjoyed larger cities with deep culture – small cities and nature did not interest him.
INFLUENCE ON SCIENCE
Holberg's concept for science was that it should be inductive (through experience built on observations) and practical to use. One example is his Betænkning over den nu regierende Qvæg-Syge (Memorandum on the prevalent cattle disease), (1745) where he reasons that the disease is caused by microorganisms .
Holberg had to live a modest life in his youth and early adulthood. He earned a living as a tutor and as a travel companion for noblemen and tried to work as a private sports coach at the university. He received further support from a grant to travel to other universities in other countries, namely Protestant universities, but this was a condition he did not respect, for he searched out those places where the discussion were the loudest and the experiences were the largest.
During his stay in England, Holberg set his eyes on academic
authoring and on his return, he started writing about history. Later
he wrote also about natural and international law, possibly at the
prompting of an older professor who likened him to natural and
international law authors such as
To make the most possible profit, Holberg published his own works and sold them as papers under a subscription to interested people, either bound or in looseleaf sheets. Holberg also tried, with some success, a publisher in Norway. There, his book about natural and international law was printed in several editions, but did not garner him financial gains.
Holberg lived modestly and was able to invest a large part of the profits from the sale of his books on the side and lend them out or invest them in more active ventures. Several times in his writings he criticized townspeople and nobles who used their resources in unproductive ways to be carried round in chairs, to live in lavish houses and waste money on luxury. He ate reasonably and did not use his money on being driven around. He said that his travelling on foot, and continued walking, was the reason he could keep his malaria , which had plagued him in the south, under control.
When he came to the conclusion he could put his money in better ventures than trading, he started investing in real estate. His first large property purchase, Brorupgaard close to Havrebjerg , happened in stages; first he lent money to the owner at that time, and later took over the farm himself.
Some years later, Holberg also purchased Tersløsegård by Dianalund,
the only one of his properties which is preserved because the others
SORø ACADEMY AND HOLBERG\'S WILL
Holberg was both unmarried and childless, but in the end of his life had a small fortune. He was interested in leaving a legacy and left his estate to Sorø Academy , which was a royal riding academy, with the goal of creating an institution at a university level for young men coming from nobility. Holberg supported the idea of the academy, worked out suggestions to which academic direction it would take and was asked by the king's superintendent to refer some professors for the school. The influential Enlightenment writer Jens Schielderup Sneedorff was appointed professor at Sorø Academy at Holbergs request.
The agreement with the king included that Holberg would be free of
taxes from any income from the farms he owned, because the amount
donated to the school should be larger than the amount he would pay in
taxes. At the same time, he earned the title of
Holberg's casket, a work of Johannes Wiedewelt , can be seen in Sorø Monastery Church.
EXAMPLES OF HOLBERG\'S FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
It can be seen from Holberg's correspondence that he was very conservative with money where he thought it would not be of any use; for example, he was against raising the wage of the pedagogues of Havrebjerg.
Holberg commented several times that he was willing to use money if it were put to good use, for example, he would use money on medication and supplies for his farm hands if they suffered from injury or illness.
When academia had large economic difficulties, because funding was very limited, Holberg agreed to help fund the academy (at Sorø Academy) while he was alive.
The Norwegian University of
There is a town named after Holberg on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. It was founded by Danish immigrants in 1907.
Dan Shore 's opera The Beautiful Bridegroom, for six sopranos, is based on Holberg's last play, Den forvandlede Brudgom.
There is a statue of Holberg and a boulevard named after him
(Holbergsallmenningen) in the centre of
The oldest extant theater poster for one of Holberg's plays, Mester Gert Westphaler, 1722
* Den Politiske Kandestøber , 1722 (Eng. The Political Tinker / The Pewterer turned Politician) * Den vægelsindede , 1722 (Eng. The Waverer / The Weathercock) * Jean de France eller Hans Frandsen, 1722 (Eng. Jean de France) * Jeppe på bjerget eller den forvandlede Bonde, 1722 (Eng. Jeppe of the Hill, or The Transformed Peasant) * Mester Gert Westphaler, 1722 (Eng. Gert Westphaler) * Barselstuen, 1723 (Eng. The Lying-in Room) * Den ellefte Junii, 1723 * Jacob von Tyboe eller den stortalende Soldat, 1723 * Ulysses von Ithacia, 1723 (Eng. Ulysses of Ithaca) * Erasmus Montanus eller Rasmus Berg, 1723 (Eng. Erasmus Montanus or Rasmus Berg) * Don Ranudo de Colibrados, 1723 * Uden Hoved og Hale, 1723 (Eng. Without Head or Tail) * Den Stundesløse, 1723 (Eng. The Fidget) * Hexerie eller Blind Allarm, 1723 (Eng. Witchcraft or False Alert) * Melampe, 1723 * Det lykkelige Skibbrud, 1724 (Eng. The Happy Capsize) * Det Arabiske Pulver, 1724 (Eng. The Arabian Powder) * Mascarade, 1724 (Eng. Masquerade) * Julestuen, 1724 (Eng. The Christmas Party) * De Usynlige, 1724 (Eng. The Invisible / The Masked Ladies) * Diderich Menschenskraek, 1724 (Eng. Diderich the Terrible) * Kildereisen, 1725 (Eng. The journey to the source / The source Journey) * Henrich og Pernille, 1724–1726 (Eng. Henrik and Pernille) * Den pantsatte Bondedreng, 1726 (Eng. The Pawned Farmers helper / The Peasant in Pawn) * Pernilles korte Frøkenstand, 1727 (Eng. Pernille's Brief Experience as a Lady) * Den Danske Comoedies Liigbegængelse, 1727 (Eng. Funeral of Danish Comedy) * Den honette Ambition, 1731 (Eng. The honest/honourable ambition) * Den Forvandlede Brudgom, 1753 (Eng. The Changed Bridegroom) * Plutus eller Proces imellom Fattigdom og Riigdom, publ. 1753 * Husspøgelse eller Abracadabra, publ. 1753 (Eng. The house's Ghost or Abracadabra) * Philosophus udi egen Indbildning, publ. 1754 * Republiqven eller det gemeene Bedste, publ. 1754 * Sganarels Rejse til det philosophiske Land, publ. 1754 (Eng. Sganarel's Journey to the Land of the Philosophers)
* Peder Paars, 1720 * fire Skæmtedigte, 1722 (Eng. Four poems for fun) * Metamorphosis eller Forvandlinger, 1726 (Eng. Metamorphosis or Changes)
Illustration from the luxurious 1789 edition of Niels Klims
underjordiske Rejse. Etching by
Johan Frederik Clemens
* Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum, 1741. (Translated to Danish by Hans Hagerup in 1742 as Niels Klims underjordiske Rejse.) (Eng. Niels Klim\'s Underground Travels or Nicolai Klimii's subterranean Journey or The Journey of Niels Klim to the World Underground Bison Books, 2004. ISBN 0-8032-7348-7 )
* Moralske Tanker, 1744 (Eng. Moral thoughts) * Epistler, 1748–54 * Moralske Fabler, 1751 (Eng. Moral Fables) * Tre latinske levnedsbreve, 1728–1743
* Introduction til de fornemste Europæiske Rigers Historier, 1711 (Eng. Introduction to the Greatest European Empires Histories) * Morals Kierne eller Introduction til Naturens og Folke-Rettens Kundskab, 1716 (Eng. The Core of Morality or Introduction to Natural and International Law) * Dannemarks og Norges Beskrivelse, 1729 (Eng. Denmark and Norways Description) * Dannemarks Riges Historie, 1732–35 (Eng. The Danish Empire/Kingdom's History) * Den berømmelige Norske Handel-Stad Bergens Beskrivelse, 1737 (Eng. The Famous Norwegian Commercial Hub Bergen's Description) * Almindelig Kirke-Historie, 1738 (Eng. General Church History) * Den jødiske Historie fra Verdens Begyndelse, fortsat til disse Tider, 1742 (Eng. The Jewish History From the Beginning of the World, Continued till Present Day/These Times) * Adskillige store Heltes og berømmelige Mænds sammenlignede Historier, 1739–53 (Eng. Several Great Heroes' and Famous Men's Compared Histories) * Adskillige Heltinders og navnkundige Damers sammenlignede Historier, 1745 (Eng. Several Heroines' and Noteworthy Ladies' Compared Histories)
* ^ Billeskov Jansen, F. J. "Ludvig Holberg" (in Danish). Gyldendal
– Den Store Danske. Retrieved 2016-02-16.
* ^ Andersen, Jens Kr. "
* A primary source is Ludvig Holberg's
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