Samosata (/ˈluːʃən, ˈluːsiən/; Ancient Greek:
Λουκιανὸς ὁ Σαμοσατεύς, Latin: Lucianus
Samosatensis; about 125 AD – after 180 AD) was a Hellenized Syrian
satirist and rhetorician who is best known for his characteristic
tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed
superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.
Although his native language was probably Syriac, all of his extant
works are written entirely in ancient Greek (mostly in the Atticized
dialect popular during the Second Sophistic).
Lucian was the son of a lower middle class family from the village of
Samosata, the capital of the remote Roman province of Commagene. As a
young man, he was apprenticed to his uncle to become a sculptor, but,
after a failed attempt at sculpting, he ran away to pursue an
education in Ionia. He became a travelling lecturer and visited
universities throughout the Roman Empire. After acquiring fame and
wealth through his teaching,
Lucian finally settled down in
a decade, during which he wrote most of his extant works. In his old
age, he was appointed as a highly-paid government official in Egypt,
after which point he disappears from the historical record.
Lucian's works were wildly popular in antiquity and more than eighty
writings attributed to him have survived to the present day, a
considerably higher quantity than for most other classical writers.
His most famous work is A True Story, a tongue-in-cheek satire against
authors who tell incredible tales, which is regarded by some as the
earliest known work of science fiction.
Lucian invented the genre of
the comic dialogue, a parody of the traditional Platonic dialogue. His
Lover of Lies makes fun of people who believe in the
supernatural and contains the oldest known version of "The Sorcerer's
Lucian wrote numerous satires making fun of traditional
stories about the gods including The Dialogues of the Gods,
Zeus Catechized, and The Parliament of the
Dialogues of the Dead focuses on the Cynic philosophers
Diogenes and Menippus. Philosophies for Sale and The Banquet or
Lapiths make fun of various philosophical schools, and The Fisherman
or the Dead Come to Life is a defense of this mockery.
Lucian often ridicules public figures, such as the Cynic philosopher
Peregrinus Proteus in his letter The
Passing of Peregrinus
Passing of Peregrinus and the
Alexander of Abonoteichus in his treatise Alexander
the False Prophet. Lucian's treatise On the Syrian Goddess satirizes
cultural distinctions between Greeks and Syrians and is the main
source of information about the cult of Atargatis.
Lucian had an
enormous, wide-ranging impact on western literature and works inspired
by his writings include Sir Thomas More's Utopia, William
Shakespeare's Timon of Athens, and Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's
3.1 A True Story
3.2 Satirical dialogues
3.3 Treatises and letters
7 External links
Asia Minor showing locations associated with Lucian
Almost everything that is known about
Lucian comes from his own
Lucian was born in the town of Samosata, the capital
of the Roman province of Commagene, located on the banks of the
Euphrates river on the far eastern outskirts of the Roman
Empire. The population of the town was almost exclusively
Syrian and Lucian's native tongue was probably Syriac. During
the time when
Lucian lived, traditional Greco-Roman religion was in
decline and its role in society was almost exclusively ceremonial.
As a substitute for traditional religion, most people in the
Hellenistic world joined Mystery Cults, such as the Mysteries of Isis,
Mithraism, the cult of Cybele, and the Eleusinian Mysteries.
Superstition had always been common throughout ancient society, but
it was especially prevalent during the second century. Most
educated people of Lucian's time adhered to one of the various
Hellenistic philosophies, of which the major ones were Stoicism,
Platonism, Peripateticism, and Epicureanism. Every major town had
its own university and these universities often employed
professional travelling lecturers, who were frequently paid high
sums of money to lecture about various philosophical teachings. The
most prestigious center of learning was the city of
Athens in Greece,
which had a long intellectual history.
According to Lucian's oration The Dream, which he probably delivered
as an address upon returning to
Samosata at the age of thirty-five or
forty after establishing his reputation as a great orator, Lucian's
parents were lower middle class and his uncles owned a local
statue-making shop. Lucian's parents could not afford to give him a
higher education, so, after he completed his elementary schooling,
Lucian's uncle took him on as an apprentice and began teaching him how
to sculpt. Lucian, however, soon proved to be poor at sculpting and
ruined the statue he had been working on. His uncle beat him,
causing him to run off.
Lucian fell asleep and experienced a dream
in which he was being fought over by the personifications of Statuary
and of Culture. He decided to listen to Culture and thus sought
out an education.
Lucian fled to
Ionia in Asia Minor, which was the center of
rhetorical learning at the time. The most prestigious universities
of rhetoric were in
Ephesus and Smyrna, but it is unlikely that
Lucian could have afforded to pay the tuition at either of these
schools. It is not known how
Lucian obtained his education, but
somehow he managed to acquire an extensive knowledge of rhetoric as
well as classical literature and philosophy.
Lucian mentions in his
dialogue The Fisherman that he had initially attempted to apply his
knowledge of rhetoric and become a lawyer, but that he had become
disillusioned by the deceitfulness of the trade and resolved to become
a philosopher instead.
Lucian travelled across the Empire,
lecturing throughout Greece, Italy, and Gaul. In Gaul,
have held a position as a highly-paid government professor.
In around 160,
Lucian returned to
Ionia as a wealthy celebrity. He
visited Samosata and stayed in the east for several years. He
is recorded as having been in
Antioch in either 162 or 163. In
165, he bought a house in
Athens and invited his parents to come live
with him in the city.
Lucian must have married at some point
during his travels, because in one of his writings he mentions having
a son at this point.
Lucian lived in
Athens for around a decade,
during which time he gave up lecturing and instead devoted his
attention to writing. It was during this decade that Lucian
composed nearly all his most famous works.
exclusively in Ancient Greek, mainly in the Atticized dialect popular
during the Second Sophistic, but On the Syrian Goddess, which is
attributed to Lucian, is written in a highly successful imitation of
Herodotus's Ionic dialect, leading some scholars to believe that
Lucian may not be the real author. For unknown reasons, Lucian
stopped writing around 175 and began travelling and lecturing
again. During the reign of Emperor
Commodus (180 – 192 AD), the
Lucian was appointed to a lucrative government position in
Egypt. After this point, he disappears from the historical
record entirely, and nothing is known about his death.
Bust of Epicurus, an Athenian philosopher whom
Lucian was not a member of any of the major philosophical schools,
but he was strongly influenced by the Cynics. The Dream or the
Cock, Timon the Misanthrope, Charon or Inspectors, and The Downward
Journey or the
Tyrant all display Cynic themes.
particularly indebted to Menippus, a Cynic philosopher and satirist of
the third century BC.
Lucian wrote an admiring biography of the
philosopher Demonax, who was a philosophical eclectic, but whose
ideology most closely resembled Cynicism. Demonax's main
divergence from the Cynics was that he did not disapprove of ordinary
Lucian also greatly admired Epicurus, whom he describes in Alexander
the False Prophet as "truly holy and prophetic". Later, in the
same dialogue, he praises a book written by Epicurus:
What blessings that book creates for its readers and what peace,
tranquillity, and freedom it engenders in them, liberating them as it
does from terrors and apparitions and portents, from vain hopes and
extravagant cravings, developing in them intelligence and truth, and
truly purifying their understanding, not with torches and squills [i.
e. sea onions] and that sort of foolery, but with straight thinking,
truthfulness and frankness.
Lucian was skeptical of oracles, though he was by no means the
only person of his time to voice such skepticism.
belief in the paranormal, regarding it as superstition. In his
dialogue The Lover of Lies, he voices his own opinions through his
character Tychiades, who declares that he does not believe in
daemones, phantoms, or ghosts because he has never seen such
things. Tychiades, however, still professes belief in the gods'
Dinomachus: 'In other words, you do not believe in the existence of
the Gods, since you maintain that cures cannot be wrought by the use
of holy names?'
Tychiades: 'Nay, say not so, my dear Dinomachus,' I answered; 'the
Gods may exist, and these things may yet be lies. I respect the Gods:
I see the cures performed by them, I see their beneficence at work in
restoring the sick through the medium of the medical faculty and their
drugs. Asclepius, and his sons after him, compounded soothing
medicines and healed the sick, – without the
Lucian had a generally negative opinion of
Herodotus and his
historiography, which he viewed as faulty. The maxim that
"Eyes are better witnesses than ears" is echoed repeatedly throughout
several of Lucian's dialogues.
Main article: List of works by Lucian
Over eighty works attributed to
Lucian have survived. These
works belong to a diverse variety of styles and genres, and
include comic dialogues, rhetorical essays, and prose fiction.
Lucian's writings were targeted towards a highly-educated, upper-class
Greek audience and make almost constant allusions to Greek
cultural history, leading the classical scholar R. Bracht Branham
to label Lucian's highly sophisticated style "the comedy of
tradition". By the time Lucian's writings were rediscovered during
the Renaissance, most of the works of literature referenced in them
had been lost or forgotten, making it difficult for readers of
later periods to understand his works.
A True Story
Illustration from 1894 by Aubrey Vincent Beardsley depicting a battle
scene from Book One of Lucian's novel A True Story
Main article: A True Story
Lucian was one of the earliest novelists in Western civilization. In A
True Story (Ἀληθῶν Διηγημάτων), a fictional
narrative work written in prose, he parodies some of the fantastic
tales told by
Homer in the
Odyssey and also the not-so-fantastic tales
from the historian Thucydides. He anticipated "modern" science
fiction themes including voyages to the moon and Venus,
extraterrestrial life, interplanetary warfare, and artificial life,
nearly two millennia before
Jules Verne and H. G. Wells. The novel is
often regarded as the earliest known work of science
The novel begins with an explanation that the story is not at all
"true" and that everything in it is, in fact, a complete and utter
lie. The narrative begins with
Lucian and his fellow travelers
journeying out past the Pillars of Heracles. Blown off course
by a storm, they come to an island with a river of wine filled with
fish and bears, a marker indicating that
traveled to this point, and trees that look like women.
Shortly after leaving the island, they are caught up by a whirlwind
and taken to the Moon, where they find themselves embroiled in
a full-scale war between the king of the
Moon and the king of the Sun
over colonization of the Morning Star. Both armies include
bizarre hybrid lifeforms. The armies of the Sun win the war by
clouding over the
Moon and blocking out the Sun's light. Both
parties then come to a peace agreement.
Lucian then describes life
Moon and how it is different from life on Earth.
After returning to Earth, the adventurers are swallowed by a
200-mile-long whale, in whose belly they discover a variety of
fish people, whom they wage war against and triumph over. They
kill the whale by starting a bonfire and escape by propping its mouth
open. Next, they encounter a sea of milk, an island of cheese,
and the Island of the Blessed. There,
Lucian meets the heroes
of the Trojan War, other mythical men and animals, as well as Homer
and Pythagoras. They find sinners being punished, the worst of
them being the ones who had written books with lies and fantasies,
Herodotus and Ctesias. After leaving the Island of
the Blessed, they deliver a letter to Calypso given to them by
Odysseus explaining that he wishes he had stayed with her so he could
have lived eternally. They then discover a chasm in the Ocean,
but eventually sail around it, discover a far-off continent and decide
to explore it. The book ends abruptly with
Lucian stating that
their future adventures will be described in the upcoming
sequels, a promise which a disappointed scholiast described as
"the biggest lie of all".
In his Double Indictment,
Lucian declares that his proudest literary
achievement is the invention of the "satirical dialogue", which
was modeled on the earlier Platonic dialogue, but was comedic in tone
rather than philosophical. The prolaliai to his Dialogues of the
Courtesans suggests that
Lucian acted out his dialogues himself as
part of a comedic routine. Lucian's Dialogues of the Dead
(Νεκρικοὶ Διάλογοι) is a satirical work centering
around the Cynic philosophers
Diogenes of Sinope and his pupil
Menippus, who lived modestly while they were alive and are now living
comfortably in the abysmal conditions of the Underworld, while those
who had lived lives of luxury are in torment when faced by the same
conditions. The dialogue draws on earlier literary precursors,
including the nekyia in Book XI of Homer's Odyssey, but also adds
new elements not found in them. Homer's nekyia describes
transgressors against the gods being punished for their sins, but
Lucian embellished this idea by having cruel and greedy persons also
Hermes, the messenger of the gods, is a major recurring character
throughout many of Lucian's dialogues.
In his dialogue The
Lover of Lies (Φιλοψευδὴς), Lucian
satirizes belief in the supernatural and paranormal through a
framing story in which the main narrator, a skeptic named Tychiades,
goes to visit an elderly friend named Eukrates. At Eukrates's
house, he encounters a large group of guests who have recently
gathered together due to Eukrates suddenly falling ill. The other
guests offer Eukrates a variety of folk remedies to help him
recover. When Tychiades objects that such remedies do not work,
the others all laugh at him and try to persuade him to believe in
the supernatural by telling him stories, which grow increasingly
ridiculous as the conversation progresses. One of the last stories
they tell is "The Sorcerer's Apprentice", which the German playwright
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe later adapted into a famous ballad.
Lucian frequently made fun of philosophers and no school was
spared from his mockery. In the dialogue Philosophies for Sale,
Lucian creates an imaginary slave market in which
Zeus puts famous
philosophers up for sale, including Pythagoras, Diogenes, Heraclitus,
Socrates, Chrysippus, and Pyrrho, each of whom attempts to
persuade the customers to buy his philosophy. In The Banquet, or
Lucian points out the hypocrisies of representatives from all
the major philosophical schools. In The Fisherman, or the Dead
Come to Life,
Lucian defends his other dialogues by comparing the
venerable philosophers of ancient times with their unworthy
Lucian was often particularly critical of
people who pretended to be philosophers when they really were not
and his dialogue The Runaways portrays an imposter Cynic as the
antithesis of true philosophy. His Symposium is a parody of
Plato's Symposium in which, instead of discussing the nature of love,
the philosophers get drunk, tell smutty tales, argue relentlessly over
whose school is the best, and eventually break out into a full-scale
brawl. In Icaromenippus, the Cynic philosopher
Menippus fashions a
set of wings for himself in imitation of the mythical
Icarus and flies
to Heaven, where he receives a guided tour from
The dialogue ends with
Zeus announcing his decision to destroy all
philosophers, since all they do is bicker, though he agrees to grant
them a temporary reprieve until spring. Nektyomanteia is a
dialogue written in parallel to Icaromenippus in which, rather than
flying to Heaven,
Menippus descends to the underworld to consult the
Lucian wrote numerous dialogues making fun of traditional Greek
stories about the gods. His
Dialogues of the Gods
Dialogues of the Gods (Θεῶν
Διάλογοι) consists of numerous short vignettes parodying a
variety of the scenes from Greek mythology. The dialogues portray
the gods as comically weak and prone to all the foibles of human
Zeus in particular is shown to be a "feckless ruler"
and a serial adulterer.
Lucian also wrote several other works in a
similar vein, including
Zeus Rants, and The
Parliament of the Gods. Throughout all his dialogues, Lucian
displays a particular fascination with Hermes, the messenger of the
gods, who frequently appears as a major character in the role of
an intermediary who travels between worlds. The Dialogues of the
Courtesans is a collection of short dialogues involving various
courtesans. This collection is unique as one of the only
surviving works of Greek literature to mention female
homosexuality. It is also unusual for mixing Lucian's characters
from other dialogues with stock characters from New Comedy; over
half of the men mentioned in
Dialogues of the Courtesans are also
mentioned in Lucian's other dialogues, but almost all of the
courtesans themselves are characters borrowed from the plays of
Menander and other comedic playwrights.
Treatises and letters
Statue of the snake-god Glycon, invented by the oraclemonger Alexander
of Abonoteichus, whom
Lucian satirizes in his treatise Alexander the
Nabataean carving from c. 100 AD depicting the goddess Atargatis, the
subject of Lucian's treatise On the Syrian Goddess
Alexander the False Prophet describes the rise of
Alexander of Abonoteichus, a charlatan who claimed to be the prophet
of the serpent-god Glycon. Though the account is satirical in
tone, it seems to be a largely accurate report of the Glycon
cult and many of Lucian's statements about the cult have been
confirmed through archaeological evidence, including coins, statues,
Lucian describes his own meeting with Alexander
in which he posed as a friendly philosopher, but, when Alexander
invited him to kiss his hand,
Lucian bit it instead. Lucian
reports that, aside from himself, the only others who dared challenge
Alexander's reputation as a true prophet were the Epicureans (whom he
lauds as heroes) and the Christians.
Title page of a 1619 Latin translation of Lucian's complete works
Lucian's treatise On the Syrian Goddess is a detailed description of
the cult of the Syrian goddess
Atargatis at Hierapolis. It is
written in a faux-Ionic dialect and imitates the ethnographic
methodology of the Greek historian Herodotus, which Lucian
elsewhere derides as faulty. In the treatise,
Lucian satirizes the
arbitrary cultural distinctions between "Greeks" and "Assyrians" by
emphasizing the manner in which Syrians have adopted Greek customs and
thereby effectively become "Greeks" themselves. The anonymous
narrator of the treatise initially seems to be a Greek Sophist,
but, as the treatise progresses, he reveals himself to actually be a
native Syrian. Scholars dispute whether the treatise is an
accurate description of Syrian cultural practices because very little
is known about Hierapolis other than what is recorded in On the Syrian
Goddess itself. Coins minted in the late fourth century BC,
municipal decrees from Seleucid rulers, and a late Hellenistic relief
carving have confirmed Lucian's statement that the city's original
name was "Manbog" and that the city was closely associated with the
Atargatis and Hadad. A Jewish rabbi later listed the
temple at Hierapolis as one of the five most important pagan temples
in the Near East.
Macrobii ("Long-Livers") is an essay about famous philosophers who
lived for many years. It describes how long each of them lived,
and gives an account of each of their deaths. In his treatises
Rhetoric and On Salaried Posts,
Lucian criticizes the
teachings of master rhetoricians. His treatise On Dancing is a
major source of information about Greco-Roman dance. In it, he
describes dance as an act of mimesis ("imitation") and
rationalizes the myth of
Proteus as being nothing more than an account
of a highly skilled Egyptian dancer. He also wrote about visual
arts in Portraits and On Behalf of Portraits. Lucian's biography of
Demonax eulogizes him as a great philosopher and
portrays him as a hero of parrhesia ("boldness of speech"). In his
treatise, How to Write History,
Lucian criticizes the historical
methodology used by writers such as
Herodotus and Ctesias, who
wrote vivid and self-indulgent descriptions of events they had never
actually seen. Instead,
Lucian argues that the historian never
embellish his stories and should place his commitment to accuracy
above his desire to entertain his audience. He also argues the
historian should remain absolutely impartial and tell the events as
they really happened, even if they are likely to cause
Thucydides as a specific example of a
historian who models these virtues.
In his satirical letter The
Passing of Peregrinus
Passing of Peregrinus (Περὶ τῆς
Lucian describes the death of
the controversial Cynic philosopher Peregrinus Proteus, who had
publicly immolated himself on a pyre at the Olympic Games of 165
AD. The letter is historically significant because it preserves
one of the earliest pagan evaluations of Christianity. In the
Lucian ridicules Christians for their perceived credulity and
ignorance, but he also affords them some level of respect on
account of their morality.
Lucian also refers to Jesus, describing
him as a "crucified Sophist" who had lived in Palestine just over a
century prior and had taught that his followers would attain
immortality. In the letter Against the Ignorant Book Collector,
Lucian ridicules the common practice whereby Near Easterners collect
massive libraries of Greek texts for the sake of appearing "cultured",
but without actually reading any of them.
Some of the writings attributed to Lucian, such as the Amores and the
Ass, are usually not considered genuine works of
Lucian and are
normally cited under the name of "Pseudo-Lucian". The Ass
(Λούκιος ἢ ῎Oνος) is probably a summarized version of a
story by Lucian, and contains largely the same basic plot elements as
The Golden Ass
The Golden Ass (or Metamorphoses) of Apuleius, but with fewer inset
tales and a different ending.
The Calumny of Apelles by Sandro Botticelli, based off a description
of a painting by the Greek painter
Apelles of Kos
Apelles of Kos found in Lucian's
ekphrasis On Calumny
Lucian's writings were forgotten during the Middle Ages, but they were
rediscovered during the Renaissance. They almost immediately
became popular with the
Renaissance humanists and, by 1400,
there were just as many Latin translations of the works of
there were for the writings of
Plato and Plutarch. Lucian's
Dialogues of the Dead were especially popular and were widely used for
moral instruction. As a result of this popularity, Lucian's
writings had a profound influence on writers from the
the Early Modern period.
Lucian's True Story inspired both Sir Thomas More's Utopia and
Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels. Sandro Botticelli's
paintings The Calumny of Apelles and
Pallas and the Centaur
Pallas and the Centaur are both
based on descriptions of paintings found in Lucian's works.
Lucian's prose narrative Timon the Misanthrope was the inspiration for
William Shakespeare's tragedy Timon of Athens and the scene
Hamlet with the gravediggers echoes several scenes from Dialogues
of the Dead. Christopher Marlowe's famous verse "Was this the
face that launched a thousand ships/And burnt the topless towers of
Ilium?" is a paraphrase of a quote from Lucian.
Samosata from Nordkirchen, Germany
Henry Fielding, the author of The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling,
owned a complete set of Lucian's writings in nine volumes. He
Lucian in his Journey from This World and into
the Next and, in The Life and Death of Jonathan Wild, the Great,
Lucian as "almost... like the true father of humour"
and lists him alongside
Jonathan Swift as a true master
of satire. In The Convent Garden Journal, Fielding directly
states in regard to
Lucian that he had modeled his style "upon that
The German satirist
Christoph Martin Wieland
Christoph Martin Wieland was the first person to
translate the complete works of
Lucian into German and he spent
his entire career adapting the ideas behind Lucian's writings for a
contemporary German audience. Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux,
François Fénelon, Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, and
wrote adaptations of Lucian's Dialogues of the Dead. Denis
Diderot drew inspiration from the writings of
Lucian in his Socrates
Gone Mad; or, the Dialogues of
Diogenes of Sinope (1770) and his
Conversations in Elysium (1780).
Lucian appears as one of two
speakers in Diderot's dialogue
Peregrinus Proteus (1791), which was
based on The Passing of Peregrinus. Lucian's True Story inspired
Cyrano de Bergerac, whose writings later served as inspiration for
David Hume read Lucian's Kataplous or Downward Journey when he was on
his deathbed and the same work also served as the source for Friedrich
Nietzsche's concept of the
Übermensch or Overman. Nietzsche's
declaration of a "new and super-human way of laughing – at the
expense of everything serious!" echoes the exact wording of Tiresias's
final advice to the eponymous hero of Lucian's dialogue Menippus:
"Laugh a great deal and take nothing seriously."
Fowler, H. W. & F. G. (trans.), The Works of
Lucian of Samosata.
Complete with exceptions specified in the preface (Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1905). Four volumes.
Neil Hopkinson (ed.), Lucian: A Selection. Cambridge Greek and Latin
Texts (Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Jane L. Lightfoot, Lucian: On the Syrian Goddess. (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2003).
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^ Casson 1962, pp. 27–33.
^ Casson 1962, p. 34.
^ Casson 1962, pp. 35–37.
^ Georgiadou & Larmour 1998, pp. 156–178.
^ Casson 1962, pp. 35–45.
^ a b c d Georgiadou & Larmour 1998, pp. 178–232.
^ Casson 1962, p. 46.
^ Casson 1962, pp. 45–49.
^ Casson 1962, pp. 49–54.
^ Casson 1962, p. 54.
^ Georgiadou & Larmour 1998, pp. 232–233.
^ Casson 1962, p. 57.
^ a b Marsh 1998, p. 42.
^ Gilhuly 2006, p. 275.
^ Macleod, M. D. (1961). Dialogues of the Dead. Dialogues of the
Sea-Gods. Dialogues of the Gods. Dialogues of the Courtesans.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Loeb Classical Library; Harvard University
Press. ISBN 978-0-674-99475-1.
^ Marsh 1998, pp. 43–44.
^ a b Marsh 1998, p. 44.
^ a b c Marsh 1998, p. 88.
^ Ogden 2007, pp. 1–3.
^ a b c d e Ogden 2007, pp. 3–13.
^ Ogden 2007, p. 1.
^ Luck 2001, p. 141.
^ a b Casson 1962, pp. 314–333.
^ Anderson 1976, pp. 146-148.
^ Marsh 1998, pp. 77–79.
^ Marsh 1998, p. 79.
^ Marsh 1998, pp. 79–80.
^ Anderson 1976, pp. 139-140.
^ a b Marsh 1998, pp. 76–77.
^ Marsh 1998, p. 76.
^ Marsh 1998, p. 77.
^ Gilhuly 2006, pp. 274–294.
^ Casson 1962, pp. 301–311.
^ Gilhuly 2006, pp. 274–275.
^ a b c Gilhuly 2006, p. 277.
^ a b c d e f Gordon 1996, p. 114.
^ Andrade 2013, pp. 289–292.
^ Andrade 2013, p. 292.
^ Andrade 2013, pp. 292–293.
^ Andrade 2013, p. 289.
^ a b Kechagia 2016, pp. 183–184.
^ a b Schlapbach 2018, pp. 82–84.
^ Schlapbach 2018, p. 82.
^ a b Kempshall 2011, pp. 489–491.
^ a b c Kempshall 2011, p. 491.
^ Van Voorst 2000, pp. 58–59.
^ a b c Van Voorst 2000, p. 59.
^ Andrade 2013, pp. 191–192.
^ Wallace-Hadril 1983, p. 79.
^ *Jope, James. "Interpretation and authenticity of the Lucianic
Erotes" (PDF). muse.jhu.edu. Texas Tech University Press. Retrieved 1
^ S. J. Harrison (2004) . Apuleius: A Latin
paperback ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 9–10.
^ a b c Grafton, Most & Settis 2010, p. 544.
^ a b c d Marsh 1998, pp. 2–3.
^ Grafton, Most & Settis 2010, pp. 862–865.
^ a b Casson 1962, pp. xvii–xviii.
^ a b c d Casson 1962, p. xvii.
^ Grafton, Most & Settis 2010, p. 510.
^ Armstrong, A. Macc. "Timon of
Athens – A Legendary Figure?",
Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser., Vol. 34, No. 1 (April 1987),
^ Casson 1962, p. xviii.
^ a b c d e Grafton, Most & Settis 2010, p. 863.
^ a b c d e f g Grafton, Most & Settis 2010, p. 864.
^ For discussion, see Babich, Babette: "Nietzsche’s Zarathustra and
Parodic Style: On Lucian’s Hyperanthropos and Nietzsche’s
Übermensch". 58, 4 (November 2011 [March 2013]): 58–74.
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