LUBLIN ( listen ) (Latin : Lublinum; English: /ˈlʌblᵻn/ ) is
the ninth largest city in
Poland and the second largest city of Lesser
Poland . It is the capital and the center of
(province) with a population of 349,103 (March 2011).
Lublin is the
largest Polish city east of the
Vistula River, and is located
approximately 170 kilometres (106 miles) to the southeast of
One of the events that greatly contributed to the city's development
was the Polish-Lithuanian
Union of Krewo in 1385.
Lublin thrived as a
centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the
Kraków ; the inhabitants also had the
privilege of free trade in the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania . The Lublin
Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between
the Crown of the Kingdom of
Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania,
thus creating the
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth .
witnessed the early stages of
Reformation in the 16th century. A
Calvinist congregation was founded and certain groups of radical
Arians also appeared in the city, making it an important global centre
Arianism . At the turn of the centuries,
Lublin was also recognized
for hosting a number of outstanding poets , writers and historians of
Until the partitions at the end of the 18th century ,
Lublin was a
royal city of the Crown Kingdom of
Poland . Its delegates and nobles
had the right to participate in the Royal Election . In 1578 Lublin
was chosen as the seat of the
Crown Tribunal , the highest appeal
court in the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and for centuries the
city has been flourishing as a centre of culture and higher learning,
Lublin was not spared from severe destruction during World
War II , its picturesque and historical Old Town has been preserved.
The district is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments
Pomnik historii ), as designated May 16, 2007, and tracked by the
National Heritage Board of
The city is viewed as an attractive location for foreign investment
and the analytical
Financial Times Group has found
Lublin to be one of
the best cities for business in Poland. The Foreign direct investment
ranking (FDI) placed
Lublin second among larger Polish cities in the
Lublin is also noted for its green spaces
and a high standard of living .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Jagiellonian
World War II
World War II
* 2 Climate
* 3 Population
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Media
* 5 Transport
* 5.1 Roads
* 6 Culture and tourism
* 6.1 Museum
* 6.2 Cinema
* 6.3 Theatres
* 6.4 Galleries
* 6.5 Old Town
* 6.6 Pubs and restaurants
* 6.7 City of festivals
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
* 8 Education
* 9 Sports
* 10 Politics
* 11 International relations
* 11.1 Twin towns — sister cities
* 12 Gallery
* 13 Notable residents
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 16 External links
Timeline of Lublin
Archaeological finds indicate a long presence of cultures in the
area. A complex of settlements started to develop on the future site
Lublin and in its environs in the 6th-7th centuries. Remains of
settlements dating back to the 6th century were discovered in the
center of today's
Lublin on Czwartek ("Thursday") Hill. The next
period of the early Middle Ages was marked by intensification of
habitation, particularly in the areas along river valleys. The
settlements at the time were centered around the stronghold on Old
Town Hill, which was likely one of the main centers of
When the tribal stronghold was destroyed in the 10th century, the
center shifted to the north-east, to a new stronghold above Czechówka
valley, and after the mid-12th century to Castle Hill. At least two
churches are presumed to have existed in
Lublin in the early medieval
period. One of them was most probably erected on Czwartek Hill during
the rule of
Casimir the Restorer in the 11th century. The castle
became the seat of a
Castellan , first mentioned in historical sources
from 1224, but quite possibly present from the start of the 12th or
even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin
dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time
The location of
Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands
gave it military significance. During the first half of the 13th
Lublin was a target of attacks by
Lithuanians , which resulted in its destruction. It was also ruled by
Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia between 1289 and 1302.
founded as a town by
Władysław I the Elbow-high or between 1258 and
1279 during the rule of prince
Bolesław V the Chaste
Bolesław V the Chaste . Casimir III
the Great , appreciating the site's strategic importance, built a
masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls.
From 1326, if not earlier, the stronghold on Castle Hill included a
chapel in honor of the Holy Trinity. A stone church dated to the years
1335-1370 exists to this day.
Neogothic façade of
Lublin Castle Castle courtyard with a
In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king
Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło , and with the coming of the peace between
Lithuania developed into a trade centre, handling a large
portion of commerce between the two countries. In 1474 the area around
Lublin was carved out of
Sandomierz Voivodeship and combined to form
Lublin Voivodeship , the third voivodeship of Lesser Poland.
During the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly. The
largest trade fairs of the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were held
in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments (sejm ) were
Lublin several times. On 26 June 1569, one of the most
important proclaimed the
Union of Lublin , which united
Lithuania . The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas.
one of the most influential cities of the state enjoyed voting rights
during the royal elections in
Some of the artists and writers of the 16th century Polish
renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic
Jan Kochanowski , who died in the city in 1584. In 1578 the Crown
Tribunal , the highest court of the Lesser
Poland region, was
established in Lublin.
Since the second half of the 16th century, Protestant Reformation
movements devolved in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish
Brethren was present in the city. One of Poland's most important
Jewish communities was also established in
Lublin around this time.
Jews established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital,
synagogue, cemetery and education centre (kahal) and built the Grodzka
Gate (known as the Jewish Gate) in the historic district. Jews were a
vital part of the city's life until the Holocaust , during which they
were relocated to the infamous
Lublin Ghetto and ultimately murdered.
Union of Lublin , painting by
Jan Matejko at the
Great Fire of
The yeshiva became a centre of learning of both
leading the city to be called "the Jewish Oxford "; in 1567, the rosh
yeshiva (headmaster) received the title of rector from the king along
with rights and privileges equal to those of the heads of Polish
In the 17th century, the town declined due to a Russo -Ukrainian
invasion in 1655 and a Swedish invasion during the
Northern Wars .
After the third of the Partitions of
Poland in 1795
Lublin was located
in the Austrian empire , then since 1809 in the Duchy of
Warsaw , and
then since 1815 in the Congress
Poland under Russian rule. At the
beginning of the 19th century new squares, streets and public
buildings were built. In 1877 a railway connection to
Warsaw and Kovel
Lublin Station were constructed, spurring industrial development.
Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897
(including 24,000 Jews).
Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and
Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the
Central Powers in
1918, the first government of independent
Poland operated in Lublin
for a short time. In the interwar years, the city continued to
modernise and its population grew; important industrial enterprises
were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the
Plage i Laśkiewicz works, later nationalised as the LWS factory. The
Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918.
WORLD WAR II
After the 1939 German and Soviet invasion of
Poland the city found
itself in the
General Government territory controlled by Nazi Germany.
The population became a target of severe Nazi repressions focusing on
Polish Jews. An attempt to "Germanise" the city led to an influx of
Volksdeutsche increasing the number of German minority from
10–15% in 1939 to 20–25%. Near Lublin, the so-called 'reservation'
for the Jews was built based on the idea of racial segregation also
known as the "Nisko or
Lublin Plan ".
Cracow Gate in the Old
Town is among the most recognisable landmarks of the city.
The Jewish population was forced into the newly set
near Podzamcze . The city served as headquarters for Operation
Reinhardt , the main German effort to exterminate all Jews in occupied
Poland. The majority of the ghetto inmates, about 26,000 people, were
deported to the
Bełżec extermination camp between 17 March and 11
April 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around the Majdanek
concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Almost
all of Lublin's Jews were murdered during the Holocaust in
After the war, some survivors emerged from hiding with the Christian
rescuers or returned from the Soviet Union, and reestablished a small
Jewish community in the city, but their numbers were insignificant.
Israel and the West.
On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the
Soviet Army and became the
temporary headquarters of the Soviet-controlled communist Polish
Committee of National Liberation established by Joseph Stalin, which
was to serve as basis for a puppet government. The capital of new
Poland was moved to
Warsaw in January 1945 after the Soviet westward
In the postwar years,
Lublin continued to grow, tripling its
population and greatly expanding its area. A considerable scientific
and research base was established around the newly founded Maria
Curie-Sklodowska University . A large Automobile Factory FSC was built
in the city.
Lublin has a borderline humid continental climate (Köppen Cfb/Dfb)
with cold, damp winters and warm summers.
CLIMATE DATA FOR LUBLIN (1936−2011)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
The diagram shows population growth over the past 400 years. As of
1999, the population of
Lublin was estimated to 359,154, the highest
in the city's history.
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
Lublin region is a part of eastern Poland, which has benefited
less from the economic transformation after 1989 than regions of
Poland located closer to
Western Europe . Despite the fact that Lublin
is one of the closest neighbour cities for
Warsaw , the investition
inflow in services from Polish Capital has secured a steady growth due
to relatively fast connection, while external investitions are
progressing, enabling near-by satellite municipality
large-scale industrial investitions, seamlessly testing the capacity
of the agglomeration. The close cooperation with
Warsaw is significant
to the regional economy, also allows to bring quality cultural events
inshore, and yet, the proximity of
Warsaw is an underestimated asset.
Polish MPs in the PZL
Świdnik helicopter factory
Lublin is a regional center of IT companies. Asseco Business
Solutions S.A., eLeader Sp z o.o., CompuGroup Medical Polska Sp. z
o.o., Abak-Soft Sp. z o.o. and others have their headquarters there.
Other companies (for example
Comarch S.A. , Britenet Sp. z o.o.,
Simple S.A., Asseco
Poland S.A. ) outsourced to Lublin, to take
advantage of the educated specialists. There is a visible growth in
number of professionals eager to work in Lublin, due to various
reasons, like quality of life, culture management, the environment,
improving connection to Warsaw, levels of education, or financial,
because of usually higher operating margins of global organizations
present in the area.
The large car factory FSC (Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych) seemed
to have a brighter future when was acquired by the South Korean Daewoo
conglomerate in the early 1990s. With Daewoo's financial troubles in
1998 related to the
Asian financial crisis
Asian financial crisis , the production at FSC
practically collapsed and the factory entered bankruptcy. Efforts to
restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought
the company to keep its prime market. With the decline of
Lublin as a
regional industrial centre, the city's economy has been reoriented
towards the service industries. Currently, the largest employer is the
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS).
The price of land and investing costs are lower than in western
Poland. However, the
Lublin area has to be one of the main
beneficiaries of the EU development funds. Jerzy Kwiecinski, the
deputy secretary of state in the Ministry for Regional Development at
the Conference of the Ministry for Regional Development (
Poland in the
European Union — new possibilities for foreign investors) said:
In the immediate financial outlook, between 2007 and 2013, we will be
the largest beneficiaries of the EU — every fifth Euro will be spent
in Poland. In total, we will have at our disposal 120 billion EUR,
assigned exclusively for post development activities. This sum will be
an enormous boost for our country.
In September 2007, the prime minister signed a bill creating a
special economic investment zone in
Lublin that offers tax incentives.
It is part of “Park Mielec” — the European Economic Development
area. At least 13 large companies had declared their wish to invest
here, e.g., Carrefour, Comarch, Safo, Asseco, Aliplast, Herbapol and
Perła Browary Lubelskie. At the same time, the energy giant Polska
Grupa Energetyczna, which will build Poland's first nuclear power
station, is to have its main offices in Lublin.
Modern shopping centers built in
Lublin like Tarasy Zamkowe (Castle
Lublin Plaza, Galeria Olimp, Galeria Gala, the largest
shopping mall in the city, covering 33,500 square meters of area.
Similar investments are planned for the near future such as Park Felin
(Felicity) and a new underground gallery ("Alchemy") between and
beneath Świętoduska and Lubartowska Streets.
There is a public TV station in the city, called TVP
owns a 104-meter-tall concrete television tower. The station put its
first program on the air in 1985. In recent years it contributed
TVP3 channel and later
TVP Info .
The radio stations airing from
Lublin include Radio eR - 87.9 FM,
Lublin - 103.6 FM,
Radio Lublin (regional station of the
Polish Radio ) - 102.2 FM, - 98.2 FM, Radio Free (city station of the
Polish Radio ) - 89,9 FM, and Radio Złote Przeboje (Golden Hits)
Lublin - 95.6 FM,
Local newspapers include: Kurier Lubelski daily, regional partner of
the national newspaper Dziennik Wschodni daily,
Gazeta Wyborcza daily
(regional supplement to the national newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza),
(daily, free) and
Nasze Miasto Lublin weekly (free).
Lublin railway station , ten trains depart each day to
and three to
Kraków , as in other major cities in Poland.
Long-distance buses depart from near the Castle in the Old Town and
serve most of the same destinations as the rail network. The express
Warsaw takes about two and half hours. The
Lublin Airport is
Świdnik , about 10 km (6.2 miles) SE of Lublin. There is a
direct train link from the airport to downtown.
As of 2009 no motorways or expressways connect the city with the
rest of Poland. In the coming decade the construction of expressways
S12 , S17 and S19 will improve road access to the city. On 17 December
2009 the bidding process for the construction of S17 expressway around
Lublin was started. The construction began in 2010 and was completely
finished in 2014. The project included a high capacity bypass road
around Lublin, removing most of the through traffic from the city
streets and decreasing congestion.
Lublin is one of only four towns in
Poland to have trolleybuses (the
others are Gdynia, Sopot and Tychy).
CULTURE AND TOURISM
Lublin is not only the largest city in eastern
Poland , but also
serves as an important regional cultural capital. Since then, many
important international events have taken place here, involving
Ukrainian , Lithuanian , Russian and Belarusian artists, researchers
and politicians. The frescos at the Holy Trinity Chapel in Lublin
Castle are a mixture of Catholic motifs with eastern Russian-Byzantine
styles, reinforcing how the city connects the West with the East.
The premier museum in the city is the
Lublin Museum , one of the
oldest and largest museums of Eastern Poland, as well as the Majdanek
State Museum with 121,404 visitors in 2011.
Lublin is a city with filmmaking past. A few important films were
recorded here. e.g., Oscar -winning
The Reader was partially filmed at
Majdanek concentration camp, located in boundaries of
Lublin in cooperation with Ukrainian
Lviv , filmed
promotional materials, to promote them as cinematic cities. Films were
handed out between filmmakers present at
Cannes Festival . Action,
was sponsored by the
European Union . There are a number of movie
Lublin including Cinema City (multiplex), Cinema Bajka,
Cinema Chatka Żaka, and Cinema Medyk.
Old Theatre in Lublin, opening night
There are many cultural organizations in Lublin, either municipal,
governmental and/or non-governmental. Among the popular venues are
municipal theatres and playhouses such as:
* Musical Theatre in
Lublin - Teatr Muzyczny w Lublinie, opera,
operetta, musical, ballet
Lublin Philharmonic - 'Filharmonia Lubelska
* Juliusz Osterwa Theatre in
Lublin - Teatr im. Juliusza Osterwy w
* Hans Christian Andersen Theatre - with puppet programme for
* Fringe theatres:
* Centrum Projekt Pracovnia Maat
* Centrum Kultury w Lublinie
* Ośrodek Praktyk Teatralnych –
* Ośrodek „Brama Grodzka - Theatre NN”
There are numerous art galleries in Lublin; some are run by private
owners, and some are municipal, government, NGO, or associations'
Labyrinth Gallery , formerly "BWA", is the Artistic
Exhibitions Office (Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych).
Crown Tribunal in the Old Town
Lublin, by some tourists can be called "a little Krakow", and this is
true by the citizens sharing a number of Lesser
historic architecture and a unique ambiance, especially in the Old
Town. Catering to students, who account for 35% of the population, the
city offers a vibrant music and nightclub scene
Lublin has many
theatres and museums and a professional orchestra, the Lublin
Philharmonic. Old buildings, even ruins, create magic and unique
atmosphere of the renaissance city. Lublin’s Old Town has cobbled
streets and traditional architecture. Many venues around Old Town
enjoy an architecture applicable for restaurants, art galleries,
clubs, apart from entertainment this area has also been designed to
place small businesses and prestigious offices.
PUBS AND RESTAURANTS
The Old Town Hall and Tribunal in the Market Square is surrounded by
burgher houses and winding lanes. In the Old Town and the immediate
environs there are over 100 restaurants, cafes, pubs, clubs and other
catering outlets, with cuisine of all kinds, ranging from haut cuisine
CITY OF FESTIVALS
A street fair in the Old Town Lithuanian Square
Lublin Town Hall
Lublin would like to be known as "the Capital of Festivals". Every
year another new festival appears. The most significant of them
* Karnawał Sztuk-Mistrzów - Carnival Arts-Masters.
* Noc Kultury - Culture Night - usually the first Saturday night of
June, hundreds of events whole the city, cultural manifestation of
city's potential, admission is free.
* OpenCity Festival - outdoor performances festival, international
artists and performers, make art installations in public places in
* Museum Night - like in whole world, Lublin's museums, are opened
* Jarmark Jagielloński - Jagiellonian Trades - every year, about
100k of tourists, arriving in Lublin, only to feel middle-age
* Lubelskie Dni Kultury Studenckiej - an annual students' holiday,
usually celebrated for about three weeks between May and June,
students holiday in Lublin, are the longest in whole Poland.
* Słowo daję - Festiwal Opowiadaczy - I give you my word.
* Rozstaje Europy - International Festival of Document Film
* Mikołajki Folkowe - International Folk Music Festival ("St.
Nicholas Folk Day") - organized by the Maria Curie-Skłodowska
University in Lublin.
* Strefa Inne Brzmienia ("Different Sounds Area" International Music
Festival, which connects
Lviv citizens together.
* Lublin. Miasto Poezji - Poetry Festival organised by Ośrodek
"Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN" and Polish Literature Institute of Catholic
* Noc z Czechowiczem - A Night with Czechowicz - walking the trace,
from "Poem about the City of Lublin" written by
Józef Czechowicz at
first full moon at July, organized by Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr
* Najstarsze Pieśni Europy - The oldest songs of Europe - Festival
of Muzyka Kresów Foundation.
* Future Shorts - World Short Film Label
* Międzynarodowe Spotkania Teatrów Tańca - International Lublin
* Międzynarodowy Festiwal Teatralny "Konfrontacje" - International
Theatre Festival "Confrontations"
* Festiwal Kultury Alternatywnej "ZdaErzenia" - Festival of
Alternative Culture in Lublin
* Sąsiedzi - Festiwal Teatrów Europy Środkowej - Neighbours -
Central European Theatres Festival
* Festiwal "Prowokacje" - Young Polish Fashion Creators Festival
* Studencki Ogólnopolski Festiwal Teatralny Kontestacje - Polish
Students' Theatre Festival
* Międzynarodowe Spotkania Folklorystyczne im. Ignacego Wachowiaka
- International Folk Dance Festival
* Lubelska Scena Rockowa -
Lublin Rock Scene
* Taniec Znaku - first in
Poland Internet Theatre, project of Lublin
* Scena Młodych - Youth Scene, music festival
* Zwierciadła - Mirrors - High School Theatres Revision
* Zaduszki Jazzowe - Jazz All Souls' Day - it takes place in
Dominican Order Monastery
* "Invitro" Scena Prapremier - "Invitro" Pre-première Scene
* Solo życia - Classical Music Festival - creator of this festival
is composer Mieczysław Jurecki
* Letnia Strefa Muzyki - Summer Music Area - Young polish musicians,
promotion, on the small scene, organizers: Akwarela Cafe and Lublins'
EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE
Lublin joined the group of Polish cities as candidates for
the title of
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture .
Lublin won through to
shortlisting, and was considered a black horse of that competition,
Wrocław was chosen.
Lublin is the city that symbolises European idea of integration,
universal heritage of democracy and tolerance and the idea of dialogue
between the cultures of the West and East.
Lublin is a unique place
where the cultures and religions meet. Here the East meets West, and
European Union meets
Ukraine . It is the perfect place
of cooperation for European artists living within and outside the
Lublin is a city open to artists, a place where unique
initiatives and activities take place.
Lublin means the experience of
hundreds of years of rich history and cultural heritage which
constitutes endless source of inspiration for new generations.
European Culture is not only modern museums and enormous festivals,
but first of all people and their activities, aims, aspirations,
possibilities, potential and the desire for development. The
development of culture and being granted the title of European Capital
of Culture is a chance for development of one the poorest regions of
the European Union." — Adam Wasilewski, President of
Since 2007, there are special meetings, enter2016, which anyone could
take part in. The city's Marketing Office have created a web page:
Lublin2016.eu, available in Polish , English , Ukrainian , Spanish and
Lublin is a pilot city of the
Council of Europe
Council of Europe and the
European Commission Intercultural cities programme.
There are five public schools of higher education: Faulty of
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University (UMCS)
* John Paul II
Catholic University of Lublin (KUL)
Medical University of Lublin
Medical University of Lublin
University of Life Sciences in Lublin
Lublin is home to a number of private higher education
University of Economics and Innovation
University of Economics and Innovation in Lublin
* Lubelska Szkoła Biznesu
* Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Społecznych z siedzibą w Lublinie
* Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości i Administracji
* Vincent Pol University in Lublin
Start Lublin - men's basketball team, 12th in
Era Basket Liga in
Lublin - women's handball team playing in Polish Ekstraklasa
Women\'s Handball League : 2nd place in 2003–04 season: also a
winner of Women\'s EHF Cup in season 2000-01.
Motor Lublin - professional football team competing in the Polish
3rd league (as of 2016 ).
Lublinianka - men's football team competing in the Polish 4th
league (as of 2016 ).
Lublin - a local
Rugby Union team competing in the
Polish, and surrounding district league.
Lublin speedway club competing in the Polish league (first
* LSKT - Lublin's Taekwon-do sport club.
Lublin - semi-professional American football team
Members of Parliament elected from District 6 which consists of the
City of Lublin.
* Joanna Mucha (43 459),
* Włodzimierz Karpiński (10 260),
* Wojciech Wilk (6 348).
* Jakub Kulesza (15 058).
Elżbieta Kruk (43 432),
* Gabriela Masłowska (23 287),
* Sylwester Tułajew (17 289),
* Artur Soboń (16 643),
* Jarosław Stawiarski (15 807),
Krzysztof Michałkiewicz (15 806),
* Lech Sprawka (15 713),
* Krzysztof Głuchowski (9 924),
* Krzysztof Szulowski (9 019),
* Jerzy Bielecki (8 510).
Notable Members of Parliament (
Sejm ) elected from Lublin
Zyta Gilowska , PiS
* Stanisław Głębocki,
* Arkadiusz Kasznia, SLD -UP
Elżbieta Kruk , PiS
Grzegorz Kurczuk , SLD-UP
* Robert Luśnia, LPR
Andrzej Mańka , PiS
* Gabriela Masłowska, LPR
Krzysztof Michałkiewicz , PiS
* Wiktor Osik, SLD-UP
Zdzisław Podkański , PSL
* Tadeusz Polański, PSL
Izabella Sierakowska , SLD-UP
* Zygmunt Jerzy Szymański, SLD-UP
* Leszek Świętochowski, PSL
* Marian Widz, Samoobrona
* Józef Żywiec, Samoobrona
Members of the European Parliament elected from the Lublin
Lena Kolarska-Bobińska .
Lublin is a pilot city of the
Council of Europe
Council of Europe and the EU
Intercultural cities programme.
TWIN TOWNS — SISTER CITIES
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Lublin is twinned with:
Alcalá de Henares ,
* Brest ,
Erie, Pennsylvania ,
* Lancaster ,
Lublin, Wisconsin ,
* L\'viv ,
* Nancy ,
Nykøbing Falster ,
* Nilüfer ,
Rishon LeZion ,
* Windsor ,
Another characteristic building in
Lublin is the Royal Castle
Juliusz Osterwa Theatre
Interior of the Cathedral
Courtyard of the Dominican Abbey
UMCS Botanical Gardens
14th-century Holy Trinity Chapel
Frescoes inside the chapel
A folk music concert during the Jagiellonian Fair
Lublin Graffiti Festival
Lublin Days of Student Culture, beginning with a street
440th anniversary of the
Union of Lublin
DZT Honker produced in
Lublin by the DZT Tymińscy factory
The first part of a bypass road around
A trolleybus in the centre of the city
Biernat z Lublina , (~1465-~1529) Polish poet, fabulist,
translator and physician
Jacek Bąk , Polish footballer and captain of
Poland during World
Katarzyna Dolinska , contestant on Cycle 10 of America\'s Next Top
Model , came in 5th place
Jacob ben Ephraim (unknown-1648), "The Gaon
Rabbi Jacob of
Joshua Falk (1555–1614), also known as Joshua ben
Alexander HaCohen Falk
Shneur Zalman Fradkin (1830-1902), "The Toras Chessed"
Aryeh Tzvi Frumer (1884-1943), "The Kozhiglover Rav",
Rafał Gan-Ganowicz (1932-2002), mercenary, journalist, and
Jacob Glatstein (1896–1971), literary critic
Alter Mojze Goldman (1909–1988), resistance fighter
Zadok HaKohen Rabinowitz (1823-1900)
Kitty Hart-Moxon (1926-), Holocaust survivor
Moses Isserles (1520-1572), "Rema"
* Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski (1812-1887), Polish writer, publisher,
historian, journalist, scholar, political activist, painter and author
Felix Lembersky (1913-1970), artist, painter
Janusz Lewandowski (1951-), MEP , former minister of privatisation
Solomon Luria (1510-1573), "The Maharshal"
Wincenty Pol (1807-1872), poet and geographer
Jacob Pollak (1460-1541)
Stanisław Kostka Potocki (1755–1821), Polish nobleman,
politician and writer
Sholom Rokeach (1781-1855), "Sar Sholom", the first Belzer
Yitzhak Sadeh (born Isaac Landsberg; 1890-1952), a founder of the
Israel Defense Forces
Shalom Shachna (unknown-1558)
Meir Shapiro (1887-1933), "The Lubliner Rav"
Joel Sirkis (1561-1640), also known as Joel ben Samuel
Henryk Wieniawski (1835–1880), violinist; born in Lublin
Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin (1745–1815), "The Seer of
Mordecai Yoffe (1530-1612), "The Levush"
Wladyslaw Zmuda , Polish footballer and four-time World Cup
Johann Hermann Zukertort , chess grand master
Henio Zytomirski (1933-1942), Holocaust victim
Lublin Department (Polish: Departament Lubelski): a unit of
administrative division and local government in Poland's Duchy of
Warsaw , 1806–15
Lublin Holocaust Memorial
Old Jewish Cemetery, Lublin
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to LUBLIN .
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for LUBLIN .
Lublin official website (in Polish) (in English)
* Official site
Lublin the City of Inspiration (English version)
Lublin Municipality official website (in Polish) (in English)