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LOWER AUSTRIA (German : Niederösterreich, pronounced ( listen ); Czech : Dolní Rakousy; Slovak : Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria
Austria
. The capital of Lower Austria
Austria
since 1986 is Sankt Pölten , the most recently designated capital town in Austria. The capital of Lower Austria
Austria
had formerly been Vienna
Vienna
, even though Vienna
Vienna
has not officially been part of Lower Austria
Austria
since 1921. With a land area of 19,186 km2 (7,408 sq mi) and a population of 1.612 million people, it is the largest state in Austria, and in terms of population second only to the federal state of Vienna
Vienna
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Mountains * 1.2 Alpine passes * 1.3 Rivers * 1.4 Lakes * 1.5 Caves * 1.6 Land use

* 2 History * 3 Population

* 4 Administrative divisions

* 4.1 Independent towns * 4.2 Districts

* 5 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Situated east of Upper Austria
Austria
, Lower Austria
Austria
derives its name from its downriver location on the Danube River
Danube River
, which flows from west to east. Lower Austria
Austria
has an international border, 414 km (257 mi) long, with the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(mainly South Moravia ) and Slovakia
Slovakia
. The state has the second longest external border of all Austrian states. It also borders the other Austrian states of Upper Austria
Austria
, Styria and Burgenland as well as surrounding Vienna
Vienna
.

Lower Austria
Austria
is divided into four regions, known as Viertel (quarters):

* Weinviertel or Tertiary Lowland (below the Manhartsberg ) * Waldviertel or Bohemian Plateau (above the Manhartsberg) * Mostviertel (above the Vienna
Vienna
Woods ) * Industrieviertel (below the Vienna
Vienna
Woods).

These regions have different geographical structures. Whilst the Mostviertel is dominated by the foothills of the Limestone Alps with mountains up to 2,000 m (AA) high, most of the Waldviertel is a granite plateau. The hilly Weinviertel lies to the northeast, descends to the plains of Marchfeld in the east of the state, and is separated by the Danube from the Vienna
Vienna
Basin to the south, which in turn is separated from the Vienna
Vienna
Woods by a line of thermal springs (the Thermenlinie) running north to south.

MOUNTAINS

* Scheiblingstein (2,197 m) * Schneeberg (Klosterwappen; 2,076 m) * Rax
Rax
(Scheibwaldhöhe; 1,943 m; highest summit: Heukuppe; 2,007 m – Styria ) * Ötscher (1,893 m) * Dürrenstein (1,878 m) * Schneealpe (Ameisbühel; 1,828 m; highest summit: Windberg; 1,903 m – Styria ) * Hochkar (1,808 m) * Gamsstein (1,774 m) * Stumpfmauer (1,770 m) * Göller (1,766 m) * Hochwechsel (1,743 m) * Gippel (1,669 m) * Großer Sonnleitstein (1,639 m) * Großer Zellerhut (1,639 m) * Gemeindealpe (1,626 m) * Drahtekogel (1,565 m) * Sonnwendstein (1,523 m) * Obersberg (1,467 m) * Königsberg (1,452 m) * Großer Sulzberg (1,400 m) * Reisalpe (1,399 m) * Gahns (1,380 m) * Tirolerkogel (1,377 m) * Türnitzer Höger (1,372 m) * Unterberg (1,342 m) * Traisenberg (1,230 m) * Dürre Wand (1,222 m) * Hohenstein (1,195 m) * Eisenstein (1,185 m) * Hohe Wand (1,132 m) * Großer Peilstein (1,061 m) * Weinsberg (1,041 m) * Hocheck (1,036 m) * Nebelstein (1,017 m) * Eibl (1,007 m) * Hohe Mandling (967 m) * Jauerling (961 m) * Anninger (675 m) * Buschberg (491 m)

Other mountains in Lower Austria
Austria
may be found at Category:Mountains of Lower Austria
Austria
.

ALPINE PASSES

* Semmering (985 m) * Wechsel (980 m)

The state border with Styria runs over both passes.

RIVERS

Kamp March

Almost all of Lower Austria
Austria
is drained by the Danube. The only river that flows into the North Sea (via the Moldau and the Elbe
Elbe
) is the Lainsitz in northern Waldviertel.

The most important rivers north of the Danube (on its left bank) are the Ysper , Kamp , Krems , Lainsitz , March and Thaya . South of the Danube (on its right bank) are the Enns , Ybbs , Erlauf , Melk
Melk
, Pielach , Traisen , Schwechat , Fischa , Schwarza , Triesting
Triesting
, Pitten and the Leitha .

LAKES

* Ottenstein Reservoir (4.3 km2) * Lunzer See (0.69 km2) * Erlaufsee (0.56 km2, of which about half lies in Lower Austria) * Erlauf Reservoir * Wienerwaldsee (0.32 km2)

CAVES

Further information: List of caves in Austria
Austria

Lower Austria
Austria
is rich in natural caves ; in all 4,082 have been recorded. Most of the caves have formed in limestone and dolomite rocks and are therefore called karst caves . Cavities also form in the marble of the Central Alps and the Bohemian Massif. Among the largest caves in Lower Austria
Austria
are:

* Ötscherhöhlensystem ( Ötscher ): 27,003 m long; union of the Taubenloch and Geldloch * Pfannloch ( Ötscher ): 5,287 m long * Lechnerweidhöhle (Dürrenstein ): 5,252 m long * Trockenes Loch ( Schwarzenbach an der Pielach ): 4,510 m long * Hermannshöhle ( Kirchberg am Wechsel ): 4,430 m long * Eisensteinhöhle ( Bad Fischau ): 2,341 m long

The last two are open as show caves , along with the Allander stalactite cave, the Unicorn Cave
Cave
, the Hochkarschacht , the Nixhöhle and the Ötschertropfsteinhöhle .

LAND USE

TYPE OF LAND USE AREA IN KM2 Percent of total area

Farmland 7,000 42

Woods 6,711 40

Grassland 1,750 11

Alpine pastures 300 1.7

Vineyards 315 1.9

HISTORY

Main article: History of Austria
Austria

The history of Lower Austria
Austria
is very similar to the history of Austria
Austria
. Many castles are located in Lower Austria. Klosterneuburg Abbey , located here, is one of the oldest abbeys in Austria. Before World War II
World War II
, Lower Austria
Austria
had the largest number of Jews
Jews
in Austria.

POPULATION

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1869 1,077,232 —

1880 1,152,767 +7.0%

1890 1,213,471 +5.3%

1900 1,310,506 +8.0%

1910 1,425,238 +8.8%

1923 1,426,885 +0.1%

1934 1,446,675 +1.4%

1939 1,455,373 +0.6%

1951 1,400,471 −3.8%

1961 1,374,012 −1.9%

1971 1,420,816 +3.4%

1981 1,426,370 +0.4%

1990 1,455,968 +2.1%

1995 1,518,489 +4.3%

2000 1,535,083 +1.1%

2005 1,568,949 +2.2%

2010 1,605,897 +2.4%

2014 1,625,335 +1.2%

2015 1,636,287 +0.7%

2016 1,653,419 +1.0%

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

View of Krems at the end of Wachau valley

Lower Austria
Austria
is divided into four regions: Waldviertel , Mostviertel , Industrieviertel , and Weinviertel . The Wachau valley, situated between Melk
Melk
and Krems in the Mostviertel region, is famous for its landscape, culture, and wine .

Administratively, the state is divided into 20 districts (Bezirke ), and four independent towns (Statutarstädte ). In total, there are 573 municipalities within Lower Austria. Map of Lower Austria
Austria
showing districts and the four quarters ( Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue)

INDEPENDENT TOWNS

* Krems an der Donau * Sankt Pölten * Waidhofen an der Ybbs * Wiener Neustadt

DISTRICTS

* Amstetten * Baden * Bruck an der Leitha * Gänserndorf * Gmünd * Hollabrunn * Horn * Korneuburg * Krems-Land
Krems-Land
* Lilienfeld * Melk
Melk
* Mistelbach * Mödling * Neunkirchen * Sankt Pölten-Land * Scheibbs * Tulln an der Donau * Waidhofen an der Thaya * Wiener Neustadt-Land * Zwettl

EXTERNAL LINKS

Media related to Lower

.