Lublin ([ˈlublʲin] ( listen); English: /ˈluːblɪn/;
Latin: Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in
Poland and the second
largest city of Lesser Poland. It is the capital and the center of
Lublin Voivodeship (province) with a population of 349,103 (March
Lublin is the largest Polish city east of the
Vistula River and
is approximately 170 kilometres (106 miles) to the southeast of Warsaw
One of the events that greatly contributed to the city's development
was the Polish-Lithuanian
Union of Krewo
Union of Krewo in 1385.
Lublin thrived as a
centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the
Vilnius and Kraków; the inhabitants had the privilege
of free trade in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The
session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown
of the Kingdom of
Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus
creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Lublin witnessed the
early stages of
Reformation in the 16th century. A Calvinist
congregation was founded and groups of radical
Arians appeared in the
city, making it an important global centre of Arianism. At the turn of
Lublin was recognized for hosting a number of
outstanding poets, writers and historians of the epoch.
Until the partitions at the end of the 18th century,
Lublin was a
royal city of the Crown Kingdom of Poland. Its delegates and nobles
had the right to participate in the Royal Election. In 1578
chosen as the seat of the Crown Tribunal, the highest appeal court in
the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and for centuries the city has
been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning, with
Poznań and Lwów.
Lublin was not spared from severe destruction during World
War II, its picturesque and historical Old Town has been preserved.
The district is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments
(Pomnik historii), as designated May 16, 2007, and tracked by the
National Heritage Board of Poland.
The city is viewed as an attractive location for foreign investment
and the analytical
Financial Times Group
Financial Times Group has found
Lublin to be one of
the best cities for business in Poland. The Foreign direct
investment ranking (FDI) placed
Lublin second among larger Polish
cities in the cost-effectiveness category.
Lublin is noted for its
green spaces and a high standard of living.
1.1 Jagiellonian Poland
1.2 World War II
4 Economy and infrastructure
5 Culture and tourism
5.1 The arts
5.2 Old Town
5.2.1 Pubs and restaurants
5.3 City of festivals
5.4 European Capital of Culture
8 International relations
8.1 Twin towns — sister cities
10 Notable residents
11 See also
13 External links
See also: Timeline of Lublin
Archaeological finds indicate a long presence of cultures in the area.
A complex of settlements started to develop on the future site of
Lublin and in its environs in the 6th-7th centuries. Remains of
settlements dating back to the 6th century were discovered in the
center of today's
Lublin on Czwartek ("Thursday") Hill.
The period of the early Middle Ages was marked by intensification of
habitation, particularly in the areas along river valleys. The
settlements were centered around the stronghold on Old Town Hill,
which was likely one of the main centers of
Lendians tribe. When the
tribal stronghold was destroyed in the 10th century, the center
shifted to the northeast, to a new stronghold above Czechówka valley
and, after the mid-12th century, to Castle Hill. At least two churches
are presumed to have existed in
Lublin in the early medieval period.
One of them was most probably erected on Czwartek Hill during the rule
Casimir the Restorer
Casimir the Restorer in the 11th century. The castle became the
seat of a Castellan, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224
but was quite possibly present from the start of the 12th or even 10th
century. The oldest historical document mentioning
Lublin dates from
1198, so the name must have come into general use some time
The location of
Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave
it military significance. During the first half of the 13th century,
Lublin was a target of attacks by Mongols,
Ruthenians and Lithuanians,
which resulted in its destruction. It was also ruled by Kingdom of
Galicia–Volhynia between 1289 and 1302.
Lublin was founded as a
Władysław I the Elbow-high
Władysław I the Elbow-high or between 1258 and 1279 during
the rule of prince Bolesław V the Chaste. Casimir III the Great,
appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a masonry castle
in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls. From 1326, if
not earlier, the stronghold on Castle Hill included a chapel in honor
of the Holy Trinity. A stone church dated to the years 1335-1370
exists to this day.
Neogothic façade of
Castle courtyard with a fortified keep
In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king
Władysław II Jagiełło. With the coming of peace between
Lithuania, it developed into a trade centre, handling a large portion
of commerce between the countries. In 1474 the area around
carved out of
Sandomierz Voivodeship and combined to form the Lublin
Voivodeship, the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland.
During the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly. The
largest trade fairs of the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were held
in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments (sejm) were
Lublin several times. On 26 June 1569, one of the most
important proclaimed the Union of Lublin, which united
Lithuania. The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas.
one of the most influential cities of the state enjoyed voting
rights during the royal elections in Poland.
Some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish renaissance
lived and worked in Lublin, including
Sebastian Klonowic and Jan
Kochanowski, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578 the Crown Tribunal,
the highest court of the Lesser
Poland region, was established in
Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation
movements devolved in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish
Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important
Jewish communities was established in
Lublin around this time. Jews
established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue,
cemetery and education centre (kahal) and built the Grodzka Gate
(known as the Jewish Gate) in the historic district. Jews were a vital
part of the city's life until the Holocaust, during which they were
relocated to the infamous
Lublin Ghetto and ultimately murdered.
Union of Lublin, painting by
Jan Matejko at the
Great Fire of
The yeshiva became a centre of learning of
Talmud and Kabbalah,
leading the city to be called "the Jewish Oxford." In 1567, the
rosh yeshiva (headmaster) received the title of rector from the king
along with rights and privileges equal to those of the heads of Polish
In the 17th century, the town declined due to a Russo-Ukrainian
invasion in 1655 and a Swedish invasion during the Northern Wars.
After the third of the Partitions of
Poland in 1795
Lublin was located
in the Austrian empire, then since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and
then since 1815 in the Congress
Poland under Russian rule.
At the beginning of the 19th century new squares, streets and public
buildings were built. In 1877 a railway connection to
Warsaw and Kovel
Lublin Station were constructed, spurring industrial development.
Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897
(including 24,000 Jews).
Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and
Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the
Central Powers in
1918, the first government of independent
Poland operated in Lublin
for a short time. In the interwar years, the city continued to
modernise and its population grew; important industrial enterprises
were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the
Plage i Laśkiewicz
Plage i Laśkiewicz works, later nationalised as the LWS factory. The
Catholic University of Lublin
Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918.
World War II
After the 1939 German and Soviet invasion of
Poland the city found
itself in the
General Government territory controlled by Nazi Germany.
The population became a target of severe Nazi repressions focusing on
Polish Jews. An attempt to "Germanise" the city led to an influx of
Volksdeutsche increasing the number of German minority from
10–15% in 1939 to 20–25%. Near Lublin, the so-called 'reservation'
for the Jews was built based on the idea of racial segregation known
as the "Nisko or
Cracow Gate in the Old Town is among the most recognisable landmarks
of the city.
The Jewish population was forced into the newly set
Lublin Ghetto near
Podzamcze. The city served as headquarters for Operation Reinhardt,
the main German effort to exterminate all Jews in occupied Poland. The
majority of the ghetto inmates, about 26,000 people, were deported to
Bełżec extermination camp
Bełżec extermination camp between 17 March and 11 April 1942.
The remainder were moved to facilities around the Majdanek
concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Almost
all of Lublin's Jews were murdered during the
Holocaust in Poland.
After the war, some survivors emerged from hiding with the Christian
rescuers or returned from the Soviet Union, and reestablished a small
Jewish community in the city, but their numbers were insignificant.
Israel and the West.
On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the
Soviet Army and became the
temporary headquarters of the Soviet-controlled communist Polish
Committee of National Liberation established by Joseph Stalin, which
was to serve as basis for a puppet government. The capital of new
Poland was moved to
Warsaw in January 1945 after the Soviet westward
In the postwar years,
Lublin continued to grow, tripling its
population and greatly expanding its area. A considerable scientific
and research base was established around the newly founded Maria
Curie-Sklodowska University. A large Automobile Factory FSC was built
in the city.
Lublin has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) with cold, damp
winters and warm summers.
Climate data for
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
The diagram shows population growth over the past 400 years. In 1999,
the population of
Lublin was estimated to 359,154, the highest in the
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
Economy and infrastructure
Lublin region is a part of eastern Poland, which has benefited
less from the economic transformation after 1989 than regions of
Poland located closer to Western Europe. Despite the fact that Lublin
is one of the closest neighbour cities for Warsaw, the investition
inflow in services from the Polish capital has secured a steady growth
due to relatively fast connection, while external investitions are
progressing, enabling nearby satellite municipality
large-scale industrial investitions, seamlessly testing the capacity
of the agglomeration. The close cooperation with
Warsaw is significant
to the regional economy, bringing quality cultural events inshore, yet
the proximity of
Warsaw is an underestimated asset.
Polish MPs in the PZL
Świdnik helicopter factory
Lublin is a regional center of IT companies. Asseco Business Solutions
S.A., eLeader Sp z o.o., CompuGroup Medical Polska Sp. z o.o.,
Abak-Soft Sp. z o.o. and others have their headquarters here. Other
companies (for example
Comarch S.A., Britenet Sp. z o.o., Simple S.A.,
Poland S.A.) outsourced to Lublin, to take advantage of the
educated specialists. There is a visible growth in professionals eager
to work in Lublin, due to reasons, like quality of life, culture
management, the environment, improving connection to Warsaw, levels of
education, or financial, because of usually higher operating margins
of global organizations present in the area.
The large car factory FSC (Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych) seemed
to have a brighter future when it was acquired by the South Korean
Daewoo conglomerate in the early 1990s. With Daewoo's financial
troubles in 1998 related to the Asian financial crisis, the production
at FSC practically collapsed and the factory entered bankruptcy.
Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine
supplier bought the company to keep its prime market. With the
Lublin as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy
has been reoriented toward service industries. Currently, the largest
employer is the
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS).
The price of land and investing costs are lower than in western
Poland. However, the
Lublin area has to be one of the main
beneficiaries of the EU development funds. Jerzy Kwiecinski, the
deputy secretary of state in the Ministry for Regional Development at
the Conference of the Ministry for Regional Development (
Poland in the
European Union — new possibilities for foreign investors) said:
In the immediate financial outlook, between 2007 and 2013, we will be
the largest beneficiaries of the EU — every fifth Euro will be spent
in Poland. In total, we will have at our disposal 120 billion EUR,
assigned exclusively for post development activities. This sum will be
an enormous boost for our country.
In September 2007, the prime minister signed a bill creating a special
economic investment zone in
Lublin that offers tax incentives. It is
part of “Park Mielec” — the European Economic Development
area. At least 13 large companies had declared their wish to
invest here, e.g., Carrefour, Comarch, Safo, Asseco, Aliplast,
Herbapol and Perła Browary Lubelskie. At the same time, the
energy giant Polska Grupa Energetyczna, which will build Poland's
first nuclear power station, is to have its main offices in Lublin.
Modern shopping centers built in
Lublin like Tarasy Zamkowe (Castle
Lublin Plaza, Galeria Olimp, Galeria Gala, the largest
shopping mall in the city, covering 33,500 square meters of area.
Similar investments are planned for the near future such as Park Felin
(Felicity) and a new underground gallery ("Alchemy") between and
beneath Świętoduska and Lubartowska Streets.
There is a public TV station in the city: TVP
Lublin which owns a
104-meter-tall concrete television tower. The station put its
first program on the air in 1985. In recent years it contributed
TVP3 channel and later TVP Info.
The radio stations airing from
Lublin include 'Radio eR - 87.9 FM',
Radio 'Eska Lublin' - 103.6 FM,
Radio Lublin (regional station of the
Polish Radio) - 102.2 FM, [ Radio Centrum (university radio station)]
- 98.2 FM, Radio 'Free' (city station of the Polish Radio) - 89,9 FM,
and Radio 'Złote Przeboje' (Golden Hits)
Lublin - 95.6 FM.
Local newspapers include Kurier Lubelski daily, regional partner of
the national newspaper Dziennik Wschodni daily,
Gazeta Wyborcza [
Lublin Edition] daily (regional supplement to the national newspaper
Gazeta Wyborcza), [ Metro] (daily, free) and Nasze Miasto Lublin
Lublin railway station, ten trains depart each day to Warsaw, and
three to Kraków, as in other major cities in Poland.
Lublin has also
direct train connections with Rzeszów, Szczecin,
Gdynia and other
Polish cities and towns in the region as Nałęczów,
Zamość. Long-distance buses depart from near the Castle in the Old
Town and serve most of the same destinations as the rail network. The
express train to
Warsaw takes about two and half hours. The Lublin
Airport is located in Świdnik, about 10 km (6.2 miles) SE of
Lublin. There is a direct train link from the airport to downtown.
Lublin Train Station
As of 2009[update] no motorways or expressways connect the city with
the rest of Poland. In the coming decade the construction of
expressways S12, S17 and S19 will improve road access to the city. On
17 December 2009 the bidding process for the construction of S17
Lublin was started. The construction began in 2010
and was finished in 2014. The project included a high capacity bypass
road around Lublin, removing most of the through traffic from the city
streets and decreasing congestion.
Lublin is one of only four towns in
Poland to have trolleybuses (the
others are Gdynia, Sopot and Tychy).
Culture and tourism
Lublin is the largest city in eastern
Poland and serves as an
important regional cultural capital. Since then, many important
international events have taken place here, involving Ukrainian,
Lithuanian, Russian and Belarusian artists, researchers and
politicians. The frescos at the Holy Trinity Chapel in
are a mixture of Catholic motifs with eastern Russian-Byzantine
styles, reinforcing how the city connects the West with the East.
The premier museum in the city is the
Lublin Museum, one of the oldest
and largest museums of Eastern Poland, as well as the
Museum with 121,404 visitors in 2011.
Lublin is a city with filmmaking past. A few important films were
recorded here, e.g., Oscar-winning
The Reader was partially filmed at
Majdanek concentration camp, in the boundaries of nowadays
Lublin in cooperation with Ukrainian Lviv, filmed promotional
materials, to promote them as cinematic cities. Films were handed out
between filmmakers present at Cannes Festival. Action was
sponsored by the European Union. There are movie theaters in Lublin
including Cinema City (multiplex), Cinema Bajka, Cinema Chatka Żaka,
and Cinema Medyk.
Old Theatre in Lublin, opening night
There are many cultural organizations in Lublin, either municipal,
governmental and/or non-governmental. Among the popular venues are
municipal theatres and playhouses such as:
Musical Theatre in
Lublin - Teatr Muzyczny w Lublinie, opera,
operetta, musical, ballet
Lublin Philharmonic - Filharmonia Lubelska
Juliusz Osterwa Theatre in
Lublin - Teatr im. Juliusza Osterwy w
Hans Christian Andersen Theatre - with puppet programmes for children
Centrum Projekt Pracovnia Maat
Centrum Kultury w Lublinie
Ośrodek Praktyk Teatralnych – Gardzienice
Ośrodek „Brama Grodzka - Theatre NN”
There are numerous art galleries in Lublin; some are run by private
owners, and some are municipal, government, NGO, or associations'
venues. The Labyrinth Gallery, formerly "BWA", is the Artistic
Exhibitions Office (Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych).
Crown Tribunal in the Old Town
Lublin, by some tourists can be called "a little Krakow", and this is
true by the citizens sharing a number of Lesser
historic architecture and a unique ambiance, especially in the Old
Town. Catering to students, who account for 35% of the population, the
city offers a vibrant music and nightclub scene 
Lublin has many
theatres and museums and a professional orchestra, the Lublin
Philharmonic. Old buildings, even ruins, create a
magic and unique atmosphere of the renaissance city. Lublin’s Old
Town has cobbled streets and traditional architecture. Many venues
around Old Town enjoy an architecture applicable for restaurants, art
galleries, and clubs. Apart from entertainment this area has been
designed to place small businesses and prestigious offices. The Church
of St. Josaphat was built in 1786.
Pubs and restaurants
The Old Town Hall and Tribunal in the Market Square is surrounded by
burgher houses and winding lanes. In the Old Town and the
immediate environs there are over 100 restaurants, cafes, pubs, clubs
and other catering outlets, with cuisine of all kinds, ranging from
haut cuisine to takeaways
City of festivals
A street fair in the Old Town
Lublin Town Hall
Lublin would like to be known as "the Capital of Festivals". Every
year a new festival appears. The most significant of them include:
Karnawał Sztuk-Mistrzów - Carnival Arts-Masters.
Noc Kultury - Culture Night - usually the first Saturday night of
June, hundreds of events in the whole city, cultural manifestation of
city's potential; admission is free.
OpenCity Festival - outdoor performances festival, international
artists and performers, make art installations in public places in
Museum Night - like in whole world, Lublin's museums, are opened for
Jarmark Jagielloński - Jagiellonian Trades - every year, about 100k
tourists, arrive in
Lublin to feel a middle-age atmosphere.
Lubelskie Dni Kultury Studenckiej - an annual students' holiday,
usually celebrated for about three weeks between May and June,
students holiday in Lublin, are the longest in Poland.[citation
Słowo daję - Festiwal Opowiadaczy - I give you my word. Storytellers
Rozstaje Europy - International Festival of Document Film
Mikołajki Folkowe - International Folk Music Festival ("St. Nicholas
Folk Day") - organized by the
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in
Strefa Inne Brzmienia ("Different Sounds Area" International Music
Festival, which connects
Lviv citizens together.
Lublin. Miasto Poezji - Poetry Festival organised by Ośrodek "Brama
Grodzka - Teatr NN" and Polish Literature Institute of Catholic
University in Lublin.
Noc z Czechowiczem - A Night with Czechowicz - walking the trace, from
"Poem about the City of Lublin" written by
Józef Czechowicz at first
full moon at July, organized by Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN"
Najstarsze Pieśni Europy - The oldest songs of Europe - Festival of
Muzyka Kresów Foundation.
Future Shorts - World Short Film Label
Międzynarodowe Spotkania Teatrów Tańca - International
Międzynarodowy Festiwal Teatralny "Konfrontacje" - International
Theatre Festival "Confrontations"
Festiwal Kultury Alternatywnej "ZdaErzenia" - Festival of Alternative
Culture in Lublin
Sąsiedzi - Festiwal Teatrów Europy Środkowej - Neighbours - Central
European Theatres Festival
Festiwal "Prowokacje" - Young Polish Fashion Creators Festival
Studencki Ogólnopolski Festiwal Teatralny Kontestacje - Polish
Students' Theatre Festival
Międzynarodowe Spotkania Folklorystyczne im. Ignacego Wachowiaka -
International Folk Dance Festival
Lubelska Scena Rockowa -
Lublin Rock Scene
Taniec Znaku - first in
Poland Internet Theatre, project of Lublin
Scena Młodych - Youth Scene, music festival
Zwierciadła - Mirrors - High School Theatres Revision
Zaduszki Jazzowe - Jazz All Souls' Day - it takes place in Dominican
"Invitro" Scena Prapremier - "Invitro" Pre-première Scene
Solo życia - Classical Music Festival - creator of this festival is
composer Mieczysław Jurecki
Letnia Strefa Muzyki - Summer Music Area - Young Polish musicians,
promotion, on the small scene, organizers: Akwarela Cafe and Lublins'
European Capital of Culture
Lublin joined the group of Polish cities as candidates for
the title of European Capital of Culture.
Lublin won through to
shortlisting and was considered a dark horse of that competition.
Wrocław was chosen.
Lublin is the city that symbolises European idea of integration,
universal heritage of democracy and tolerance and the idea of dialogue
between the cultures of the West and East.
Lublin is a unique place
where the cultures and religions meet. Here the East meets West, and
European Union meets
Belarus and Ukraine. It is the perfect place
of cooperation for European artists living within and outside the
Lublin is a city open to artists, a place where unique
initiatives and activities take place.
Lublin means the experience of
hundreds of years of rich history and cultural heritage which
constitutes endless source of inspiration for new generations.
European Culture is not only modern museums and enormous festivals,
but first of all people and their activities, aims, aspirations,
possibilities, potential and the desire for development. The
development of culture and being granted the title of European Capital
of Culture is a chance for development of one the poorest regions of
the European Union." — Adam Wasilewski, President of Lublin
Since 2007, there are special meetings, enter2016, which anyone could
take part in. The city's Marketing Office have created a website:
Lublin2016.eu, available in Polish, English, Ukrainian, Spanish and
Lublin is a pilot city of the
Council of Europe
Council of Europe and the
European Commission Intercultural cities programme.
Start Lublin - men's basketball team, 12th in
Era Basket Liga
Era Basket Liga in
Lublin - women's handball team playing in Polish Ekstraklasa
Women's Handball League: 2nd place in 2003–04 season: also a winner
Women's EHF Cup
Women's EHF Cup in season 2000-01.
Motor Lublin - professional football team competing in the Polish 3rd
league (as of 2016[update]).
Lublinianka - men's football team competing in the Polish 4th league
(as of 2016[update]).
Lublin - a local
Rugby Union team competing in the Polish,
and surrounding district league.
Lublin speedway club competing in the Polish league (first
LSKT - Lublin's Taekwon-do sport club.
Lublin - semi-professional American football team
There are five public schools of higher education:
Faulty of Biotechnology, KUL
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS)
John Paul II
Catholic University of Lublin
Catholic University of Lublin (KUL)
Medical University of Lublin
University of Life Sciences in Lublin
Lublin is home to private higher education establishments.
University of Economics and Innovation
University of Economics and Innovation in Lublin
Lubelska Szkoła Biznesu
Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Społecznych z siedzibą w Lublinie
Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości i Administracji
Vincent Pol University in Lublin
Members of Parliament elected from District 6 which consists of the
City of Lublin.
Joanna Mucha (43 459)
Włodzimierz Karpiński (10 260)
Wojciech Wilk (6 348)
Jakub Kulesza (15 058)
Elżbieta Kruk (43 432)
Gabriela Masłowska (23 287)
Sylwester Tułajew (17 289)
Artur Soboń (16 643)
Jarosław Stawiarski (15 807)
Krzysztof Michałkiewicz (15 806)
Lech Sprawka (15 713)
Krzysztof Głuchowski (9 924)
Krzysztof Szulowski (9 019)
Jerzy Bielecki (8 510)
Notable Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from
Zyta Gilowska, PiS
Stanisław Głębocki, Samoobrona
Arkadiusz Kasznia, SLD-UP
Elżbieta Kruk, PiS
Grzegorz Kurczuk, SLD-UP
Robert Luśnia, LPR
Andrzej Mańka, PiS
Gabriela Masłowska, LPR
Krzysztof Michałkiewicz, PiS
Wiktor Osik, SLD-UP
Zdzisław Podkański, PSL
Tadeusz Polański, PSL
Izabella Sierakowska, SLD-UP
Zygmunt Jerzy Szymański, SLD-UP
Leszek Świętochowski, PSL
Marian Widz, Samoobrona
Józef Żywiec, Samoobrona
Members of the European Parliament elected from the Lublin
constituency include Lena Kolarska-Bobińska.
Lublin is a pilot city of the
Council of Europe
Council of Europe and the EU
Intercultural cities programme.
Twin towns — sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
Lublin is twinned with:
Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Erie, Pennsylvania, United States
Lancaster, United Kingdom
Lublin, Wisconsin, United States
Nykøbing Falster, Denmark
Rishon LeZion, Israel
Another characteristic building in
Lublin is the Royal Castle
Juliusz Osterwa Theatre
Interior of the Cathedral
Courtyard of the Dominican Abbey
UMCS Botanical Gardens
14th-century Holy Trinity Chapel
Frescoes inside the chapel
A folk music concert during the Jagiellonian Fair
Lublin Graffiti Festival
Lublin Days of Student Culture, beginning with a street
440th anniversary of the Union of Lublin
DZT Honker produced in
Lublin by the DZT Tymińscy factory
The first part of a bypass road around Lublin
Radio & TV tower in Lublin
A trolleybus in the centre of the city
Biernat z Lublina, (~1465-~1529) Polish poet, fabulist, translator and
Franciszka Arnsztajnowa (1865-1942), nee Meyerson, poet, playwright,
Jacek Bąk, Polish footballer and captain of
Poland during World Cup
Józef Czechowicz, (1903-1939), poet, writer, editor
Katarzyna Dolinska, contestant on Cycle 10 of America's Next Top
Model, came in 5th place
Jacob ben Ephraim (unknown-1648), "The Gaon
Rabbi Jacob of
Joshua Falk (1555–1614), also known as Joshua ben Alexander
Shneur Zalman Fradkin (1830-1902), "The Toras Chessed"
Aryeh Tzvi Frumer
Aryeh Tzvi Frumer (1884-1943), "The Kozhiglover Rav", Holocaust
Rafał Gan-Ganowicz (1932-2002), mercenary, journalist, and activist
Jacob Glatstein (1896–1971), literary critic
Alter Mojze Goldman (1909–1988), resistance fighter
Zadok HaKohen Rabinowitz (1823-1900)
Kitty Hart-Moxon (1926-),
Moses Isserles (1520-1572), "Rema"
Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski (1812-1887), Polish writer, publisher,
historian, journalist, scholar, political activist, painter and author
Anna Langfus (1920-1966), nee Anna Szternfinkiel, writer, Prix de
Goncourt winner in 1966
Felix Lembersky (1913-1970), artist, painter
Janusz Lewandowski (1951-), MEP, former minister of privatisation
Solomon Luria (1510-1573), "The Maharshal"
Wincenty Pol (1807-1872), poet and geographer
Jacob Pollak (1460-1541)
Stanisław Kostka Potocki
Stanisław Kostka Potocki (1755–1821), Polish nobleman, politician
Sholom Rokeach (1781-1855), "Sar Sholom", the first Belzer Rebbe
Yitzhak Sadeh (born Isaac Landsberg; 1890-1952), a founder of the
Israel Defense Forces
Shalom Shachna (unknown-1558)
Meir Shapiro (1887-1933), "The Lubliner Rav"
Joel Sirkis (1561-1640), also known as Joel ben Samuel Sirkis
Henryk Wieniawski (1835–1880), violinist; born in Lublin
Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin
Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin (1745–1815), "The Seer of Lublin"
Mordecai Yoffe (1530-1612), "The Levush"
Wladyslaw Zmuda, Polish footballer and four-time World Cup participant
Johann Hermann Zukertort, chess grand master
Henio Zytomirski (1933-1942),
Lublin Department (Polish: Departament Lubelski): a unit of
administrative division and local government in Poland's Duchy of
Old Jewish Cemetery, Lublin
Tourism in Poland
Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin (painting)
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lublin.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lublin.
Lublin official website (in Polish) (in English)
Lublin the City of Inspiration (English version)
Lublin Municipality official website (in Polish) (in English)
Poland at JewishGen
Principal cities of Poland
Gmina Niedrzwica Duża
Seat (not part of the county)
Historical capitals of Poland
Gniezno (10th century–1038)
Poznań (10th century–1038)
Warsaw (since 1918)
Capitals of the Duchy of Warsaw
De facto capitals