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LOWER EGYPT (Egyptian Arabic : مصر السفلى‎‎ _Maṣr El Sofla_) is the northernmost region of Egypt
Egypt
: the fertile Nile Delta , between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
— from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo
Cairo
, and Dahshur
Dahshur
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt
Egypt
* 4 List of nomes * 5 See also * 6 References

GEOGRAPHY

In ancient times, Pliny the Elder (N.H. 5.11) said that upon reaching the delta the Nile
Nile
split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiac , the Tanitic , the Mendesian , the Phatnitic , the Sebennytic , the Bolbitine , and the Canopic . Today there are two principal channels that the Nile
Nile
takes through the river 's delta: one in the west at Rashid and one in the east at Damietta .

The delta region is well watered, crisscrossed by channels and canals.

The climate in Lower Egypt
Egypt
is milder than that of Upper Egypt owing primarily to its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Temperatures are less extreme and rainfall is more abundant.

HISTORY

Lower Egypt
Egypt
was known as _Ta-Mehu_ which means "land of papyrus ." It was divided into twenty districts called nomes , the first of which was at el-Lisht . Because Lower Egypt
Egypt
was mostly undeveloped scrubland , undeveloped for human life and filled with all types of plant life such as grasses and herbs, the organization of the nomes underwent several changes.

The capital of Lower Egypt
Egypt
was Memphis . Its patron Goddess was the cobra goddess Wadjet . Lower Egypt
Egypt
was represented by the Low Red Crown _ Deshret
Deshret
_, and its symbols were the papyrus and the bee.

By about 3600 BC, neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile
Nile
River had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals. Shortly after 3600 BC Egyptian society began to grow and advance rapidly toward refined civilization. A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the pottery in the Southern Levant , appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time. The Mesopotamian process of sun-dried bricks , and architectural building principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time.

Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile
Nile
River, or Upper Egypt , occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta , or Lower Egypt
Egypt
also underwent a unification process. Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer
Narmer
defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
under his single rule.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to LOWER EGYPT _.

LIST OF KINGS OF THE PREDYNASTIC PERIOD OF LOWER EGYPT

DYNASTIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT

All years are BC

Early

First Dynasty I c. 3150–2890

Second Dynasty II 2890–2686

Old Kingdom

Third Dynasty III 2686–2613

Fourth Dynasty IV 2613–2498

Fifth Dynasty V 2498–2345

Sixth Dynasty VI 2345–2181

First Intermediate

Seventh Dynasty VII spurious

Eighth Dynasty VIII 2181–2160

Ninth Dynasty IX 2160–2130

Tenth Dynasty X 2130–2040

Early Eleventh Dynasty XI 2134–2061

Middle Kingdom

Late Eleventh Dynasty XI 2061–1991

Twelfth Dynasty XII 1991–1803

Thirteenth Dynasty XIII 1803–1649

Fourteenth Dynasty XIV 1705–1690

Second Intermediate

Fifteenth Dynasty XV 1674–1535

Sixteenth Dynasty XVI 1660–1600

Abydos Dynasty
Abydos Dynasty

1650–1600

Seventeenth Dynasty XVII 1580–1549

New Kingdom

Eighteenth Dynasty XVIII 1549–1292

Nineteenth Dynasty XIX 1292–1189

Twentieth Dynasty XX 1189–1077

Third Intermediate

Twenty-first Dynasty XXI 1069–945

Twenty-second Dynasty XXII 945–720

Twenty-third Dynasty XXIII 837–728

Twenty-fourth Dynasty XXIV 732–720

Twenty-fifth Dynasty XXV 732–653

Late Period

Twenty-sixth Dynasty XXVI 672–525

Twenty-seventh Dynasty (1st Persian Period) XXVII 525–404

Twenty-eighth Dynasty XXVIII 404–398

Twenty-ninth Dynasty XXIX 398–380

Thirtieth Dynasty XXX 380–343

Thirty-first Dynasty (2nd Persian Period) XXXI 343–332

Ptolemaic (Hellenistic)

Argead Dynasty 332–305

Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
305–30

* v * t * e

The Palermo stone , a royal annal written in the mid Fifth Dynasty (c. 2490 BC – c. 2350 BC) records a number of kings reigning over Lower Egypt
Egypt
before Narmer
Narmer
. These are completely unattested outside these inscriptions:

NAME

Hsekiu

Khayu

Tiu

Thesh

Neheb

Wazner

Mekh

(destroyed)

In contrast the following kings are attested through archeological finds from Sinai and Lower Egypt: Double Falcon , Crocodile.

LIST OF NOMES

PART OF A SERIES ON THE

HISTORY OF EGYPT

_

Prehistoric Egypt
Egypt
pre–3100 BC

ANCIENT EGYPT

Early Dynastic Period 3100–2686 BC

Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC

1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC

Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC

2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC

New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC

3rd Intermediate Period 1069–664 BC

Late Period 664–332 BC

CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY

Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
332–30 BC

Roman and Byzantine Egypt
Egypt
30 BC–641 AD

Sasanian Egypt
Egypt
619–629

MIDDLE AGES

Islamic Egypt
Egypt
641–969

Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
969–1171

Ayyubid Egypt
Egypt
1171–1250

Mamluk Egypt
Egypt
1250–1517

EARLY MODERN

Ottoman Egypt
Egypt
1517–1867

French occupation 1798–1801

Egypt
Egypt
under Muhammad Ali 1805–1882

Khedivate of Egypt
Egypt
1867–1914

MODERN EGYPT

British occupation 1882–1922

Sultanate of Egypt
Egypt
1914–1922

Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
1922–1953

Republic 1953–present

Egypt
Egypt
portal

* v * t * e

NUMBER EGYPTIAN NAME CAPITAL MODERN NAME OF CAPITAL SITE TRANSLATION

1 Aneb-Hetch Ineb Hedj / Men-nefer / Menfe (Memphis ) Mit Rahina White Walls

2 Khensu Khem ( Letopolis ) Ausim Cow's thigh

3 Ahment Imu (Apis) Kom El Hisn West

4 Sapi-Res Ptkheka Tanta Southern shield

5 Sap-Meh Zau (Sais ) Sa El Hagar Northern shield

6 Khaset Khasu ( Xois ) Sakha Mountain bull

7 A-ment (Hermopolis Parva, Metelis) Damanhur West harpoon

8 A-bt Tjeku / Per-Atum (Heroonpolis, Pithom ) Tell El Maskhuta East harpoon

9 Ati Djed (Busiris ) Abu Sir Bara Andjeti

10 Ka-khem Hut-hery-ib ( Athribis ) Banha (Tell Atrib) Black bull

11 Ka-heseb Taremu ( Leontopolis ) Tell El Urydam Heseb bull

12 Theb-ka Tjebnutjer ( Sebennytos ) Samanud Calf and Cow

13 Heq-At Iunu (Heliopolis ) Materiya (suburb of Cairo
Cairo
) Prospering Sceptre

14 Khent-abt Tjaru (Sile, Tanis ) Tell Abu Sefa Eastmost

15 Tehut Ba'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva ) Baqliya Ibis

16 Kha Djedet ( Mendes
Mendes
) Tell El Rubˁ Fish

17 Semabehdet Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior ) Tel El Balamun The throne

18 Am-Khent Per-Bastet ( Bubastis ) Tell Bastah (near Zagazig
Zagazig
) Prince of the South

19 Am-Pehu Dja'net ( Leontopolis Tanis) Tell Nebesha or_ San El Hagar Prince of the North

20 Sopdu Per-Sopdu Saft El Hinna Plumed Falcon

SEE ALSO

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt
Egypt
* Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
* Nomes of Egypt
Egypt
* Geography of Egypt
Egypt
* Ancient Egypt
Egypt

REFERENCES

* ^ Carl Roebuck, _The World of Ancient Times_ (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishing: New York, 1966) p. 51. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Carl Roebuck, _The World of Ancient Times_ (Charles Scribner's Sons: New York, 1966) p. 52-53. * ^ Carl Roebuck, _The World of Ancient Times_ (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishers: New York, 1966), p. 53. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Breasted (1909) p.36

* v * t * e

Ancient Egypt
Egypt
topics

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Book
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Category
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Egypt
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Egypt
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