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Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus
Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus
or Gallio was a Roman senator and brother of famous writer Seneca. He is best known for his impartial judgment of a legal case involving Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle
in Corinth.

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Gallio and the book of Acts

2 See also 3 References 4 Resources 5 External links

Life[edit] Gallio (originally named Lucius Annaeus Novatus) was the son of the rhetorician Seneca the Elder and the elder brother of Seneca the Younger, was born in Corduba (Cordova) c. 5 BC. He was adopted by Lucius Junius Gallio, a rhetorician of some repute, from whom he took the name of Junius Gallio. His brother Seneca, who dedicated to him the treatises De Ira
De Ira
and De Vita Beata, speaks of the charm of his disposition, also alluded to by the poet Statius
Statius
(Silvae, ii.7, 32). It is probable that he was banished to Corsica
Corsica
with his brother, and that they returned together to Rome when Agrippina selected Seneca to be tutor to Nero. Towards the close of the reign of Claudius, Gallio was proconsul of the newly constituted senatorial province of Achaea, but seems to have been compelled by ill-health to resign the post within a few years. He was referred to by Claudius
Claudius
as "my friend and proconsul" in the Delphi Inscription
Delphi Inscription
circa 52. Gallio was a suffect consul in the mid-50s[1] and Cassius Dio records that he introduced Nero's performances.[2] Not long after the death of his brother, Seneca, Gallio (according to Tacitus, Ann. 15.73) was attacked in the Senate by Salienus Clemens, who accused him of being a "parricide and public enemy", though the Senate unanimously appealed to Salienus not to profit "from public misfortunes to satisfy a private animosity".[3] He did not survive this reprieve long. When his second brother, Annaeus Mela, opened his veins after being accused of involvement in a conspiracy (Tacitus, Ann. 16.17), Gallio seems to have committed suicide, perhaps under instruction in 65 AD at the age of 64.[4] Gallio and the book of Acts[edit] According to the Book of Acts
Book of Acts
he dismissed the charge brought by the Jews
Jews
against the Apostle Paul. (Acts 18:12-17) His behaviour on this occasion ("but Gallio cared for none of these things", v. 17) showed his disregard for Jewish sensitivities, and also the impartial attitude of Roman officials towards Christianity
Christianity
in its early days.[citation needed] Gallio's tenure can be fairly accurately dated to between 51-52 AD.[5] Therefore, the events of Acts 18
Acts 18
can be dated to this period. This is significant because it is the most accurately known date in the life of Paul.[6] See also[edit]

Junia
Junia
(gens) Delphi Inscription

References[edit]

^ "L. Junius Annaeus Gallio, was suffect consul in the mid-50s AD, perhaps in 54." Robert C. Knapp, Roman Córdoba (University of California Press, 1992) ISBN 9780520096769 p.42. "L. Junius Gallio did hold consulship in 55 or 56". Anthony Barrett, Agrippina: Sex, Power and Politics in the Early Empire (Routledge, 1999) ISBN 9780415208673 p.280. "Gallio reached the consulship, probably in 55". Miriam T. Griffin, Nero: The End of a Dynasty (Routledge, 1987) ISBN 0415214645 p.78. E. Mary Smallwood, "Consules Suffecti of A.D. 55", in Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Bd. 17, H. 3 (Jul., 1968), p. 384. ^ Miriam T. Griffin, Nero: The End of a Dynasty (Routledge, 1987) ISBN 0415214645 p.45, relying on Dio 61.20, 2-3. ^ Vasily Rudich, Political Dissidence Under Nero: The Price of Dissimulation (Routledge, 1993) ISBN 9780415069519 p.117. And Steven Rutledge, Imperial Inquisitions: Prosecutors and Informants from Tiberius
Tiberius
to Domitian (Routledge, 2001) ISBN 9780415237000 p.169. ^ Vasily Rudich, Political Dissidence Under Nero: The Price of Dissimulation (Routledge, 1993) ISBN 9780415069519 p.117. ^ John Drane,"An Introduction to the Bible",Lion, 1990, p.634-635 ^ Pauline Chronology: His Life and Missionary Work, from Catholic Resources by Felix Just, S.J.

Resources[edit]

Ancient sources: Tacitus, Annals, xv.73; Dio Cassius, lx.35, lxii.25. Bruce Winter, "Rehabilitating Gallio and his Judgement in Acts 18:14-15", Tyndale Bulletin 57.2 (2006) 291-308. Sir W. M. Ramsay, St Paul the Traveller, pp. 257–261 Cowan, H. (1899). "Gallio". In James Hastings. A Dictionary of the Bible. II. pp. 105–106.  An interesting reconstruction is given by Anatole France
Anatole France
in Sur la pierre blanche. F. L. Lucas's story “The Hydra (A.D. 53)” in The Woman Clothed with the Sun, and other stories (Cassell, London, 1937; Simon & Schuster, N.Y., 1938) focuses on Gallio at the time of Paul's trial. "A Greek trader, a chance acquaintance of Judas Iscariot, comes to tell the Roman Governor of Corinth
Corinth
'the real truth about this religious quarrel among the Jews', but is dissuaded by the tolerant old man from taking risks for Truth" (Time and Tide, August 14, 1937). Rudyard Kipling's Gallio's Songhttp://www.kiplingsociety.co.uk/poems_gallio.htm

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gallio, Junius Annaeus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 419.  External links[edit]

Gallio at Bible Study Paul's Trial Before Gallio A summary of the historical evidence. The Gallio Inscription Greek text and English translation.

Political offices

Preceded by Quintus Volusius Saturninus, and Publius Cornelius Scipio Suffect consul of the Roman Empire 56 with Titus Cutius Ciltus Succeeded by Publius Sulpicius Scribonius Rufus, and Publius Sulpicius Scribonius Proculus as Suffect consuls

v t e

New Testament people

Jesus
Jesus
Christ

In Christianity Historical Life in the New Testament

Gospels

Individuals

Alphaeus Anna the Prophetess Annas Barabbas Bartimaeus Blind man (Bethsaida) Caiaphas Man born blind ("Celidonius") Cleopas Clopas Devil Penitent thief
Penitent thief
("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
ben Gurion) Salome Samaritan woman Satan Simeon Simon, brother of Jesus Simon of Cyrene Simon the Leper Simon the Pharisee Susanna Syrophoenician woman Theophilus Zacchaeus Zebedee Zechariah

Groups

Angels Jesus's brothers Demons Disciples Evangelists Female disciples of Jesus God-fearers Herodians Magi Myrrhbearers Nameless Pharisees Proselytes Sadducees Samaritans Sanhedrin Scribes Seventy disciples Shepherds Zealots

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

v t e

Lucius Annaeus Seneca

Philosophy

Dialogues

De Beneficiis De Brevitate Vitae De Clementia De Constantia Sapientis De Ira De Otio De Providentia De Tranquillitate Animi De Vita Beata

Letters

Letters to Lucillius

Consolations

Seneca's Consolations
Seneca's Consolations
(ad Helviam Matrem, ad Marciam, ad Polybium)

Natural philosophy

Naturales quaestiones

Literature

Plays

Agamemnon Hercules Furens Hercules Oetaeus (doubtful) Medea Octavia (spurious) Oedipus Phaedra Phoenissae Thyestes Troades

Satire

Apocolocyntosis

Other

Letters to Saint Paul (spurious)

Related

Senecan tragedy Stoicism

Portraits

Socrates and Seneca Double Herm Pseudo-Seneca The Death of Seneca (1773 painting)

Family

Seneca the Elder (father) Gallio (brother) Pompeia Paulina (wife) L

.