Loukozoa (From Greek loukos: groove[1]) is a proposed taxon used in some classifications of excavate eukaryotes.[2]

Originally, Loukozoa included Anaeromonadea and Jakobea.[1] In 2013, it consisted of three subphyla: Eolouka (Tsukubea and Jakobea), Metamonada and Neolouka (Malawimonas).[3] Cavalier-Smith has recently removed Eolouka from Loukozoa.[2][4]

The monophyly and phylogenic position of this Loukozoa is not clear. Some studies suggest the relationship with Amorphea.[5][6] Malawimonas especially appears to more closely related to Amorphea than sulcozoan ancyromonads.[7][8]


  1. ^ a b c Cavalier-Smith, T. (1999). "Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: Euglenoid, dinoflagellate, and sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 46 (4): 347–366. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1999.tb04614.x. PMID 18092388. 
  2. ^ a b Cavalier-Smith, Thomas. "Euglenoid pellicle morphogenesis and evolution in light of comparative ultrastructure and trypanosomatid biology: semi-conservative microtubule/strip duplication, strip shaping and transformation". European Journal of Protistology. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2017.09.002. 
  3. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas. "Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa". European Journal of Protistology. 49 (2): 115–178. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.06.001. 
  4. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2018-01-01). "Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences". Protoplasma. 255 (1): 297–357. doi:10.1007/s00709-017-1147-3. ISSN 0033-183X. 
  5. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Snell, Elizabeth A.; Berney, Cédric; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Lewis, Rhodri. "Multigene eukaryote phylogeny reveals the likely protozoan ancestors of opisthokonts (animals, fungi, choanozoans) and Amoebozoa". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 81: 71–85. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.08.012. 
  6. ^ Derelle, Romain; Torruella, Guifré; Klimeš, Vladimír; Brinkmann, Henner; Kim, Eunsoo; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B. Franz; Eliáš, Marek (2015-02-17). "Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693–E699. doi:10.1073/pnas.1420657112. 
  7. ^ Brown, Matthew W.; Heiss, Aaron; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Yabuki, Akinori; Tice, Alexander K.; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken; Hashimoto, Tetsuo (2017-12-03). "Phylogenomics places orphan protistan lineages in a novel eukaryotic super-group". bioRxiv: 227884. doi:10.1101/227884. 
  8. ^ Torruella, Guifré; Mendoza, Alex de; Grau-Bové, Xavier; Antó, Meritxell; Chaplin, Mark A.; Campo, Javier del; Eme, Laura; Pérez-Cordón, Gregorio; Whipps, Christopher M. "Phylogenomics Reveals Convergent Evolution of Lifestyles in Close Relatives of Animals and Fungi". Current Biology. 25 (18): 2404–2410. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.07.053.