Lu (state)
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Lu (, c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, U ...
during the
Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese (Reconstructions of Old Chinese#Baxter–Sagart (2014), B&S): *''tiw'') was a Dynasties in Chinese history, royal dynasty of China that followed the Shang dynasty. Having lasted 789 years, the Zhou dynasty was t ...
of
ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the reign of king Wu Ding. Ancient historical texts such as the '' Book of Documents'' (early chapt ...
located around modern
Shandong Shandong ( , ; ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in His ...
province. Founded in the 11th century BC, its rulers were from a
cadet branch In history and cadency, heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the patrilineality, male-line descendants of a monarch's or patriarch's younger sons (cadet (genealogy), cadets). In the ruling dynasty, dynasties and nobility, noble families of much o ...
of the House of Ji (姬) that ruled the Zhou dynasty. The first duke was Boqin, a son of the
Duke of Zhou Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou (), was a member of the royal family of the early Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu of Zhou, King Wu. He was ren ...
, who was brother of
King Wu of Zhou King Wu of Zhou () was the first wang (title), king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. The chronology of his reign is disputed but is generally thought to have begun around 1046 BC and ended three years later in 1043 BC. King Wu's Chine ...
and regent to
King Cheng of Zhou King Cheng of Zhou (), personal name Ji Song (姬誦), was the second king of the Chinese Zhou dynasty. The dates of his reign are 1042–1021 BCE or 1042/35–1006 BCE. His parents were King Wu of Zhou and Queen Yi Jiang (邑姜). King Cheng wa ...
. Lu was the home state of
Confucius Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or commonly zh, s=, p=Kǒngzǐ, labels=no; – ) was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period who is traditionally considered the paragon of Chinese sages. Co ...
as well as
Mozi Mozi (; ; Latinization (literature), Latinized as Micius ; – ), original name Mo Di (), was a Chinese philosophy, Chinese philosopher who founded the school of Mohism during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (the early portion of the ...
, and as such has an outsized cultural influence among the states of the Eastern Zhou and in history. The '' Annals of Spring and Autumn'', for instance, was written with the Lu rulers' years as their basis. Another great work of Chinese history, the '' Zuo Zhuan'' or ''Commentary of Zuo'', was also written in Lu by Zuo Qiuming.


Geography

The state's capital was in
Qufu Qufu ( ; ) is a city in southwestern Shandong province, East China. It is located about south of the provincial capital Jinan and northeast of the prefectural seat at Jining. Qufu has an area of 815 square kilometers, and a total population of 6 ...
and its territory mainly covered the central and southwest regions of what is now
Shandong Province Shandong ( , ; ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Shantung) is a coastal Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China and is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in His ...
. It was bordered to the north by the powerful state of Qi and to the south by the powerful state of Chu. The position of Lu on the eastern frontiers of the Western Zhou state, facing the non-Zhou peoples in states such as Lai and Xu, was an important consideration in its foundation.


Etymology

William H. Baxter (apud Matisoff, 1995) suggests a semantic connection between the toponym 魯 ''Lǔ'' and its homophone 鹵 ''lŭ'' "salty,
rock salt Halite (), commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (sodium, Nachlorine, Cl). Halite forms Cubic (crystal system), isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless or white, but may al ...
" (< OC *''C-rāɁ'') since that region was a
salt marsh A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open Seawater, saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides. It is ...
in ancient times.


History

Lu was one of several states founded in eastern China at the very beginning of the Zhou dynasty, in order to extend Zhou rule far from its capital at Zongzhou and power base in the
Guanzhong Guanzhong (, formerly romanization of Chinese, romanised as Kwanchung) region, also known as the Guanzhong Basin, Wei River Basin, or uncommonly as the Shaanzhong region, is a historical region of China corresponding to the crescentic graben str ...
region. Throughout Western Zhou times, it played an important role in stabilising Zhou control in modern-day Shandong. During the early
Spring and Autumn period The Spring and Autumn period was a period in History of China, Chinese history from approximately 770 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou period. The period' ...
, Lu was one of the strongest states and a rival of Qi to its north. Under Duke Yin and Duke Huan of Lu, Lu defeated both Qi and
Song A song is a musical composition intended to be performed by the human voice. This is often done at melody, distinct and fixed pitches (melodies) using patterns of sound and silence. Songs contain various song form, forms, such as those includ ...
on several occasions. At the same time, it undertook expeditions against other minor states. This changed by the middle of the period, as Lu's main rival, Qi, grew increasingly dominant. Although a Qi invasion was defeated in the Battle of Changshao in 684 BC, Lu would never regain the upper hand against its neighbour. Meanwhile, the power of the dukes of Lu was eventually undermined by the powerful feudal clans of Jisun 季孫, Mengsun 孟孫, and Shusun 叔孫 (called the Three Huan because they were descendants of Duke Huan of Lu). The domination of the Three Huan was such that Duke Zhao of Lu, in attempting to regain power, was exiled by them and never returned. It would not be until Duke Mu of Lu's reign, in the early
Warring States period The Warring States period () was an era in History of China#Ancient China, ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the Spring and Autumn period and concluded ...
, that power eventually returned to the dukes again. In 249 BC King Kaolie of the
state of Chu Chu, or Ch'u in Wade–Giles romanization, (, Hanyu Pinyin: Chǔ, Old Chinese: ''*s-r̥aʔ'') was a Zhou dynasty ancient Chinese states, vassal state. Their first ruler was King Wu of Chu in the early 8th century BCE. Chu was located in t ...
invaded and annexed Lu. Duke Qing, the last ruler of Lu, became a commoner. The main line of the Duke of Zhou's descendants came from his firstborn son, the State of Lu ruler Bo Qin's third son Yu (魚) whose descendants adopted the surname Dongye (東野). The
Duke of Zhou Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou (), was a member of the royal family of the early Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu of Zhou, King Wu. He was ren ...
's offspring held the title of Wujing Boshi (五经博士; 五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì). 東野家族大宗世系 Family Tree of the descendants of the Duke of Zhou in Chinese Duke Huan of Lu's son through Qingfu (慶父) was the ancestor of
Mencius Mencius ( ); born Mèng Kē (); or Mèngzǐ (; 372–289 BC) was a Chinese Confucianism, Confucian Chinese philosophy, philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is, second to Confucius himself. He is part of Confuc ...
. The genealogy is found in the Mencius family tree (孟子世家大宗世系).《孟子與孟氏家族》,孟祥居編,2005年


Rulers

List of Lu rulers based on the ''
Records of the Grand Historian ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese language, Chinese name ''Shiji'', is a monumental Chinese historiography, history of China that is the first of China's Twenty-Four Histories, 24 dynastic histories. The ''Records'' ...
'' by
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty The Han dynasty (, ; ) was an imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 9 AD, 25–220 AD), established by Emperor Gaozu of Han, Liu Bang (Emperor Gao) and ruled by the H ...
:


Rulers family tree


See also

* Lu Commandery


References


External links

* * * * * * * *
{{DEFAULTSORT:Lu (State) Zhou dynasty 11th-century BC establishments in China States and territories established in the 11th century BC 3rd-century BC disestablishments 1st-millennium BC disestablishments in China Former monarchies