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Lublin
Lublin
([ˈlublʲin] ( listen); English: /ˈluːblɪn/; Latin: Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland
Poland
and the second largest city of Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship
Lublin Voivodeship
(province) with a population of 349,103 (March 2011). Lublin
Lublin
is the largest Polish city east of the Vistula
Vistula
River and is approximately 170 kilometres (106 miles) to the southeast of Warsaw by road. One of the events that greatly contributed to the city's development was the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo
Union of Krewo
in 1385. Lublin
Lublin
thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius
Vilnius
and Kraków; the inhabitants had the privilege of free trade in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lublin
Lublin
Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin
Lublin
witnessed the early stages of Reformation
Reformation
in the 16th century. A Calvinist congregation was founded and groups of radical Arians
Arians
appeared in the city, making it an important global centre of Arianism. At the turn of the centuries, Lublin
Lublin
was recognized for hosting a number of outstanding poets, writers and historians of the epoch.[2] Until the partitions at the end of the 18th century, Lublin
Lublin
was a royal city of the Crown Kingdom of Poland. Its delegates and nobles had the right to participate in the Royal Election. In 1578 Lublin
Lublin
was chosen as the seat of the Crown Tribunal, the highest appeal court in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and for centuries the city has been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning, with Kraków, Warsaw, Poznań
Poznań
and Lwów. Although Lublin
Lublin
was not spared from severe destruction during World War II, its picturesque and historical Old Town has been preserved. The district is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments (Pomnik historii), as designated May 16, 2007, and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland.[3] The city is viewed as an attractive location for foreign investment and the analytical Financial Times Group
Financial Times Group
has found Lublin
Lublin
to be one of the best cities for business in Poland.[4] The Foreign direct investment ranking (FDI) placed Lublin
Lublin
second among larger Polish cities in the cost-effectiveness category. Lublin
Lublin
is noted for its green spaces and a high standard of living.[5]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Jagiellonian Poland 1.2 World War II

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Population 4 Economy and infrastructure

4.1 Media 4.2 Transport

4.2.1 Roads

5 Culture and tourism

5.1 The arts

5.1.1 Museum 5.1.2 Cinema 5.1.3 Theatres 5.1.4 Galleries

5.2 Old Town

5.2.1 Pubs and restaurants

5.3 City of festivals 5.4 European Capital of Culture 5.5 Sports

6 Education 7 Politics 8 International relations

8.1 Twin towns — sister cities

9 Gallery 10 Notable residents 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Lublin Archaeological finds indicate a long presence of cultures in the area. A complex of settlements started to develop on the future site of Lublin
Lublin
and in its environs in the 6th-7th centuries. Remains of settlements dating back to the 6th century were discovered in the center of today's Lublin
Lublin
on Czwartek ("Thursday") Hill. The period of the early Middle Ages was marked by intensification of habitation, particularly in the areas along river valleys. The settlements were centered around the stronghold on Old Town Hill, which was likely one of the main centers of Lendians
Lendians
tribe. When the tribal stronghold was destroyed in the 10th century, the center shifted to the northeast, to a new stronghold above Czechówka valley and, after the mid-12th century, to Castle Hill. At least two churches are presumed to have existed in Lublin
Lublin
in the early medieval period. One of them was most probably erected on Czwartek Hill during the rule of Casimir the Restorer
Casimir the Restorer
in the 11th century.[6] The castle became the seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224 but was quite possibly present from the start of the 12th or even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin
Lublin
dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier.[6] The location of Lublin
Lublin
at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it military significance. During the first half of the 13th century, Lublin
Lublin
was a target of attacks by Mongols, Ruthenians
Ruthenians
and Lithuanians, which resulted in its destruction.[6] It was also ruled by Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between 1289 and 1302.[6] Lublin
Lublin
was founded as a town by Władysław I the Elbow-high
Władysław I the Elbow-high
or between 1258 and 1279 during the rule of prince Bolesław V the Chaste.[6] Casimir III the Great, appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls.[7] From 1326, if not earlier, the stronghold on Castle Hill included a chapel in honor of the Holy Trinity. A stone church dated to the years 1335-1370 exists to this day.[6] Jagiellonian Poland[edit]

Neogothic
Neogothic
façade of Lublin
Lublin
Castle

Castle courtyard with a fortified keep

In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king Władysław II Jagiełło. With the coming of peace between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania, it developed into a trade centre, handling a large portion of commerce between the countries. In 1474 the area around Lublin
Lublin
was carved out of Sandomierz Voivodeship
Sandomierz Voivodeship
and combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship, the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland. During the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly. The largest trade fairs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
were held in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments (sejm) were held in Lublin
Lublin
several times. On 26 June 1569, one of the most important proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united Poland
Poland
and Lithuania. The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas. Lublin
Lublin
as one of the most influential cities[6] of the state enjoyed voting rights during the royal elections in Poland. Some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic
Sebastian Klonowic
and Jan Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578 the Crown Tribunal, the highest court of the Lesser Poland
Poland
region, was established in Lublin.[6] Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation movements devolved in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was established in Lublin
Lublin
around this time.[6] Jews established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue, cemetery and education centre (kahal) and built the Grodzka Gate (known as the Jewish Gate) in the historic district. Jews were a vital part of the city's life until the Holocaust, during which they were relocated to the infamous Lublin Ghetto
Lublin Ghetto
and ultimately murdered.[6]

Union of Lublin, painting by Jan Matejko
Jan Matejko
at the Lublin
Lublin
Museum

Great Fire of Lublin
Lublin
(1719)

The yeshiva became a centre of learning of Talmud
Talmud
and Kabbalah, leading the city to be called "the Jewish Oxford."[6] In 1567, the rosh yeshiva (headmaster) received the title of rector from the king along with rights and privileges equal to those of the heads of Polish universities. In the 17th century, the town declined due to a Russo-Ukrainian invasion in 1655 and a Swedish invasion during the Northern Wars. After the third of the Partitions of Poland
Poland
in 1795 Lublin
Lublin
was located in the Austrian empire, then since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and then since 1815 in the Congress Poland
Poland
under Russian rule. At the beginning of the 19th century new squares, streets and public buildings were built. In 1877 a railway connection to Warsaw
Warsaw
and Kovel and Lublin Station
Lublin Station
were constructed, spurring industrial development. Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897 (including 24,000 Jews).[8] Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1918, the first government of independent Poland
Poland
operated in Lublin for a short time. In the interwar years, the city continued to modernise and its population grew; important industrial enterprises were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the Plage i Laśkiewicz
Plage i Laśkiewicz
works, later nationalised as the LWS factory. The Catholic University of Lublin
Catholic University of Lublin
was founded in 1918. World War II[edit] After the 1939 German and Soviet invasion of Poland
Poland
the city found itself in the General Government
General Government
territory controlled by Nazi Germany. The population became a target of severe Nazi repressions focusing on Polish Jews. An attempt to "Germanise" the city led to an influx of the ethnic Volksdeutsche
Volksdeutsche
increasing the number of German minority from 10–15% in 1939 to 20–25%. Near Lublin, the so-called 'reservation' for the Jews was built based on the idea of racial segregation known as the "Nisko or Lublin
Lublin
Plan".[9]

Cracow
Cracow
Gate in the Old Town is among the most recognisable landmarks of the city.

The Jewish population was forced into the newly set Lublin Ghetto
Lublin Ghetto
near Podzamcze. The city served as headquarters for Operation Reinhardt, the main German effort to exterminate all Jews in occupied Poland. The majority of the ghetto inmates, about 26,000 people, were deported to the Bełżec extermination camp
Bełżec extermination camp
between 17 March and 11 April 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around the Majdanek concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Almost all of Lublin's Jews were murdered during the Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland. After the war, some survivors emerged from hiding with the Christian rescuers or returned from the Soviet Union, and reestablished a small Jewish community in the city, but their numbers were insignificant. Most left Poland
Poland
for Israel
Israel
and the West.[10] On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
and became the temporary headquarters of the Soviet-controlled communist Polish Committee of National Liberation established by Joseph Stalin, which was to serve as basis for a puppet government. The capital of new Poland
Poland
was moved to Warsaw
Warsaw
in January 1945 after the Soviet westward offensive. In the postwar years, Lublin
Lublin
continued to grow, tripling its population and greatly expanding its area. A considerable scientific and research base was established around the newly founded Maria Curie-Sklodowska University. A large Automobile Factory FSC was built in the city. Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Lublin
Lublin
has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) with cold, damp winters and warm summers.

Climate data for Lublin
Lublin
(1936−2011)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 18.0 (64.4) 16.2 (61.2) 22.0 (71.6) 27.2 (81) 35.7 (96.3) 33.9 (93) 35.0 (95) 37.0 (98.6) 33.2 (91.8) 25.0 (77) 18.9 (66) 15.0 (59) 37.0 (98.6)

Average high °C (°F) −0.7 (30.7) 0.4 (32.7) 5.7 (42.3) 12.7 (54.9) 18.4 (65.1) 21.4 (70.5) 23.3 (73.9) 23.0 (73.4) 18.1 (64.6) 12.3 (54.1) 5.4 (41.7) 0.8 (33.4) 11.8 (53.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) −3.1 (26.4) −2.5 (27.5) 1.6 (34.9) 7.8 (46) 13.1 (55.6) 16.2 (61.2) 17.9 (64.2) 17.4 (63.3) 12.9 (55.2) 7.9 (46.2) 2.6 (36.7) −1.4 (29.5) 7.6 (45.7)

Average low °C (°F) −5.9 (21.4) −5.7 (21.7) −2 (28) 3.0 (37.4) 7.7 (45.9) 10.7 (51.3) 12.5 (54.5) 12.0 (53.6) 8.2 (46.8) 4.0 (39.2) 0.0 (32) −3.9 (25) 3.5 (38.3)

Record low °C (°F) −32.2 (−26) −31.1 (−24) −30.9 (−23.6) −7.2 (19) −4.1 (24.6) 0.0 (32) 2.0 (35.6) 0.0 (32) −4 (25) −7.6 (18.3) −17.9 (−0.2) −23.9 (−11) −32.2 (−26)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 22.7 (0.894) 25.9 (1.02) 27.3 (1.075) 42.4 (1.669) 51.1 (2.012) 66.6 (2.622) 71.5 (2.815) 64.0 (2.52) 55.5 (2.185) 40.6 (1.598) 36.7 (1.445) 33.6 (1.323) 537.9 (21.177)

Average precipitation days 23.3 19.5 18.4 13.1 13.0 11.8 12.3 9.3 11.2 13.3 18.1 20.8 184.1

Average relative humidity (%) 88.7 85.9 79.8 68.9 71.9 73.7 75.1 74.4 79.8 84.0 89.4 90.2 80.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 53 73 115 174 226 237 238 248 165 124 48 37 1,738

Source: Climatebase.ru[11]

Population[edit] The diagram shows population growth over the past 400 years. In 1999, the population of Lublin
Lublin
was estimated to 359,154, the highest in the city's history.

Maria Curie-Skłodowska University

Economy and infrastructure[edit] The Lublin
Lublin
region is a part of eastern Poland, which has benefited less from the economic transformation after 1989 than regions of Poland
Poland
located closer to Western Europe. Despite the fact that Lublin is one of the closest neighbour cities for Warsaw, the investition inflow in services from the Polish capital has secured a steady growth due to relatively fast connection, while external investitions are progressing, enabling nearby satellite municipality Świdnik
Świdnik
for large-scale industrial investitions, seamlessly testing the capacity of the agglomeration. The close cooperation with Warsaw
Warsaw
is significant to the regional economy, bringing quality cultural events inshore, yet the proximity of Warsaw
Warsaw
is an underestimated asset.

Polish MPs in the PZL Świdnik
Świdnik
helicopter factory

Lublin
Lublin
is a regional center of IT companies. Asseco Business Solutions S.A., eLeader Sp z o.o., CompuGroup Medical Polska Sp. z o.o., Abak-Soft Sp. z o.o. and others have their headquarters here. Other companies (for example Comarch
Comarch
S.A., Britenet Sp. z o.o., Simple S.A., Asseco Poland
Poland
S.A.) outsourced to Lublin, to take advantage of the educated specialists. There is a visible growth in professionals eager to work in Lublin, due to reasons, like quality of life, culture management, the environment, improving connection to Warsaw, levels of education, or financial, because of usually higher operating margins of global organizations present in the area. The large car factory FSC (Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych) seemed to have a brighter future when it was acquired by the South Korean Daewoo
Daewoo
conglomerate in the early 1990s. With Daewoo's financial troubles in 1998 related to the Asian financial crisis, the production at FSC practically collapsed and the factory entered bankruptcy.[6] Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought the company to keep its prime market.[6] With the decline of Lublin
Lublin
as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy has been reoriented toward service industries. Currently, the largest employer is the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
(UMCS). The price of land and investing costs are lower than in western Poland. However, the Lublin
Lublin
area has to be one of the main beneficiaries of the EU development funds.[12] Jerzy Kwiecinski, the deputy secretary of state in the Ministry for Regional Development at the Conference of the Ministry for Regional Development ( Poland
Poland
in the European Union
European Union
— new possibilities for foreign investors) said:

In the immediate financial outlook, between 2007 and 2013, we will be the largest beneficiaries of the EU — every fifth Euro will be spent in Poland. In total, we will have at our disposal 120 billion EUR, assigned exclusively for post development activities. This sum will be an enormous boost for our country.[13]

In September 2007, the prime minister signed a bill creating a special economic investment zone in Lublin
Lublin
that offers tax incentives. It is part of “Park Mielec” — the European Economic Development area.[14] At least 13 large companies had declared their wish to invest here, e.g., Carrefour, Comarch, Safo, Asseco, Aliplast, Herbapol and Perła Browary Lubelskie.[15] At the same time, the energy giant Polska Grupa Energetyczna, which will build Poland's first nuclear power station, is to have its main offices in Lublin. Modern shopping centers built in Lublin
Lublin
like Tarasy Zamkowe (Castle Terraces), Lublin
Lublin
Plaza, Galeria Olimp, Galeria Gala, the largest shopping mall in the city, covering 33,500 square meters of area. Similar investments are planned for the near future such as Park Felin (Felicity) and a new underground gallery ("Alchemy") between and beneath Świętoduska and Lubartowska Streets.[16] Media[edit] There is a public TV station in the city: TVP Lublin
Lublin
which owns a 104-meter-tall concrete television tower.[17] The station put its first program on the air in 1985. In recent years it contributed programming to TVP3
TVP3
channel and later TVP Info. The radio stations airing from Lublin
Lublin
include 'Radio eR - 87.9 FM', Radio 'Eska Lublin' - 103.6 FM, Radio Lublin
Radio Lublin
(regional station of the Polish Radio) - 102.2 FM, [ Radio Centrum (university radio station)] - 98.2 FM, Radio 'Free' (city station of the Polish Radio) - 89,9 FM, and Radio 'Złote Przeboje' (Golden Hits) Lublin
Lublin
- 95.6 FM. Local newspapers include Kurier Lubelski daily, regional partner of the national newspaper Dziennik Wschodni daily, Gazeta Wyborcza
Gazeta Wyborcza
[ Lublin
Lublin
Edition] daily (regional supplement to the national newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza), [ Metro] (daily, free) and Nasze Miasto Lublin weekly (free). Transport[edit] From Lublin
Lublin
railway station, ten trains depart each day to Warsaw, and three to Kraków, as in other major cities in Poland. Lublin
Lublin
has also direct train connections with Rzeszów, Szczecin, Gdynia
Gdynia
and other Polish cities and towns in the region as Nałęczów, Chełm
Chełm
or Zamość. Long-distance buses depart from near the Castle in the Old Town and serve most of the same destinations as the rail network. The express train to Warsaw
Warsaw
takes about two and half hours.[18] The Lublin Airport is located in Świdnik, about 10 km (6.2 miles) SE of Lublin. There is a direct train link from the airport to downtown.

Lublin
Lublin
Train Station

Roads[edit] As of 2009[update] no motorways or expressways connect the city with the rest of Poland. In the coming decade the construction of expressways S12, S17 and S19 will improve road access to the city. On 17 December 2009 the bidding process for the construction of S17 expressway around Lublin
Lublin
was started. The construction began in 2010 and was finished in 2014. The project included a high capacity bypass road around Lublin, removing most of the through traffic from the city streets and decreasing congestion. Lublin
Lublin
is one of only four towns in Poland
Poland
to have trolleybuses (the others are Gdynia, Sopot and Tychy).[19] Culture and tourism[edit] Lublin
Lublin
is the largest city in eastern Poland
Poland
and serves as an important regional cultural capital. Since then, many important international events have taken place here, involving Ukrainian, Lithuanian, Russian and Belarusian artists, researchers and politicians. The frescos at the Holy Trinity Chapel in Lublin
Lublin
Castle are a mixture of Catholic motifs with eastern Russian-Byzantine styles, reinforcing how the city connects the West with the East. The arts[edit] Museum[edit] The premier museum in the city is the Lublin
Lublin
Museum, one of the oldest and largest museums of Eastern Poland, as well as the Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum with 121,404 visitors in 2011.[20] Cinema[edit] Lublin
Lublin
is a city with filmmaking past. A few important films were recorded here, e.g., Oscar-winning The Reader
The Reader
was partially filmed at the Nazi Majdanek
Majdanek
concentration camp, in the boundaries of nowadays Lublin
Lublin
area.[21] In 2008, Lublin
Lublin
in cooperation with Ukrainian Lviv, filmed promotional materials, to promote them as cinematic cities. Films were handed out between filmmakers present at Cannes Festival.[22] Action was sponsored by the European Union. There are movie theaters in Lublin including Cinema City (multiplex), Cinema Bajka, Cinema Chatka Żaka, and Cinema Medyk. Theatres[edit]

Old Theatre in Lublin, opening night

There are many cultural organizations in Lublin, either municipal, governmental and/or non-governmental. Among the popular venues are municipal theatres and playhouses such as:

Musical Theatre in Lublin
Lublin
- Teatr Muzyczny w Lublinie, opera, operetta, musical, ballet Henryk Wieniawski
Henryk Wieniawski
Lublin
Lublin
Philharmonic - Filharmonia Lubelska Juliusz Osterwa Theatre in Lublin
Lublin
- Teatr im. Juliusza Osterwy w Lublinie] Hans Christian Andersen Theatre - with puppet programmes for children

Fringe theatres:

Centrum Projekt Pracovnia Maat Centrum Kultury w Lublinie Ośrodek Praktyk Teatralnych – Gardzienice Ośrodek „Brama Grodzka - Theatre NN”

Galleries[edit] There are numerous art galleries in Lublin; some are run by private owners, and some are municipal, government, NGO, or associations' venues. The Labyrinth Gallery, formerly "BWA", is the Artistic Exhibitions Office (Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych). Old Town[edit]

Crown Tribunal
Crown Tribunal
in the Old Town

Lublin, by some tourists can be called "a little Krakow", and this is true by the citizens sharing a number of Lesser Poland
Poland
traditions, historic architecture and a unique ambiance, especially in the Old Town. Catering to students, who account for 35% of the population, the city offers a vibrant music and nightclub scene [23] Lublin
Lublin
has many theatres and museums and a professional orchestra, the Lublin Philharmonic.[24][25][26][27] Old buildings, even ruins, create a magic and unique atmosphere of the renaissance city. Lublin’s Old Town has cobbled streets and traditional architecture. Many venues around Old Town enjoy an architecture applicable for restaurants, art galleries, and clubs. Apart from entertainment this area has been designed to place small businesses and prestigious offices. The Church of St. Josaphat was built in 1786. Pubs and restaurants[edit] The Old Town Hall and Tribunal in the Market Square is surrounded by burgher houses and winding lanes.[28][29][30] In the Old Town and the immediate environs there are over 100 restaurants, cafes, pubs, clubs and other catering outlets, with cuisine of all kinds, ranging from haut cuisine to takeaways City of festivals[edit]

A street fair in the Old Town

Lithuanian Square

Grand Hotel

Lublin
Lublin
Town Hall

Lublin
Lublin
would like to be known as "the Capital of Festivals".[6] Every year a new festival appears. The most significant of them include:

Karnawał Sztuk-Mistrzów - Carnival Arts-Masters. Noc Kultury - Culture Night - usually the first Saturday night of June, hundreds of events in the whole city, cultural manifestation of city's potential; admission is free.[31] OpenCity Festival - outdoor performances festival, international artists and performers, make art installations in public places in Lublin.[32] Museum Night - like in whole world, Lublin's museums, are opened for visitors. Jarmark Jagielloński - Jagiellonian Trades - every year, about 100k tourists, arrive in Lublin
Lublin
to feel a middle-age atmosphere. Lubelskie
Lubelskie
Dni Kultury Studenckiej - an annual students' holiday, usually celebrated for about three weeks between May and June, students holiday in Lublin, are the longest in Poland.[citation needed] Słowo daję - Festiwal Opowiadaczy - I give you my word. Storytellers Festival Rozstaje Europy - International Festival of Document Film Mikołajki Folkowe - International Folk Music Festival ("St. Nicholas Folk Day") - organized by the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
in Lublin. Strefa Inne Brzmienia ("Different Sounds Area" International Music Festival, which connects Lublin
Lublin
and Lviv
Lviv
citizens together. Lublin. Miasto Poezji - Poetry Festival organised by Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN" and Polish Literature Institute of Catholic University in Lublin. Noc z Czechowiczem - A Night with Czechowicz - walking the trace, from "Poem about the City of Lublin" written by Józef Czechowicz
Józef Czechowicz
at first full moon at July, organized by Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN" Najstarsze Pieśni Europy - The oldest songs of Europe - Festival of Muzyka Kresów Foundation. Future Shorts - World Short Film Label Międzynarodowe Spotkania Teatrów Tańca - International Lublin
Lublin
Dance Festival Międzynarodowy Festiwal Teatralny "Konfrontacje" - International Theatre Festival "Confrontations" Festiwal Kultury Alternatywnej "ZdaErzenia" - Festival of Alternative Culture in Lublin Sąsiedzi - Festiwal Teatrów Europy Środkowej - Neighbours - Central European Theatres Festival Festiwal "Prowokacje" - Young Polish Fashion Creators Festival Studencki Ogólnopolski Festiwal Teatralny Kontestacje - Polish Students' Theatre Festival Międzynarodowe Spotkania Folklorystyczne im. Ignacego Wachowiaka - International Folk Dance Festival Lubelska Scena Rockowa - Lublin
Lublin
Rock Scene Taniec Znaku - first in Poland
Poland
Internet Theatre, project of Lublin Maat Theatre,[33] Scena Młodych - Youth Scene, music festival Zwierciadła - Mirrors - High School Theatres Revision Zaduszki Jazzowe - Jazz All Souls' Day - it takes place in Dominican Order Monastery "Invitro" Scena Prapremier - "Invitro" Pre-première Scene[34] Solo życia - Classical Music Festival - creator of this festival is composer Mieczysław Jurecki Letnia Strefa Muzyki - Summer Music Area - Young Polish musicians, promotion, on the small scene, organizers: Akwarela Cafe and Lublins' President Council

European Capital of Culture[edit] In 2007, Lublin
Lublin
joined the group of Polish cities as candidates for the title of European Capital of Culture. Lublin
Lublin
won through to shortlisting and was considered a dark horse of that competition. Ultimately Wrocław
Wrocław
was chosen.

Lublin
Lublin
is the city that symbolises European idea of integration, universal heritage of democracy and tolerance and the idea of dialogue between the cultures of the West and East. Lublin
Lublin
is a unique place where the cultures and religions meet. Here the East meets West, and the European Union
European Union
meets Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine. It is the perfect place of cooperation for European artists living within and outside the European Union. Lublin
Lublin
is a city open to artists, a place where unique initiatives and activities take place. Lublin
Lublin
means the experience of hundreds of years of rich history and cultural heritage which constitutes endless source of inspiration for new generations. European Culture is not only modern museums and enormous festivals, but first of all people and their activities, aims, aspirations, possibilities, potential and the desire for development. The development of culture and being granted the title of European Capital of Culture is a chance for development of one the poorest regions of the European Union."[35] — Adam Wasilewski, President of Lublin

Since 2007, there are special meetings, enter2016, which anyone could take part in. The city's Marketing Office have created a website: Lublin2016.eu, available in Polish, English, Ukrainian, Spanish and Portuguese. Lublin
Lublin
is a pilot city of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and the European Commission
European Commission
Intercultural cities programme. Sports[edit]

Arena Lublin

Start Lublin
Start Lublin
- men's basketball team, 12th in Era Basket Liga
Era Basket Liga
in 2003–04 season. MKS Lublin
Lublin
- women's handball team playing in Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League: 2nd place in 2003–04 season: also a winner of Women's EHF Cup
Women's EHF Cup
in season 2000-01. Motor Lublin
Motor Lublin
- professional football team competing in the Polish 3rd league (as of 2016[update]). Lublinianka
Lublinianka
- men's football team competing in the Polish 4th league (as of 2016[update]). Budowlani Lublin
Lublin
- a local Rugby Union
Rugby Union
team competing in the Polish, and surrounding district league. KMŻ Lublin
Lublin
speedway club competing in the Polish league (first division). LSKT - Lublin's Taekwon-do sport club. Tytani Lublin
Lublin
- semi-professional American football team

Education[edit] There are five public schools of higher education:

Faulty of Biotechnology, KUL

Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
(UMCS) John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
Catholic University of Lublin
(KUL) Medical University of Lublin University of Life Sciences in Lublin Politechnika Lubelska

Lublin
Lublin
is home to private higher education establishments.

University of Economics and Innovation
University of Economics and Innovation
in Lublin Lubelska Szkoła Biznesu Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Społecznych z siedzibą w Lublinie Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości i Administracji Vincent Pol University in Lublin

Politics[edit] Members of Parliament elected from District 6 which consists of the City of Lublin.[36]

Joanna Mucha (43 459) Włodzimierz Karpiński (10 260) Wojciech Wilk (6 348) Jakub Kulesza (15 058) Elżbieta Kruk
Elżbieta Kruk
(43 432) Gabriela Masłowska (23 287) Sylwester Tułajew (17 289) Artur Soboń (16 643) Jarosław Stawiarski (15 807) Krzysztof Michałkiewicz (15 806) Lech Sprawka (15 713) Krzysztof Głuchowski (9 924) Krzysztof Szulowski (9 019) Jerzy Bielecki (8 510)

Notable Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Lublin
Lublin
constituency:

Zyta Gilowska, PiS Stanisław Głębocki, Samoobrona Arkadiusz Kasznia, SLD-UP Elżbieta Kruk, PiS Grzegorz Kurczuk, SLD-UP Robert Luśnia, LPR Andrzej Mańka, PiS Gabriela Masłowska, LPR Krzysztof Michałkiewicz, PiS Wiktor Osik, SLD-UP Zdzisław Podkański, PSL Tadeusz Polański, PSL Izabella Sierakowska, SLD-UP Zygmunt Jerzy Szymański, SLD-UP Leszek Świętochowski, PSL Marian Widz, Samoobrona Józef Żywiec, Samoobrona

Members of the European Parliament elected from the Lublin constituency include Lena Kolarska-Bobińska. International relations[edit] Lublin
Lublin
is a pilot city of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and the EU Intercultural cities programme.[37] Twin towns — sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Lublin
Lublin
is twinned with:[38]

Alcalá de Henares, Spain[38] Brest, Belarus[38][39] Debrecen, Hungary[38] Delmenhorst, Germany[38] Erie, Pennsylvania, United States[38] Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine[38][40] Lancaster, United Kingdom[38]

Lublin, Wisconsin, United States[38] Luhansk, Ukraine[38] Lutsk, Ukraine[38] L'viv, Ukraine[38] Münster, Germany[38][41] Nancy, France[38] Nykøbing Falster, Denmark[38] Panevėžys, Lithuania[38]

Pernik, Bulgaria[38] Nilüfer, Turkey[38] Rishon LeZion, Israel[38][42] Starobilsk, Ukraine[38] Sumy, Ukraine[38] Tilburg, Netherlands[38] Viseu, Portugal[38] Windsor, Canada[38][43]

Gallery[edit]

Another characteristic building in Lublin
Lublin
is the Royal Castle

Juliusz Osterwa Theatre

Lublin
Lublin
Cathedral

Interior of the Cathedral

Courtyard of the Dominican Abbey

UMCS Botanical Gardens

14th-century Holy Trinity Chapel

Frescoes inside the chapel

Grodzka Gate

A folk music concert during the Jagiellonian Fair

Lublin
Lublin
Graffiti Festival

Kozienalia, Lublin
Lublin
Days of Student Culture, beginning with a street parade

440th anniversary of the Union of Lublin

Arena Lublin

Zemborzyce Lake

DZT Honker produced in Lublin
Lublin
by the DZT Tymińscy factory

The first part of a bypass road around Lublin

Radio & TV tower in Lublin

A trolleybus in the centre of the city

Lublin
Lublin
Airport

Notable residents[edit]

Biernat z Lublina, (~1465-~1529) Polish poet, fabulist, translator and physician Franciszka Arnsztajnowa
Franciszka Arnsztajnowa
(1865-1942), nee Meyerson, poet, playwright, translator Jacek Bąk, Polish footballer and captain of Poland
Poland
during World Cup 2006 Józef Czechowicz, (1903-1939), poet, writer, editor Katarzyna Dolinska, contestant on Cycle 10 of America's Next Top Model, came in 5th place Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob ben Ephraim (unknown-1648), "The Gaon Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob of Lublin" Rabbi
Rabbi
Joshua Falk
Joshua Falk
(1555–1614), also known as Joshua ben Alexander HaCohen Falk Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman Fradkin (1830-1902), "The Toras Chessed" Rabbi
Rabbi
Aryeh Tzvi Frumer
Aryeh Tzvi Frumer
(1884-1943), "The Kozhiglover Rav", Holocaust victim Rafał Gan-Ganowicz
Rafał Gan-Ganowicz
(1932-2002), mercenary, journalist, and activist Jacob Glatstein (1896–1971), literary critic Alter Mojze Goldman (1909–1988), resistance fighter Rabbi
Rabbi
Zadok HaKohen Rabinowitz (1823-1900) Kitty Hart-Moxon (1926-), Holocaust
Holocaust
survivor Rabbi
Rabbi
Moses Isserles
Moses Isserles
(1520-1572), "Rema" Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski (1812-1887), Polish writer, publisher, historian, journalist, scholar, political activist, painter and author Anna Langfus
Anna Langfus
(1920-1966), nee Anna Szternfinkiel, writer, Prix de Goncourt winner in 1966 Felix Lembersky
Felix Lembersky
(1913-1970), artist, painter Janusz Lewandowski
Janusz Lewandowski
(1951-), MEP, former minister of privatisation Rabbi
Rabbi
Solomon Luria
Solomon Luria
(1510-1573), "The Maharshal" Wincenty Pol
Wincenty Pol
(1807-1872), poet and geographer Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob Pollak (1460-1541) Stanisław Kostka Potocki
Stanisław Kostka Potocki
(1755–1821), Polish nobleman, politician and writer Rabbi
Rabbi
Sholom Rokeach (1781-1855), "Sar Sholom", the first Belzer Rebbe Yitzhak Sadeh
Yitzhak Sadeh
(born Isaac Landsberg; 1890-1952), a founder of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces Rabbi
Rabbi
Shalom Shachna
Shalom Shachna
(unknown-1558) Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir Shapiro
Meir Shapiro
(1887-1933), "The Lubliner Rav" Rabbi
Rabbi
Joel Sirkis (1561-1640), also known as Joel ben Samuel Sirkis Henryk Wieniawski
Henryk Wieniawski
(1835–1880), violinist; born in Lublin Rabbi
Rabbi
Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin
Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin
(1745–1815), "The Seer of Lublin" Rabbi
Rabbi
Mordecai Yoffe (1530-1612), "The Levush" Wladyslaw Zmuda, Polish footballer and four-time World Cup participant Johann Hermann Zukertort, chess grand master Henio Zytomirski
Henio Zytomirski
(1933-1942), Holocaust
Holocaust
victim

See also[edit]

Lublin Department
Lublin Department
(Polish: Departament Lubelski): a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland's Duchy of Warsaw, 1806–15 Lublin
Lublin
Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Old Jewish Cemetery, Lublin Tourism in Poland Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
(painting)

References[edit]

^ "Interpelacja w sprawie mozliwosci i stanu realizacji postulatow" (pdf) (in Polish). Przewodniczago Rady Miasta Lublin. August 19, 2013.  ^ "Local history - Information about the town - Lublin
Lublin
- Virtual Shtetl". Retrieved 20 March 2017.  ^ RP, Kancelaria Sejmu. "Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych".  ^ Lublin, UM. "Why Lublin? / Lublin
Lublin
– investment destination / Investors / Business / Lublin
Lublin
City Office". Retrieved 20 March 2017.  ^ Lublin, UM. " Standard of living in Lublin
Lublin
/ Lublin
Lublin
– investment destination / Investors / Business / Lublin
Lublin
City Office". Retrieved 20 March 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Andrzej Rozwałka, Rafał Niedźwiadek, Marek Stasiak (2006). 'Origines Polonorum': Lublin wczesnośredniowieczny. The medieval urban complex of Lublin. A study of its spatial development. TRIO / FNP. pp. 199–203. Summary translated by Philip Earl Steele (PDF). CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Tourist Guide: Lublin" (PDF). Lublin
Lublin
City Council. 2009. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 April 2015.  ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews and the Politics of Nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p.16 ^ Diemut Majer; United States
United States
Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum (2003). "Non-Germans" under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany
Germany
and Occupied Eastern Europe with Special
Special
Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939–1945. JHU Press. p. 759. ISBN 978-0-8018-6493-3. Retrieved 19 February 2012.  ^ Helena Ziemba neé Herszenborn; Irena Gewerc-Gottlieb (2001). "Ścieżki Pamięci, Żydowskie Miasto w Lublinie – Losy, Miejsca, Historia (Path of Memory. Jewish Town in Lublin
Lublin
- Fate, Places, History)". 1. Mój Lublin
Lublin
Szczęśliwy i Nieszczęśliwy; 2. W Getcie i Kryjówce w Lublinie (PDF file, direct download 4.9 MB) (in Polish). Rishon LeZion, Israel; Lublin, Poland: Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN" & Towarzystwo Przyjaźni Polsko-Izraelskiej w Lublinie. pp. 24, 27, 29, 30.  ^ "Climatological Normals for Lublin, Poland". Retrieved November 27, 2013.  ^ "Samorząd Miasta Lublin". Um.lublin.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ internet ART; www.internetart.pl (2007-05-31). "PAIiIZ News Inwestycje w Polsce". Paiz.gov.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ Marcin Bielesz (2007-09-27). " Lublin
Lublin
fetuje specjalną strefę ekonomiczną". Miasta.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ http://miasta.gazeta.pl/lublin/1,35640,4527639.html, http://ww2.tvp.pl/3903,20051107265122.strona ^ opracowali: tn, dil, msa, ms, jb, pr, wa (2007-01-01). "Taki był 2006 rok". Miasta.gazeta.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Przegląd obiektów z emisjami". Emi.emitel.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ " Lublin
Lublin
- Rozkład jazdy pociągów PKP, autobusów PKS oraz komunikacji miejskiej dla miasta Lublin". Rozklad.mortin.pl. Retrieved 2009-06-02.  ^ "Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego w Lublinie".  ^ "Statystyki". Frekwencja zwiedzających. Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku. 2011. Retrieved 2013-04-28.  ^ "The Reader". 30 January 2009 – via IMDb.  ^ "Lublin, Lwów
Lwów
miasto filmowe - Aktualności". Film.lublin.eu. 2008-04-08. Retrieved 2009-07-08.  ^ "Lublin-Lubelski Serwis Informacyjny-lublin". Lsi.lublin.pl. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ http://www.teatr-osterwy.lublin.pl Archived 2007-08-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-11-08. Retrieved 2016-07-04.  ^ Fortuna(grafika), Kamil Resztak(php) & Grzegorz. "Filharmonia im. H. Wieniawskiego w Lublinie, filharmonia lubelska, filharmonia w Lublinie, orkiestra symfoniczna, koncerty, muzyka kameralna, zespoły :: Strona główna".  ^ http://zamek-lublin.pl/index.php?l=pl&r=1 ^ "Lubelski Serwis Informacyjny". Retrieved 20 March 2017.  ^ Polska, Wirtualna. "Wirtualna Polska - Wszystko co ważne - www.wp.pl".  ^ " Lublin
Lublin
- Foto Galeria - Strona główna - Fotografie Lublina".  ^ http://www.nockultury.pl ^ "Festiwal Otwarte Miasto".  ^ "Theatre Maat". Di.com.pl. 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2010-10-03.  ^ "TVP o Scenie InVitro". Ww6.tvp.pl. 2010-09-29. Retrieved 2010-10-03.  ^ "Why Lublin?". Kultura.lublin.eu. Retrieved 2010-10-03.  ^ Skomra, Sławomir. "Nowi posłowie z Lubelszczyzny. To ich wysłaliśmy do Sejmu (ZDJĘCIA)". Retrieved 20 March 2017.  ^ Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(2011). "Intercultural city: Lublin, Poland". coe.int. Retrieved 22 May 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Miasta Partnerskie Lublina" [ Lublin
Lublin
- Partnership Cities] (in Polish). lublin.eu. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  ^ Побратимские связи г. Бреста (in Russian). City.brest.by. Archived from the original on 2009-04-18. Retrieved 2010-10-03.  ^ Офіційний сайт міста Івано-Франківська. mvk.if.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 March 2010.  ^ "Portrait of Münster: Die Partnerstädte". Stadt Münster. Archived from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  ^ "The Municipality of Lublin
Lublin
City". Um.lublin.eu. 1992-10-01. Archived from the original on 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2009-05-05.  ^ "Lublin's Partner and Friend Cities". The Municipality of Lublin City. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2009. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lublin.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lublin.

Lublin
Lublin
official website (in Polish) (in English) Official site Lublin
Lublin
the City of Inspiration (English version) Lublin
Lublin
Municipality official website (in Polish) (in English) Lublin, Poland
Poland
at JewishGen

v t e

Principal cities of Poland

1,000,000+

Warsaw

750,000+

Kraków

500,000+

Łódź Wrocław Poznań

200,000+

Gdańsk Szczecin Bydgoszcz Lublin Katowice Białystok Gdynia Częstochowa Radom Sosnowiec Toruń Kielce

100,000+

Gliwice Rzeszów Zabrze Olsztyn Bytom Bielsko-Biała Ruda Śląska Rybnik Tychy Dąbrowa Górnicza Gorzów Wielkopolski Płock Elbląg Opole Wałbrzych Zielona Góra Włocławek Tarnów Chorzów Koszalin Kalisz Legnica

v t e

Counties of Lublin
Lublin
Voivodeship

City counties

Lublin
Lublin
(capital) Biała Podlaska Chełm Zamość

Land counties

Biała Podlaska Biłgoraj Chełm Hrubieszów Janów Lubelski Kraśnik Krasnystaw Łęczna Lubartów Lublin Łuków Opole
Opole
Lubelskie Parczew Puławy Radzyń Podlaski Ryki Świdnik Tomaszów Lubelski Włodawa Zamość

v t e

Lublin
Lublin
County

Urban-rural gminas

Gmina Bełżyce Gmina Bychawa

Rural gminas

Gmina Borzechów Gmina Garbów Gmina Głusk Gmina Jabłonna Gmina Jastków Gmina Konopnica Gmina Krzczonów Gmina Niedrzwica Duża Gmina Niemce Gmina Strzyżewice Gmina Wojciechów Gmina Wólka Gmina Wysokie Gmina Zakrzew

Seat (not part of the county)

Lublin

v t e

Historical capitals of Poland

Gniezno
Gniezno
(10th century–1038) Poznań
Poznań
(10th century–1038) Kraków
Kraków
(1038-1079) Płock
Płock
(1079-1138) Kraków
Kraków
(1138-1290) Poznań
Poznań
(1290-1296) Kraków
Kraków
(1296-1795) Warsaw
Warsaw
(1596-1795) Warsaw
Warsaw
(since 1918)

Capitals of the Duchy of Warsaw

Warsaw
Warsaw
(1807-1815)

De facto capitals

Łowicz
Łowicz
(1572-1573) Lublin
Lublin
(1944-1945) Łódź
Łódź
(1945-1947)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 166279695 LCCN: n79089257 GND: 40364

.