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Lower Egypt
Egypt
(Arabic: مصر السفلى‎ Miṣr as-Suflā) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile
Nile
Delta, between Upper Egypt
Egypt
and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
— from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History 3 List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt 4 List of nomes 5 See also 6 References

Geography[edit] In ancient times, Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(N.H. 5.11) said that upon reaching the delta the Nile
Nile
split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, and the Canopic. Today there are two principal channels that the Nile
Nile
takes through the river's delta: one in the west at Rashid and one in the east at Damietta. The delta region is well watered, crisscrossed by channels and canals. The climate in Lower Egypt
Egypt
is milder than that of Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
owing primarily to its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Temperatures are less extreme and rainfall is more abundant. History[edit] Lower Egypt
Egypt
was known as Ta-Mehu which means "land of papyrus." It was divided into twenty districts called nomes, the first of which was at el-Lisht. Because Lower Egypt
Egypt
was mostly undeveloped scrubland, undeveloped for human life and filled with all types of plant life such as grasses and herbs, the organization of the nomes underwent several changes. The capital of Lower Egypt
Egypt
was Memphis. Its patron Goddess was the cobra goddess Wadjet. Lower Egypt
Egypt
was represented by the Low Red Crown Deshret, and its symbols were the papyrus and the bee. By about 3600 BC, neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile
Nile
River had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals.[1] Shortly after 3600 BC Egyptian society began to grow and advance rapidly toward refined civilization.[2] A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the pottery in the Southern Levant, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time.[2] The Mesopotamian process of sun-dried bricks, and architectural building principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time.[2] Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile
Nile
River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile
Nile
Delta, or Lower Egypt
Egypt
also underwent a unification process.[2] Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
occurred often.[2] During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer
Narmer
defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
under his single rule.[3]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lower Egypt.

List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt[edit]

Dynasties of Ancient Egypt

All years are BC

Early

First Dynasty I c. 3150–2890

Second Dynasty II 2890–2686

Old Kingdom

Third Dynasty III 2686–2613

Fourth Dynasty IV 2613–2498

Fifth Dynasty V 2498–2345

Sixth Dynasty VI 2345–2181

First Intermediate

Seventh Dynasty VII spurious

Eighth Dynasty VIII 2181–2160

Ninth Dynasty IX 2160–2130

Tenth Dynasty X 2130–2040

Early Eleventh Dynasty XI 2134–2061

Middle Kingdom

Late Eleventh Dynasty XI 2061–1991

Twelfth Dynasty XII 1991–1803

Thirteenth Dynasty XIII 1803–1649

Fourteenth Dynasty XIV 1705–1690

Second Intermediate

Fifteenth Dynasty XV 1674–1535

Sixteenth Dynasty XVI 1660–1600

Abydos Dynasty

1650–1600

Seventeenth Dynasty XVII 1580–1549

New Kingdom

Eighteenth Dynasty XVIII 1549–1292

Nineteenth Dynasty XIX 1292–1189

Twentieth Dynasty XX 1189–1077

Third Intermediate

Twenty-first Dynasty XXI 1069–945

Twenty-second Dynasty XXII 945–720

Twenty-third Dynasty XXIII 837–728

Twenty-fourth Dynasty XXIV 732–720

Twenty-fifth Dynasty XXV 732–653

Late Period

Twenty-sixth Dynasty XXVI 672–525

Twenty-seventh Dynasty (1st Persian Period)

XXVII 525–404

Twenty-eighth Dynasty XXVIII 404–398

Twenty-ninth Dynasty XXIX 398–380

Thirtieth Dynasty XXX 380–343

Thirty-first Dynasty (2nd Persian Period)

XXXI 343–332

Ptolemaic (Hellenistic)

Argead Dynasty 332–305

Ptolemaic Kingdom 305–30

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The Palermo stone, a royal annal written in the mid Fifth Dynasty (c. 2490 BC – c. 2350 BC) records a number of kings reigning over Lower Egypt
Egypt
before Narmer. These are completely unattested outside these inscriptions:

Name

Hsekiu[4]

Khayu[4]

Tiu[4]

Thesh[4]

Neheb[4]

Wazner[4]

Mekh[4]

(destroyed)[4]

In contrast the following kings are attested through archeological finds from Sinai and Lower Egypt: Double Falcon, Crocodile. List of nomes[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Egypt

Prehistoric Egypt pre–3150 BC

Ancient Egypt

Early Dynastic Period 3150–2686 BC

Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC

1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC

Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC

2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC

New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC

3rd Intermediate Period 1069–744 BC

Kushite Egypt 744–656 BC

Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt 664–525 BC

Classical antiquity

Achaemenid Egypt 525–404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty of Egypt 404–398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty of Egypt 398–380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt 380–343 BC

Achaemenid Egypt 343–332 BC

Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt 332–30 BC

Roman and Byzantine Egypt 30 BC–641 AD

Sasanian Egypt 619–629

Middle Ages

Rashidun Egypt 641–661

Umayyad Egypt 661–750

Abbasid Egypt 750–935

Tulunid Egypt 868–905

Ikhshidid Egypt 935–969

Fatimid Egypt 969–1171

Ayyubid Egypt 1171–1250

Mamluk Egypt 1250–1517

Early modern

Ottoman Egypt 1517–1867

French occupation 1798–1801

Egypt
Egypt
under Muhammad Ali 1805–1882

Khedivate of Egypt 1867–1914

Modern Egypt

British occupation 1882–1922

Sultanate of Egypt 1914–1922

Kingdom of Egypt 1922–1953

Republic 1953–present

Egypt
Egypt
portal

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Number Egyptian Name Capital Modern name of capital site Translation

1 Aneb-Hetch Ineb Hedj / Men-nefer / Menfe (Memphis) Mit Rahina White Walls

2 Khensu Khem (Letopolis) Ausim Cow's thigh

3 Ahment Imu (Apis) Kom El Hisn West

4 Sapi-Res Ptkheka Tanta Southern shield

5 Sap-Meh Zau (Sais) Sa El Hagar Northern shield

6 Khaset Khasu (Xois) Sakha Mountain bull

7 A-ment (Hermopolis Parva, Metelis) Damanhur West harpoon

8 A-bt Tjeku / Per-Atum (Heroonpolis, Pithom) Tell El Maskhuta East harpoon

9 Ati Djed (Busiris) Abu Sir Bara Andjeti

10 Ka-khem Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) Banha
Banha
(Tell Atrib) Black bull

11 Ka-heseb Taremu (Leontopolis) Tell El Urydam Heseb bull

12 Theb-ka Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos) Samanud Calf and Cow

13 Heq-At Iunu
Iunu
(Heliopolis) Materiya (suburb of Cairo) Prospering Sceptre

14 Khent-abt Tjaru (Sile, Tanis) Tell Abu Sefa Eastmost

15 Tehut Ba'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva) Baqliya Ibis

16 Kha Djedet (Mendes) Tell El Rubˁ Fish

17 Semabehdet Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior) Tel El Balamun The throne

18 Am-Khent Per-Bastet (Bubastis) Tell Bastah (near Zagazig) Prince of the South

19 Am-Pehu Dja'net ( Leontopolis
Leontopolis
Tanis) Tell Nebesha
Tell Nebesha
or San El Hagar Prince of the North

20 Sopdu Per-Sopdu Saft El Hinna Plumed Falcon

See also[edit]

Upper Egypt Middle Egypt Upper and Lower Egypt Nomes of Egypt Geography of Egypt Ancient Egypt

References[edit]

^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishing: New York, 1966) p. 51. ^ a b c d e Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons: New York, 1966) p. 52-53. ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishers: New York, 1966), p. 53. ^ a b c d e f g h Breasted (1909) p.36

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Ancient Egypt
Egypt
topics

Outline Index Major topics Glossary of artifacts

Agriculture Architecture (Egyptian Revival architecture) Art Astronomy Chronology Cities (list) Clothing Cuisine Dynasties Funerary practices Geography Great Royal Wives History Language Literature Mathematics Medicine Military Music Mythology People Pharaohs (list) Philosophy Religion Sites Technology Trade Writing

Egyptology Egyptologists Museums

Book Category Ancient Egypt
Egypt
portal WikiProject Commons

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Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland

Mbaise

Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean islands

Comoros Islands

North Africa

Maghreb

Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile
Nile
Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile
Nile
Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa

Madagascar

Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands

Rhodesia

North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay

Macro-regions

Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountai

.