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The Info List - Lower Sorbian


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LOWER SORBIAN (Dolnoserbski) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany
Germany
in the historical province of Lower Lusatia , today part of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
. It is one of the two literary Sorbian languages , the other being Upper Sorbian .

Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
is spoken in and around the city of Cottbus in Brandenburg
Brandenburg
. Signs in this region are usually bilingual, and Cottbus has a Gymnasium where one language of instruction is Lower Sorbian. It is a heavily endangered language . Most native speakers are in the oldest generation today.

CONTENTS

* 1 Phonology

* 1.1 Consonants

* 1.1.1 Final devoicing and assimilation

* 1.2 Vowels * 1.3 Stress

* 2 Orthography * 3 Sample * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography

* 7 External links

* 7.1 Dictionaries

* 7.1.1 Czech- Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
and Lower Sorbian-Czech * 7.1.2 German– Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
* 7.1.3 Lower Sorbian–German

PHONOLOGY

Bilingual road sign in Cottbus , Germany
Germany

The phonology of Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
has been greatly influenced by contact with German , especially in Cottbus and larger towns. For example, German-influenced pronunciation tends to have a voiced uvular fricative instead of the alveolar trill . In villages and rural areas German influence is less marked, and the pronunciation is more "typically Slavic".

CONSONANTS

Consonant phonemes

LABIAL Dental / Alveolar RETROFLEX PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

HARD SOFT HARD SOFT HARD SOFT HARD HARD

NASAL m mʲ n nʲ

PLOSIVE VOICELESS p pʲ t

k

VOICED b bʲ d

ɡ

AFFRICATE VOICELESS

t͡s

t͡ʂ t͡ɕ

FRICATIVE VOICELESS f

s

ʂ ɕ x h

VOICED v

z

ʐ ʑ

TRILL

r rʲ

APPROXIMANT w wʲ l

j

* /m, mʲ, p, pʲ, b, bʲ, w, wʲ/ are bilabial , whereas /f, v/ are labiodental . * /n, nʲ, l, r, rʲ/ are alveolar , whereas /t, d, t͡s, s, z/ are dental . * /t͡ʂ, ʂ, ʐ/ are laminal retroflex (flat postalveolar) in all of the Lower Sorbian–speaking area. This is unlike in standard Upper Sorbian, where these are palato-alveolar . * /h/ is voiceless , unlike Upper Sorbian, where it is voiced .

Final Devoicing And Assimilation

Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
has both final devoicing and regressive voicing assimilation :

* dub /dub/ "oak" is pronounced * susedka /ˈsusedka/ "(female) neighbor" is pronounced * licba /ˈlit͡sba/ "number" is pronounced

The retroflex fricative /ʂ/ is assimilated to before /t͡ɕ/:

* šćit /ʂt͡ɕit/ "protection" is pronounced

VOWELS

The vowel inventory of Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
is exactly the same as that of Upper Sorbian. It is also very similar to the vowel inventory of Slovene .

Vowel phonemes

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE i

u

CLOSE-MID e

o

OPEN-MID ɛ

ɔ

OPEN

a

* /i/ is retracted to ? It is in Upper Sorbian. ] after hard consonants. * /e, o/ are diphthongized to in slow speech. * The /e–ɛ/ and /o–ɔ/ distinctions are weakened or lost in unstressed syllables. * /a/ is phonetically central .

STRESS

Stress in Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
normally falls on the first syllable of the word:

* Łužyca " Lusatia
Lusatia
" * pśijaśel "friend" * Chóśebuz " Cottbus "

In loanwords , stress may fall on any of the last three syllables:

* internat "boarding school" * kontrola "control" * september "September" * policija "police" * organizacija "organization"

Most one-syllable prepositions attract the stress to themselves when they precede a noun or pronoun of one or two syllables:

* na dwórje "on the courtyard" * pśi mnjo "nea