LOWER SHAWNEETOWN (15Gp15), also known as the Bentley Site, Shannoah and Sonnontio, is a Late Fort Ancient culture Madisonville horizon (post 1400 CE) archaeological site overlain by an 18th-century Shawnee village; it is located near South Portsmouth in Greenup County, Kentucky . It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 28, 1983.
Between about 1735 and 1758
The town was destroyed by floods in November, 1758 and the population relocated to another site further up the Scioto River.
* 1 Portsmouth Earthworks, Group A * 2 Fort Ancient settlement
* 3 Shawnee village
* 3.1 Visits by French soldiers * 3.2 Peter Chartier * 3.3 Visits by British traders * 3.4 Captives * 3.5 Destruction
* 4 See also * 5 References
PORTSMOUTH EARTHWORKS, GROUP A
A feature of the site is the "Old Fort Earthworks", a part of the Portsmouth Earthworks known as Group A. Built between 100 BCE and 500 CE by the Adena culture , the earthworks are a series of large rectangular enclosures connected to the main features of the group (located across the Ohio River in Portsmouth ) by an earthen causeway .
FORT ANCIENT SETTLEMENT
The site is a 1.2 hectare village on the second flood terrace of the Ohio River , located across from the mouth of the Scioto River . It was excavated in the 1930s and was discovered to have had similar structures and building techniques as those found at another nearby Fort Ancient site, the Hardin Village Site located 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) up the Ohio. Also found during the excavations were distinctive Madisonville horizon pottery, including cordmarked, plain and grooved-paddle jars, as well as a variety of chert points, scrapers and ceremonial pipes .
Many 18th century European trade goods were also found at the site, including gun spalls and gunflints , gun parts (sideplate, mainspring , ram pipes , and breech plugs), wire-wound and drawn glass beads , tinkling cones, a button, pendants, an earring, cutlery, kettle ears, a key, nails, chisels, hooks, a buckle, a Jew\'s harp , and pieces of a pair of iron scissors.
Established in the mid-1730s at the mouth of the Scioto River, this
was one of the earliest known
Shawnee settlements on both sides of the
Ohio River. The name of the town was not recorded, but scholars
believe it may have been "
VISITS BY FRENCH SOLDIERS
Both the British and the French became increasingly concerned about the growing Native American settlements in the region, including Lower Shawneetown's neighbors, Logstown , Pickawillany , and Sandusky . The earliest reference to it is in a July 27, 1734 letter by François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes , describing an English trader's warehouse (probably that of George Croghan and William Trent ) in "the home of the Shawnees on the Ohio River". The French had focused much attention on Canada, allowing English traders to establish themselves in the Ohio Valley, but in the late 1730s the French began trying to correct this by sending expeditions into the region.
The earliest eyewitness account is a report by Baron de Longueuil
from July 1739. A French military expedition made up of 123 French
soldiers and 319 Native American warriors from
Concerned that this vibrant community would be readily influenced by trade goods supplied by the British, the Governor of New France , Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois sent emissaries to Lower Shawneetown in 1741 to try to persuade the Shawnees to relocate to Detroit, but the proposal was rejected.
In the summer of 1749 Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville moved down the Ohio River on his "lead plate expedition," burying lead plates at six locations where major tributaries entered the Ohio. The plates were inscribed to claim the area for France. Céloron also sought out British traders and warned them to leave this territory which belonged to France. Hearing that a French military force was approaching, the inhabitants hastily erected a stockade and fired three shots at a delegation which reached the gates bearing a French flag. The Shawnees reluctantly opened the gates and invited Céloron to enter; he summoned the five Pennsylvania traders who were then living in the town and ordered them to leave, but they refused. Céloron considered plundering their goods, but as he was confronted by a large and well-armed Shawnee force, he desisted and continued on his way.
In April 1745
Peter Chartier and about 400 Shawnees took refuge in
VISITS BY BRITISH TRADERS
This 1779 map shows "Shannoah" on the Ohio River, although the town was abandoned around 1758.
William Trent established a storehouse in
Gist's journal entry from January 29, 1751: "Tuesday 29.— Set out...to the Mouth of Sciodoe Creek opposite to the Shannoah Town, here we fired our Guns to alarm the Traders, who soon answered, and came and ferryed Us over to the Town — The Land about the Mouth of Sciodoe Creek is rich but broken fine Bottoms upon the River but the tribe moved its headquarters...up the Scioto and built up successively the Old and New Chillicothe , or Che-le-co-the Towns. There remained a Shawnee village at the mouth of the Scioto, which was then built upon the other side, the present site of the city of Portsmouth ."
Mary Jemison , a captive of the Seneca , spent the winter at the
mouth of the
Scioto River in 1758–1759, she reported that Lower
Shawneetown had been abandoned and relocated further up the Scioto
River. It is possible that this new village was
* ^ A B "National Register Information System". National Register
of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-11-02. Archived from
the original on 2013-02-20.
* ^ A B C D Sharp, William E. (1996). "Chapter 6:Fort Ancient
Farmers". In Lewis, R. Barry. Kentucky Archaeology. University Press
of Kentucky. pp. 170–176. ISBN 0-8131-1907-3 .
* ^ A B C Stephen Warren, Worlds the Shawnees Made: Migration and
Violence in Early America, UNC Press Books, 2014. ISBN 1469611732
* ^ A B C D E F G H Charles Augustus Hanna, The Wilderness Trail:
Or, The Ventures and Adventures of the Pennsylvania Traders on the
Allegheny Path, Volume 1, Putnam\'s sons, 1911
* ^ "Portsmouth Earthworks". Ohio History Central. Retrieved
* ^ A B C David Pollack and A. Gwynn Henderson, "A Preliminary
Report on the Contact Period Occupation at
* v * t * e
* Buckner Site * Clay Mound * Cleek-McCabe Site * Clover Site * Fox Farm Site * Hahns Field Site * Larkin Site * Lower Shawneetown * Madisonville Site * Ronald Watson Gravel Site * Sand Ridge Site * Turpin Site
* v * t * e
Pre-Columbian North America
Periods Lithic Archaic Formative Classic Post-Classic
* Adena * Alachua * Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi) * Baytown * Belle Glade * Buttermilk Creek Complex * Caborn-Welborn * Calf Creek * Caloosahatchee * Clovis * Coles Creek * Comondú * Deptford * Folsom * Fort Ancient * Fort Walton * Fremont * Glacial Kame * Glades * Hohokam
* La Jolla * Las Palmas * Leon-Jefferson
* Mogollon * Monongahela * Old Cordilleran * Oneota * Paleo-Arctic * Paleo-Indians * Patayan * Plano * Plaquemine * Poverty Point * Red Ocher * Santa Rosa-Swift Creek * St. Johns * Steed-Kisker * Tchefuncte * Tocobaga * Troyville
Anzick Clovis burial
Bandelier National Monument
The Bluff Point Stoneworks
* Casa Grande
* Chaco Canyon
Coso Rock Art District
Crystal River Archaeological State Park
* Cueva de la Olla
El Fin del Mundo
Effigy Mounds National Monument
Etowah Indian Mounds
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument
Holly Bluff Site
Hopewell Culture National Historical Park
* v * t * e