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As of 2010[1]

English 91.26% French 3.45% (incl. Cajun
Cajun
and Creole) Spanish 3.30% Vietnamese 0.59%

Demonym Louisianan or Louisianian

Capital Baton Rouge

Largest city New Orleans[2][3][4]

Largest metro Greater New Orleans

Area Ranked 31st

 • Total 52,378.13 sq mi (135,382 km2)

 • Width 130 miles (210 km)

 • Length 379 miles (610 km)

 • % water 15

 • Latitude 28° 56′ N to 33° 01′ N

 • Longitude 88° 49′ W to 94° 03′ W

Population Ranked 25th

 • Total 4,681,666 (2016 est.)[5]

 • Density 93.6/sq mi  (34.6/km2) Ranked 24th

 • Median household income $45,992[6] (45th)

Elevation

 • Highest point Driskill Mountain[7][8] 535 ft (163 m)

 • Mean 100 ft  (30 m)

 • Lowest point New Orleans[7][8] −8 ft (−2.5 m)

Before statehood Territory
Territory
of Orleans

Admission to Union April 30, 1812 (18th)

Governor John Bel Edwards
John Bel Edwards
(D)

Lieutenant Governor Billy Nungesser
Billy Nungesser
(R)

Legislature State Legislature

 • Upper house State Senate

 • Lower house House of Representatives

U.S. Senators Bill Cassidy
Bill Cassidy
(R) John Neely Kennedy
John Neely Kennedy
(R)

U.S. House
U.S. House
delegation 5 Republicans, 1 Democrat (list)

Time zone Central: UTC −6/−5

ISO 3166 US-LA

Abbreviations LA, La.

Website louisiana.gov

Louisiana
Louisiana
state symbols

The Flag of Louisiana

The Seal of Louisiana

Living insignia

Bird Brown pelican

Dog breed Catahoula Leopard Dog

Fish White perch

Flower Magnolia

Insect Honeybee

Mammal Black bear

Reptile Alligator

Tree Bald cypress

Inanimate insignia

Beverage Milk

Fossil Petrified palmwood

Gemstone Agate

Instrument Diatonic accordion

Motto Union, Justice, Confidence

Song "Give Me Louisiana" "You Are My Sunshine" "State March Song" "Gifts of the Earth"

State route marker

State quarter

Released in 2002

Lists of United States
United States
state symbols

Louisiana
Louisiana
entrance sign off Interstate 20
Interstate 20
in Madison Parish east of Tallulah

Louisiana
Louisiana
(/luˌiːziˈænə/ ( listen), /ˌluːzi-/ ( listen))[a] is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is the 31st in size and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana's capital is Baton Rouge and its largest city is New Orleans. It is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are the local government's equivalent to counties. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
Parish, and the largest by total area is Plaquemines. Louisiana
Louisiana
is bordered by Arkansas
Arkansas
to the north, Mississippi
Mississippi
to the east, Texas
Texas
to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
to the south. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp.[10][self-published source] These contain a rich southern biota; typical examples include birds such as ibis and egrets. There are also many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, and has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas. These support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of orchids and carnivorous plants.[10] Louisiana
Louisiana
has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, and four that have not yet received recognition.[11] Some Louisiana
Louisiana
urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so strongly influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, and African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana
Louisiana
State had been both a French colony and for a brief period, a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo- Americans
Americans
increased the pressure for Anglicization, and in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana
Louisiana
schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974.[12][13] There has never been an official language in Louisiana, and the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve, foster, and promote their respective historic, linguistic, and cultural origins."[12]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geology 3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Hurricanes since 1950

4 Publicly-owned land

4.1 National Park Service 4.2 US Forest Service 4.3 State parks and recreational areas 4.4 Wildlife management areas 4.5 Natural and Scenic Rivers

5 Transportation

5.1 Interstate highways 5.2 United States
United States
highways

6 History

6.1 Pre-colonial history 6.2 Exploration and colonization by Europeans 6.3 Expansion of slavery 6.4 Haitian migration and influence 6.5 Purchase by the United States
United States
(1803) 6.6 Statehood (1812) 6.7 Secession and the Civil War (1860–1865) 6.8 Post-Civil War to mid-20th century (1865–1945) 6.9 Post- World War II
World War II
(1945–) 6.10 2000 to present

7 Demographics

7.1 Race and ethnicity 7.2 Religion 7.3 Major cities

8 Economy

8.1 Federal subsidies and spending 8.2 Energy

9 Law and government

9.1 Administrative divisions 9.2 Civil law 9.3 Marriage 9.4 Elections 9.5 Law enforcement 9.6 Judiciary

10 National Guard 11 Media 12 Education 13 Sports 14 Culture

14.1 African culture 14.2 Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole culture 14.3 Acadian
Acadian
culture 14.4 Isleño culture 14.5 Languages 14.6 Literature 14.7 Music

15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Bibliography 19 External links

19.1 Geology links 19.2 Government 19.3 U.S. government 19.4 News media 19.5 Ecoregions 19.6 Tourism

Etymology[edit] Louisiana
Louisiana
was named after Louis XIV, King of France
France
from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi
Mississippi
River for France, he named it La Louisiane.[14] The suffix -ana (or -ane) is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus, roughly, Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory
Territory
stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada– United States
United States
border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta
Alberta
and Saskatchewan. Geology[edit] Main article: Mississippi
Mississippi
River Delta The Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea. As Pangea
Pangea
split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
opened. Louisiana
Louisiana
slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south.[10] The oldest rocks are exposed in the north, in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago. The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana.[15] The youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, Lafourche, the modern Mississippi, and now the Atchafalaya.[16] The sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, and the relatively new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces. Their age and distribution can be largely related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter.[17] Salt domes are also found in Louisiana. Their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state; one of the most familiar is Avery Island.[18] Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt; they also serve as underground traps for oil and gas.[19] Geography[edit]

Map of Louisiana

Aerial view of Louisiana
Louisiana
wetland habitats.

A field of yellow wildflowers in Saint Bernard Parish

Honey Island Swamp

Entrance to the Bald Eagle Nest Trail at South Toledo Bend State Park

Bogue Chitto State Park

Louisiana
Louisiana
is bordered to the west by Texas; to the north by Arkansas; to the east by Mississippi; and to the south by the Gulf of Mexico. The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, and the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, and barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles (52,000 km2). This area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 miles (1,000 km) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico; the Red River; the Ouachita River
Ouachita River
and its branches; and other minor streams (some of which are called bayous). The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi
Mississippi
is from 10 to 60 miles (15 to 100 km), and along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles (15 km) across. The Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits (known as a levee), from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile (3 m/km). The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features. The higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles (65,000 km2). They consist of prairie and woodlands. The elevations above sea level range from 10 feet (3 m) at the coast and swamp lands to 50 and 60 feet (15–18 m) at the prairie and alluvial lands. In the uplands and hills, the elevations rise to Driskill Mountain, the highest point in the state at only 535 feet (163 m) above sea level. From years 1932 to 2010 the state lost 1,800 sq. miles due to rises in sea level and erosion. The Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA) spends around $1 billion per year to help shore up and protect Louisiana
Louisiana
shoreline and land in both federal and state funding.[20] Besides the waterways already named, there are the Sabine, forming the western boundary; and the Pearl, the eastern boundary; the Calcasieu (/ˈkælkəˌʃuː/), the Mermentau, the Vermilion, Bayou Teche, the Atchafalaya (/əˌtʃæfəˈlaɪə/), the Boeuf (/bɛf/), Bayou Lafourche, the Courtableau River, Bayou D'Arbonne, the Macon River, the Tensas (/ˈtɛnsɔː/), Amite River, the Tchefuncte (/tʃɪˈfʌŋktə/), the Tickfaw, the Natalbany River, and a number of other smaller streams, constituting a natural system of navigable waterways, aggregating over 4,000 miles (6,400 km) long. The state also has political jurisdiction over the approximately 3-mile (4.8 km)-wide portion of subsea land of the inner continental shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. Through a peculiarity of the political geography of the United States, this is substantially less than the 9-mile (14 km)-wide jurisdiction of nearby states Texas and Florida, which, like Louisiana, have extensive Gulf coastlines.[21] The southern coast of Louisiana
Louisiana
in the United States
United States
is among the fastest-disappearing areas in the world. This has largely resulted from human mismanagement of the coast (see Wetlands
Wetlands
of Louisiana). At one time, the land was added to when spring floods from the Mississippi
Mississippi
River added sediment and stimulated marsh growth; the land is now shrinking. There are multiple causes.[22][23] Artificial levees block spring flood water that would bring fresh water and sediment to marshes. Swamps have been extensively logged, leaving canals and ditches that allow saline water to move inland. Canals dug for the oil and gas industry also allow storms to move sea water inland, where it damages swamps and marshes. Rising sea waters have exacerbated the problem. Some researchers estimate that the state is losing a land mass equivalent to 30 football fields every day. There are many proposals to save coastal areas by reducing human damage, including restoring natural floods from the Mississippi. Without such restoration, coastal communities will continue to disappear.[24] And as the communities disappear, more and more people are leaving the region.[25] Since the coastal wetlands support an economically important coastal fishery, the loss of wetlands is adversely affecting this industry. Climate[edit]

Baton Rouge

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    5.9     62 42

    5     65 44

    5     72 51

    5.3     78 57

    5.2     84 64

    5.8     89 70

    5.4     91 73

    5.7     91 72

    4.5     88 68

    3.6     81 57

    4.8     71 48

    5.2     64 43

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Source: [26]

Metric conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    151     17 6

    127     18 7

    126     22 11

    134     26 14

    133     29 18

    148     32 21

    137     33 23

    145     33 22

    115     31 20

    92     27 14

    122     22 9

    131     18 6

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

New Orleans

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    5.9     64 44

    5.5     66 47

    5.2     73 53

    5     79 59

    4.6     85 66

    6.8     90 72

    6.2     91 74

    6.2     91 74

    5.6     88 70

    3.1     80 61

    5.1     72 52

    5.1     65 46

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Source: as above

Metric conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    149     18 7

    139     19 8

    133     23 12

    128     26 15

    117     29 19

    173     32 22

    157     33 23

    156     33 23

    141     31 21

    77     27 16

    129     22 11

    129     18 8

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Louisiana
Louisiana
has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). It has long, hot, humid summers and short, mild winters. The subtropical characteristics of the state are due in large part to the influence of the Gulf of Mexico, which at its farthest point is no more than 200 miles (320 km) away. The combined effect of the warm Gulf waters, low elevation, and low latitude create the mild subtropical climate Louisiana
Louisiana
is known for. Rain is frequent throughout the year, although the summer is slightly wetter than the rest of the year. There is a dip in precipitation in October. Southern Louisiana
Louisiana
receives far more copious rainfall, especially during the winter months. Summers in Louisiana
Louisiana
have high temperatures from mid-June to mid-September averaging 90 °F (32 °C) or more, and overnight lows averaging above 70 °F (22 °C). In the summer, the extreme maximum temperature is much warmer in the north than in the south, with temperatures near the Gulf of Mexico occasionally reaching 100 °F (38 °C), although temperatures above 95 °F (35 °C) are commonplace. In northern Louisiana, the temperatures reach above 105 °F (41 °C) in the summer. Temperatures are generally warm in the winter in the southern part of the state, with highs around New Orleans, Baton Rouge, the rest of south Louisiana, and the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
averaging 66 °F (19 °C). The northern part of the state is mildly cool in the winter, with highs averaging 59 °F (15 °C). The overnight lows in the winter average well above freezing throughout the state, with 46 °F (8 °C) the average near the Gulf and an average low of 37 °F (3 °C) in the winter in the northern part of the state. Louisiana
Louisiana
gets some cold fronts, which frequently drop the temperatures below 20 °F (−8 °C) in the northern part of the state, but almost never do so in the southern part of the state. Snow is rare near the Gulf of Mexico, although residents in the northern parts of the state can expect one to three snowfalls per year, with the frequency increasing northwards. Louisiana's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F (46 °C) in Plain Dealing on August 10, 1936, while the coldest recorded temperature is −16 °F (−27 °C) at Minden on February 13, 1899. Louisiana
Louisiana
is often affected by tropical cyclones and is very vulnerable to strikes by major hurricanes, particularly the lowlands around and in the New Orleans
New Orleans
area. The unique geography of the region, with the many bayous, marshes and inlets, can result in water damage across a wide area from major hurricanes. The area is also prone to frequent thunderstorms, especially in the summer.[27] The entire state averages over 60 days of thunderstorms a year, more than any other state except Florida. Louisiana
Louisiana
averages 27 tornadoes annually. The entire state is vulnerable to a tornado strike, with the extreme southern portion of the state slightly less so than the rest of the state. Tornadoes are more common from January to March in the southern part of the state, and from February through March in the northern part of the state.[27]

Average temperatures in Louisiana
Louisiana
(°F)

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec   Annual  

Shreveport[28] 47.0 50.8 58.1 65.5 73.4 80.0 83.2 83.3 77.1 66.6 56.6 48.3 65.9

Monroe[28] 46.3 50.3 57.8 65.6 73.9 80.4 82.8 82.5 76.5 66.0 56.3 48.0 65.5

Alexandria[28] 48.5 52.1 59.3 66.4 74.5 80.7 83.2 83.2 78.0 68.0 58.6 50.2 66.9

Lake Charles[29] 51.8 55.0 61.4 68.1 75.6 81.1 82.9 83.0 78.7 70.1 61.1 53.8 68.6

Lafayette[29] 51.8 55.2 61.5 68.3 75.9 81.0 82.8 82.9 78.5 69.7 61.0 53.7 68.5

Baton Rouge[30] 51.3 54.6 61.1 67.6 75.2 80.7 82.5 82.5 78.1 68.9 60.0 52.9 68.0

New Orleans[30] 54.3 57.6 63.6 70.1 77.5 82.4 84.0 84.1 80.2 72.2 63.5 56.2 70.3

Hurricanes since 1950[edit]

August 28–29, 2012, Isaac ( Category 1 at landfall) hits southeast Louisiana
Louisiana
7 years after Katrina (2005). September 1, 2008, Gustav ( Category 2 at landfall) made landfall along the coast near Cocodrie in southeastern Louisiana. As late as August 31 it had been projected by the National Hurricane Center
National Hurricane Center
that the hurricane would remain at Category 3 or above on September 1, but in the event the center of Gustav made landfall as a strong Category 2 hurricane (1 mph below Category 3), and dropped to Category 1 soon after.[31] As a result of NHC's forecasts, a massive evacuation of New Orleans
New Orleans
took place after many residents having failed to leave for Katrina in 2005.[32] A significant number of deaths were caused by or attributed to Gustav.[33] Around 1.5 million people were without power in Louisiana
Louisiana
on September 1.[34] September 24, 2005, Rita ( Category 3 at landfall) struck southwestern Louisiana, flooding many parishes and cities along the coast, including Cameron Parish, Lake Charles, and other towns. The storm's winds weakened the damaged levees in New Orleans
New Orleans
and caused renewed flooding in parts of the city. August 29, 2005, Katrina ( Category 3 at landfall)[35] struck and devastated southeastern Louisiana, where it breached and undermined levees in New Orleans, causing 80% of the city to flood. Most people had been evacuated, but the majority of the population became homeless. The city was virtually closed until October. It is estimated that more than two million people in the Gulf region were displaced by the hurricane, and that more than 1,500 fatalities resulted in Louisiana
Louisiana
alone. A public outcry criticized governments at the local, state, and federal levels, for lack of preparation and slowness of response. Louisiana
Louisiana
residents relocated across the country for temporary housing, and many have not returned.

Further information: Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
effects by region § Louisiana, and Effects of Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
in New Orleans

October 3, 2002, Lili ( Category 1 at landfall) August 1992, Andrew ( Category 3 at landfall) struck south-central Louisiana. It killed four people; knocked out power to nearly 150,000 citizens; and destroyed crops worth hundreds of millions of dollars. August 1969, Camille ( Category 5) caused a 23.4 ft (7.1 m) storm surge and killed 250 people. Although Camille officially made landfall in Mississippi
Mississippi
and the worst damage occurred there, it also had effects in Louisiana. New Orleans
New Orleans
remained dry, with the exception of mild rain-generated flooding in the most low-lying areas. September 9, 1965, Betsy ( Category 3 at landfall) came ashore in Louisiana, causing massive destruction as the first hurricane in history to cause one billion dollars in damage (over ten billion in inflation-adjusted USD). The storm hit New Orleans
New Orleans
and flooded nearly 35% of the city (including the Lower 9th Ward, Gentilly, and parts of Mid-City). The death toll in the state was 76. June 1957, Audrey ( Category 4) devastated southwest Louisiana, destroying or severely damaging 60–80 percent of the homes and businesses from Cameron to Grand Chenier. 40,000 people were left homeless and more than 300 people in the state died. August 15–17, 1915: A hurricane made landfall just west of Galveston. Gales howled throughout Cameron and Vermilion Parishes and as far east as Mobile. It produced storm surge of 11 feet at Cameron (called Leesburg at the time), 10 feet at Grand Cheniere, and 9.5 feet at Marsh Island; Grand Isle reported water 6 feet deep across the city. The lightkeeper at the Sabine Pass lighthouse had to turn the lens by hand, as vibrations caused by the wave action put the clockwork out of order. At Sabine Bank, 17 miles offshore the Mouth of the Sabine, damage was noted. Damage estimates for Louisiana
Louisiana
and Texas totaled around $50 million.[36]

Over 300 people drowned below Montegut – four can be identified as white, none of the others have been identified and are assumed to be Indians. The Indian settlement was about 10 miles below Montegut, called by the Indians – Taire-bonne – is now in swamp and can only be reached by boat. This hurricane caused the survivors to move to higher ground.

Publicly-owned land[edit] Owing to its location and geology, the state has high biological diversity. Some vital areas, such as southwestern prairie, have experienced a loss in excess of 98 percent. The pine flatwoods are also at great risk, mostly from fire suppression and urban sprawl.[10] There is not yet a properly organized system of natural areas to represent and protect Louisiana's biological diversity. Such a system would consist of a protected system of core areas linked by biological corridors, such as Florida
Florida
is planning.[37] Louisiana
Louisiana
contains a number of areas which, to varying degrees, prevent people from using them.[38] In addition to National Park Service areas and a United States
United States
National Forest, Louisiana
Louisiana
operates a system of state parks, state historic sites, one state preservation area, one state forest, and many Wildlife Management Areas. One of Louisiana's largest government-owned areas is Kisatchie National Forest. It is some 600,000 acres in area, more than half of which is flatwoods vegetation, which supports many rare plant and animal species.[10] These include the Louisiana
Louisiana
pine snake and Red-cockaded woodpecker. The system of government-owned cypress swamps around Lake Pontchartrain
Lake Pontchartrain
is another large area, with southern wetland species including egrets, alligators, and sturgeon. At least 12 core areas would be needed to build a "protected areas system" for the state; these would range from southwestern prairies, to the Pearl River Floodplain in the east, to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River alluvial swamps in the north.[10] National Park Service[edit] Historic or scenic areas managed, protected, or otherwise recognized by the National Park Service
National Park Service
include:

Atchafalaya National Heritage Area
Atchafalaya National Heritage Area
in Ascension Parish; Cane River National Heritage Area near Natchitoches; Cane River Creole National Historical Park
Cane River Creole National Historical Park
near Natchitoches; Jean Lafitte
Jean Lafitte
National Historical Park
National Historical Park
and Preserve, headquartered in New Orleans, with units in St. Bernard Parish, Barataria (Crown Point), and Acadiana
Acadiana
(Lafayette); Poverty Point National Monument
Poverty Point National Monument
at Epps, Louisiana; and Saline Bayou, a designated National Wild and Scenic River
National Wild and Scenic River
near Winn Parish in northern Louisiana.

US Forest Service[edit]

Kisatchie National Forest
Kisatchie National Forest
is Louisiana's only national forest. It includes 600,000 acres in central and north Louisiana
Louisiana
with large areas of flatwoods and longleaf pine forest.

State parks and recreational areas[edit] See also: List of Louisiana state parks
List of Louisiana state parks
and List of Louisiana
Louisiana
state historic sites Louisiana
Louisiana
operates a system of 22 state parks, 17 state historic sites and one state preservation area. Wildlife management areas[edit] Louisiana
Louisiana
has 955,973 acres, in four ecoregions under the wildlife management of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Department of Wildlife and Fisheriess. The Nature Conservancy also owns and manages a set of natural areas. Natural and Scenic Rivers[edit] The Louisiana
Louisiana
Natural and Scenic Rivers System provides a degree of protection for 51 rivers, streams and bayous in the state. It is administered by the Louisiana
Louisiana
Department of Wildlife and Fisheries.[39] Transportation[edit] The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development
Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development
is the state government organization in charge of maintaining public transportation, roadways, bridges, canals, select levees, floodplain management, port facilities, commercial vehicles, and aviation which includes 69 airports. See also: List of numbered highways in Louisiana

Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
near New Orleans

Interstate highways[edit]

I-10

I-110 I-210 I-310 I-510 I-610 I-910 (unsigned)

I‑12 I-20

I-220

I-49 I-55 I-59 Future I-69

United States
United States
highways[edit]

US 11 US 51 US 61 US 63 US 65

US 165

US 167 US 71

US 171 US 371

US 79 US 80 US 84

US 90

US 190

US 425

The Intracoastal Waterway
Intracoastal Waterway
is an important means of transporting commercial goods such as petroleum and petroleum products, agricultural produce, building materials and manufactured goods. In 2011, Louisiana
Louisiana
ranked among the five deadliest states for debris/litter-caused vehicle accidents per total number of registered vehicles and population size. Figures derived from[40] the NTSHA show at least 25 persons in Louisiana
Louisiana
were killed per year in motor vehicle collisions with non-fixed objects, including debris, dumped litter, animals and their carcasses. History[edit] Main article: History of Louisiana Pre-colonial history[edit]

Watson Brake, the oldest mound complex in North America

Louisiana
Louisiana
was inhabited by Native Americans
Americans
for many millennia before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century. During the Middle Archaic period, Louisiana
Louisiana
was the site of the earliest mound complex in North America
North America
and one of the earliest dated, complex constructions in the Americas, the Watson Brake
Watson Brake
site near present-day Monroe. An 11-mound complex, it was built about 5400 BP (3500 BCE).[41] The Middle Archaic sites of Caney and Frenchman's Bend have also been securely dated to 5600–5000 BP (3700-3100 BCE), demonstrating that seasonal hunter-gatherers organized to build complex earthwork constructions in present-day northern Louisiana. These discoveries overturned previous assumptions in archaeology that such complex mounds were built only by cultures of more settled peoples who were dependent on maize cultivation. The Hedgepeth Site in Lincoln Parish is more recent, dated to 5200–4500 BP (3300-2600).[42]

Poverty Point
Poverty Point
UNESCO
UNESCO
site

Nearly 2,000 years later, Poverty Point
Poverty Point
was built; it is the largest and best-known Late Archaic site in the state. The city of modern-day Epps developed near it. The Poverty Point
Poverty Point
culture may have reached its peak around 1500 BCE, making it the first complex culture, and possibly the first tribal culture in North America.[43] It lasted until approximately 700 BCE. The Poverty Point
Poverty Point
culture was followed by the Tchefuncte and Lake Cormorant cultures of the Tchula period, local manifestations of Early Woodland period. The Tchefuncte culture were the first people in the area of Louisiana
Louisiana
to make large amounts of pottery.[44] These cultures lasted until 200 CE. The Middle Woodland period
Woodland period
started in Louisiana with the Marksville culture
Marksville culture
in the southern and eastern part of the state, reaching across the Mississippi
Mississippi
River to the east around Natchez[45] and the Fourche Maline culture
Fourche Maline culture
in the northwestern part of the state. The Marksville culture
Marksville culture
was named after the Marksville Prehistoric Indian Site in Avoyelles
Avoyelles
Parish.

Troyville Earthworks, once the second tallest earthworks in North America

These cultures were contemporaneous with the Hopewell cultures of present-day Ohio
Ohio
and Illinois, and participated in the Hopewell Exchange Network. Trade with peoples to the southwest brought the bow and arrow.[46] The first burial mounds were built at this time.[47] Political power began to be consolidated, as the first platform mounds at ritual centers were onstructed for the developing hereditary political and religious leadership.[47] By 400 CE the Late Woodland period
Woodland period
period had begun with the Baytown culture, Troyville culture, and Coastal Troyville during the Baytown Period and were succeeded by the Coles Creek cultures. Where the Baytown peoples built dispersed settlements, the Troyville people instead continued building major earthwork centers.[48][49][50] Population increased dramatically and there is strong evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity. Many Coles Creek sites were erected over earlier Woodland period
Woodland period
mortuary mounds. Scholars have speculated that emerging elites were symbolically and physically appropriating dead ancestors to emphasize and project their own authority.[51] The Mississippian period in Louisiana
Louisiana
was when the Plaquemine and the Caddoan Mississippian cultures developed, and the peoples adopted extensive maize agriculture, cultivating different strains of the plant by saving seeds, selecting for certain characteristics, etc. The Plaquemine culture
Plaquemine culture
in the lower Mississippi
Mississippi
River Valley in western Mississippi
Mississippi
and eastern Louisiana
Louisiana
began in 1200 CE and continued to about 1600 CE. Examples in Louisiana
Louisiana
include the Medora Site, the archaeological type site for the culture in West Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
Parish whose characteristics helped define the culture,[52] the Atchafalaya Basin Mounds in St Mary Parish,[53] the Fitzhugh Mounds
Fitzhugh Mounds
in Madison Parish,[54] the Scott Place Mounds
Scott Place Mounds
in Union Parish,[55] and the Sims Site in St Charles Parish.[56] Plaquemine culture
Plaquemine culture
was contemporaneous with the Middle Mississippian culture that is represented by its largest settlement, the Cahokia site in Illinois
Illinois
east of St. Louis, Missouri. At its peak Cahokia
Cahokia
is estimated to have had a population of more than 20,000. The Plaquemine culture is considered ancestral to the historic Natchez and Taensa peoples, whose descendants encountered Europeans in the colonial era.[57] By 1000 CE in the northwestern part of the state, the Fourche Maline culture had evolved into the Caddoan Mississippian culture. The Caddoan Mississippians occupied a large territory, including what is now eastern Oklahoma, western Arkansas, northeast Texas, and northwest Louisiana. Archaeological evidence has demonstrated that the cultural continuity is unbroken from prehistory to the present. The Caddo
Caddo
and related Caddo-language speakers in prehistoric times and at first European contact were the direct ancestors of the modern Caddo
Caddo
Nation of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
of today.[58] Significant Caddoan Mississippian archaeological sites in Louisiana
Louisiana
include Belcher Mound Site
Belcher Mound Site
in Caddo Parish[59] and Gahagan Mounds Site
Gahagan Mounds Site
in Red River Parish.[60] Many current place names in Louisiana, including Atchafalaya, Natchitouches (now spelled Natchitoches), Caddo, Houma, Tangipahoa, and Avoyel
Avoyel
(as Avoyelles), are transliterations of those used in various Native American languages. Exploration and colonization by Europeans[edit] Further information: French colonization of the Americas

Louisiana
Louisiana
regions

The first European explorers to visit Louisiana
Louisiana
came in 1528 when a Spanish expedition led by Panfilo de Narváez
Panfilo de Narváez
located the mouth of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. In 1542, Hernando de Soto's expedition skirted to the north and west of the state (encountering Caddo
Caddo
and Tunica groups) and then followed the Mississippi
Mississippi
River down to the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
in 1543. Spanish interest in Louisiana
Louisiana
faded away for a century and a half. In the late 17th century, French and French Canadian expeditions, which included sovereign, religious and commercial aims, established a foothold on the Mississippi
Mississippi
River and Gulf Coast. With its first settlements, France
France
laid claim to a vast region of North America
North America
and set out to establish a commercial empire and French nation stretching from the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
to Canada. In 1682, the French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle
Robert Cavelier de La Salle
named the region Louisiana
Louisiana
to honor King Louis XIV of France. The first permanent settlement, Fort Maurepas (at what is now Ocean Springs, Mississippi, near Biloxi), was founded in 1699 by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, a French military officer from Canada. By then the French had also built a small fort at the mouth of the Mississippi
Mississippi
at a settlement they named La Balise (or La Balize), "seamark" in French. By 1721 they built a 62-foot (19 m) wooden lighthouse-type structure here to guide ships on the river.[61] A royal ordinance of 1722—following the Crown's transfer of the Illinois
Illinois
Country's governance from Canada
Canada
to Louisiana—may have featured the broadest definition of Louisiana: all land claimed by France
France
south of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
between the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and the Alleghenies.[62] A generation later, trade conflicts between Canada and Louisiana
Louisiana
led to a more defined boundary between the French colonies; in 1745, Louisiana
Louisiana
governor general Vaudreuil set the northern and eastern bounds of his domain as the Wabash valley up to the mouth of the Vermilion River (near present-day Danville, Illinois); from there, northwest to le Rocher on the Illinois
Illinois
River, and from there west to the mouth of the Rock River (at present day Rock Island, Illinois).[62] Thus, Vincennes and Peoria were the limit of Louisiana's reach; the outposts at Ouiatenon
Ouiatenon
(on the upper Wabash near present-day Lafayette, Indiana), Chicago, Fort Miamis
Fort Miamis
(near present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana), and Prairie du Chien, Illinois, operated as dependencies of Canada.[62] The settlement of Natchitoches (along the Red River in present-day northwest Louisiana) was established in 1714 by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, making it the oldest permanent European settlement in the modern state of Louisiana. The French settlement had two purposes: to establish trade with the Spanish in Texas
Texas
via the Old San Antonio Road, and to deter Spanish advances into Louisiana. The settlement soon became a flourishing river port and crossroads, giving rise to vast cotton kingdoms along the river that were worked by imported African slaves. Over time, planters developed large plantations and built fine homes in a growing town. This became a pattern repeated in New Orleans
New Orleans
and other places, although the commodity crop in the south was primarily sugar cane.

French Acadians, who came to be known as Cajuns, settled the swamps of southern Louisiana, especially in the Atchafalaya Basin.

Louisiana's French settlements contributed to further exploration and outposts, concentrated along the banks of the Mississippi
Mississippi
and its major tributaries, from Louisiana
Louisiana
to as far north as the region called the Illinois
Illinois
Country, around present-day St. Louis, Missouri. The latter was settled by French colonists from Illinois. Initially, Mobile and then Biloxi served as the capital of La Louisiane. Recognizing the importance of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River to trade and military interests, and wanting to protect the capital from severe coastal storms, France
France
developed New Orleans
New Orleans
from 1722 as the seat of civilian and military authority south of the Great Lakes. From then until the United States
United States
acquired the territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, France
France
and Spain
Spain
jockeyed for control of New Orleans and the lands west of the Mississippi. In the 1720s, German immigrants settled along the Mississippi
Mississippi
River, in a region referred to as the German Coast. France
France
ceded most of its territory to the east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
to Great Britain
Great Britain
in 1763, in the aftermath of Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
(generally referred to in North America
North America
as the French and Indian War). The rest of Louisiana, including the area around New Orleans and the parishes around Lake Pontchartrain, had become a colony of Spain
Spain
by the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762). The transfer of power on either side of the river would be delayed until later in the decade. In 1765, during Spanish rule, several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia
Acadia
(now Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, Canada) made their way to Louisiana
Louisiana
after having been expelled from their homelands by the British during the French and Indian War. They settled chiefly in the southwestern Louisiana
Louisiana
region now called Acadiana. The Spanish, eager to gain more Catholic
Catholic
settlers, welcomed the Acadian
Acadian
refugees, the ancestors of Louisiana's Cajuns. Spanish Canary Islanders, called Isleños, emigrated from the Canary Islands of Spain
Spain
to Louisiana
Louisiana
under the Spanish crown between 1778 and 1783. In 1800, France's Napoleon Bonaparte reacquired Louisiana
Louisiana
from Spain in the Treaty of San Ildefonso, an arrangement kept secret for two years. Expansion of slavery[edit] Main article: History of slavery in Louisiana Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville
brought the first two African slaves to Louisiana
Louisiana
in 1708, transporting them from a French colony in the West Indies. In 1709, French financier Antoine Crozat obtained a monopoly of commerce in La Louisiane, which extended from the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
to what is now Illinois. "That concession allowed him to bring in a cargo of blacks from Africa
Africa
every year," the British historian Hugh Thomas wrote.[63] Physical conditions, including disease, were so harsh there was high mortality among both the colonists and the slaves, resulting in continuing demand and importation of slaves. Starting in 1719, traders began to import slaves in higher numbers; two French ships, the Du Maine
Maine
and the Aurore, arrived in New Orleans carrying more than 500 black slaves coming from Africa. Previous slaves in Louisiana
Louisiana
had been transported from French colonies in the West Indies. By the end of 1721, New Orleans
New Orleans
counted 1256 inhabitants, of whom about half were slaves. In 1724, the French government issued a law called the Code Noir ("Black Code" in English) which "regulate[d] the interaction of whites [blancs] and blacks [noirs] in its colony of Louisiana[64] (which was much larger than the current state of Louisiana). The law consisted of fifty-seven articles which regulated religion in the colony, outlawed "interracial" marriages (those between people of different skin color, the varying shades of which were also defined by law), restricted manumission, outlined legal punishment of slaves for various offenses, and defined some obligations of owners to their slaves. The main intent of the French government was to assert control over the slave system of agriculture in Louisiana
Louisiana
and to impose restrictions on slaveowners there. In practice, the Code Noir
Code Noir
was exceedingly difficult to enforce from afar. Some priests continued to perform interracial marriage ceremonies, for example, and some slaveholders continued to manumit slaves without permission while others punished slaves brutally. Article II of the Code Noir
Code Noir
of 1724 required owners to provide their slaves with religious education in the state religion, Roman Catholicism. Sunday was to be a day of rest for slaves. On days off, slaves were expected to feed and take care of themselves. During the 1740s economic crisis in the colony, owners had trouble feeding their slaves and themselves. Giving them time off also effectively gave more power to slaves, who started cultivating their own gardens and crafting items for sale as their own property. They began to participate in the economic development of the colony while at the same time increasing independence and self-subsistence. Article VI of the Code Noir
Code Noir
forbade mixed marriages, forbade but did little to protect slave women from rape by their owners, overseers or other slaves. On balance, the Code benefitted the owners but had more protections and flexibility than did the institution of slavery in the southern Thirteen Colonies. The Louisiana
Louisiana
Black Code of 1806 made the cruel punishment of slaves a crime, but owners and overseers were seldom prosecuted for such acts.[65] Fugitive slaves, called maroons, could easily hide in the backcountry of the bayous and survive in small settlements. The word "maroon" comes from the French "marron," it means feral or fugitive. In the late 18th century, the last Spanish governor of the Louisiana territory wrote:

Truly, it is impossible for lower Louisiana
Louisiana
to get along without slaves and with the use of slaves, the colony had been making great strides toward prosperity and wealth.[66]

When the United States
United States
purchased Louisiana
Louisiana
in 1803, it was soon accepted that enslaved Africans could be brought to Louisiana
Louisiana
as easily as they were brought to neighboring Mississippi, though it violated U.S. law to do so.[66] Despite demands by United States
United States
Rep. James Hillhouse
James Hillhouse
and by the pamphleteer Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
to enforce existing federal law against slavery in the newly acquired territory,[66] slavery prevailed because it was the source of great profits and the lowest-cost labor. At the start of the 19th century, Louisiana
Louisiana
was a small producer of sugar with a relatively small number of slaves, compared to Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
and the West Indies. It soon thereafter became a major sugar producer as new settlers arrived to develop plantations. William C. C. Claiborne, Louisiana's first United States
United States
governor, said that African slave labor was needed because white laborers "cannot be had in this unhealthy climate."[67] Hugh Thomas wrote that Claiborne was unable to enforce the abolition of the African slave trade, which the US and Great Britain
Great Britain
adopted in 1808. The United States
United States
continued to protect the domestic slave trade, including the coastwise trade – the transport of slaves by ship along the Atlantic Coast and to New Orleans and other Gulf ports. By 1840, New Orleans
New Orleans
had the biggest slave market in the United States, which contributed greatly to the economy of the city and of the state. New Orleans
New Orleans
had become one of the wealthiest cities, and the third largest city, in the nation.[68] The ban on the African slave trade and importation of slaves had increased demand in the domestic market. During the decades after the American Revolutionary War, more than one million enslaved African Americans
Americans
underwent forced migration from the Upper South
Upper South
to the Deep South, two thirds of them in the slave trade. Others were transported by their owners as slaveholders moved west for new lands.[69][70] With changing agriculture in the Upper South
Upper South
as planters shifted from tobacco to less labor-intensive mixed agriculture, planters had excess laborers. Many sold slaves to traders to take to the Deep South. Slaves were driven by traders overland from the Upper South
Upper South
or transported to New Orleans
New Orleans
and other coastal markets by ship in the coastwise slave trade. After sales in New Orleans, steamboats operating on the Mississippi
Mississippi
transported slaves upstream to markets or plantation destinations at Natchez and Memphis. As the Deep South
Deep South
was developed for cotton and sugar in the first half of the nineteenth century, demand for slaves increased. This resulted in a massive forced migration (through the slave trade) of more than one million African Americans
Americans
from the Upper South
Upper South
to the Deep South. Many traders brought slaves to New Orleans
New Orleans
for domestic sale, and by 1840, New Orleans
New Orleans
had the largest slave market in the country, was the third-largest city, and was one of the wealthiest cities.

Free woman of color with mixed-race daughter; late 18th-century collage painting, New Orleans.

Haitian migration and influence[edit] Spanish occupation of Louisiana
Louisiana
lasted from 1769 to 1800. Beginning in the 1790s, waves of immigration took place from Saint-Domingue, following a slave rebellion that started in 1791. Over the next decade, thousands of migrants landed in Louisiana
Louisiana
from the island, including ethnic Europeans, free people of color, and African slaves, some of the latter brought in by each free group. They greatly increased the French-speaking population in New Orleans
New Orleans
and Louisiana, as well as the number of Africans, and the slaves reinforced African culture in the city. The process of gaining independence in Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
was complex, but uprisings continued. In 1803, France pulled out its surviving troops from the island, having suffered the loss of two-thirds sent to the island two years before, mostly to yellow fever. In 1804, Haiti, the second republic in the western hemisphere, proclaimed its independence, achieved by slave leaders.[71] Pierre Clément de Laussat (Governor, 1803) said: " Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
was, of all our colonies in the Antilles, the one whose mentality and customs influenced Louisiana
Louisiana
the most."[72]

French pirate Jean Lafitte, who operated in New Orleans, was born in Port-au-Prince
Port-au-Prince
around 1782.[73]

Purchase by the United States
United States
(1803)[edit] Main article: Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase When the United States
United States
won its independence from Great Britain
Great Britain
in 1783, one of its major concerns was having a European power on its western boundary, and the need for unrestricted access to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. As American settlers pushed west, they found that the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
provided a barrier to shipping goods eastward. The easiest way to ship produce was to use a flatboat to float it down the Ohio
Ohio
and Mississippi
Mississippi
Rivers to the port of New Orleans, from whence goods could be put on ocean-going vessels. The problem with this route was that the Spanish owned both sides of the Mississippi
Mississippi
below Natchez. Napoleon's ambitions in Louisiana
Louisiana
involved the creation of a new empire centered on the Caribbean
Caribbean
sugar trade. By the terms of the Treaty of Amiens of 1802, Great Britain
Great Britain
returned ownership of the islands of Martinique
Martinique
and Guadaloupe
Guadaloupe
to the French. Napoleon looked upon Louisiana
Louisiana
as a depot for these sugar islands, and as a buffer to U.S. settlement. In October 1801 he sent a large military force to take back Saint-Domingue, then under control of Toussaint Louverture after a slave rebellion. When the army led by Napoleon's brother-in-law Leclerc was defeated, Napoleon decided to sell Louisiana.

Map of Louisiana
Louisiana
in 1800

Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States, was disturbed by Napoleon's plans to re-establish French colonies in America. With the possession of New Orleans, Napoleon could close the Mississippi
Mississippi
to U.S. commerce at any time. Jefferson authorized Robert R. Livingston, U.S. Minister to France, to negotiate for the purchase of the City of New Orleans, portions of the east bank of the Mississippi, and free navigation of the river for U.S. commerce. Livingston was authorized to pay up to $2 million. An official transfer of Louisiana
Louisiana
to French ownership had not yet taken place, and Napoleon's deal with the Spanish was a poorly kept secret on the frontier. On October 18, 1802, however, Juan Ventura Morales, Acting Intendant
Intendant
of Louisiana, made public the intention of Spain
Spain
to revoke the right of deposit at New Orleans
New Orleans
for all cargo from the United States. The closure of this vital port to the United States caused anger and consternation. Commerce in the west was virtually blockaded. Historians believe that the revocation of the right of deposit was prompted by abuses by the Americans, particularly smuggling, and not by French intrigues as was believed at the time. President Jefferson ignored public pressure for war with France, and appointed James Monroe
James Monroe
a special envoy to Napoleon, to assist in obtaining New Orleans
New Orleans
for the United States. Jefferson also raised the authorized expenditure to $10 million. However, on April 11, 1803, French Foreign Minister Talleyrand surprised Livingston by asking how much the United States
United States
was prepared to pay for the entirety of Louisiana, not just New Orleans
New Orleans
and the surrounding area (as Livingston's instructions covered). Monroe agreed with Livingston that Napoleon might withdraw this offer at any time (leaving them with no ability to obtain the desired New Orleans
New Orleans
area), and that approval from President Jefferson might take months, so Livingston and Monroe decided to open negotiations immediately. By April 30, they closed a deal for the purchase of the entire Louisiana territory of 828,000 square miles (2,100,000 km2) for 60 million Francs (approximately $15 million). Part of this sum, $3.5 million, was used to forgive debts owed by France
France
to the United States.[74] The payment was made in United States bonds, which Napoleon sold at face value to the Dutch firm of Hope and Company, and the British banking house of Baring, at a discount of 87½ per each $100 unit. As a result, France
France
received only $8,831,250 in cash for Louisiana. English banker Alexander Baring conferred with Marbois in Paris, shuttled to the United States
United States
to pick up the bonds, took them to Britain, and returned to France
France
with the money – which Napoleon used to wage war against Baring's own country.

Louisiana
Louisiana
Purchase, 1803

When news of the purchase reached the United States, Jefferson was surprised. He had authorized the expenditure of $10 million for a port city, and instead received treaties committing the government to spend $15 million on a land package which would double the size of the country. Jefferson's political opponents in the Federalist Party argued the Louisiana
Louisiana
purchase was a worthless desert,[75] and that the Constitution did not provide for the acquisition of new land or negotiating treaties without the consent of the Senate. What really worried the opposition was the new states which would inevitably be carved from the Louisiana
Louisiana
territory, strengthening Western and Southern interests in Congress, and further reducing the influence of New England Federalists in national affairs. President Jefferson was an enthusiastic supporter of westward expansion, and held firm in his support for the treaty. Despite Federalist objections, the U.S. Senate ratified the Louisiana
Louisiana
treaty on October 20, 1803. By statute enacted on October 31, 1803, President Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
was authorized to take possession of the territories ceded by France
France
and provide for initial governance.[76] A transfer ceremony was held in New Orleans
New Orleans
on November 29, 1803. Since the Louisiana
Louisiana
territory had never officially been turned over to the French, the Spanish took down their flag, and the French raised theirs. The following day, General James Wilkinson accepted possession of New Orleans
New Orleans
for the United States. A similar ceremony was held in St. Louis on March 9, 1804, when a French tricolor was raised near the river, replacing the Spanish national flag. The following day, Captain Amos Stoddard of the First U.S. Artillery marched his troops into town and had the American flag run up the fort's flagpole. The Louisiana
Louisiana
territory was officially transferred to the United States
United States
government, represented by Meriwether Lewis. The Louisiana
Louisiana
Territory, purchased for less than 3 cents an acre, doubled the size of the United States
United States
overnight, without a war or the loss of a single American life, and set a precedent for the purchase of territory. It opened the way for the eventual expansion of the United States
United States
across the continent to the Pacific. Shortly after the United States
United States
took possession, the area was divided into two territories along the 33rd parallel north
33rd parallel north
on March 26, 1804, thereby organizing the Territory of Orleans
Territory of Orleans
to the south and the District of Louisiana
District of Louisiana
(subsequently formed as the Louisiana
Louisiana
Territory) to the north.[77] Statehood (1812)[edit] Louisiana
Louisiana
became the eighteenth U.S. state
U.S. state
on April 30, 1812; the Territory of Orleans
Territory of Orleans
became the State of Louisiana
Louisiana
and the Louisiana Territory
Territory
was simultaneously renamed the Missouri
Missouri
Territory.[78] An area known as the Florida
Florida
Parishes was soon annexed into the state of Louisiana
Louisiana
on April 14, 1812.[79] From 1824 to 1861, Louisiana
Louisiana
moved from a political system based on personality and ethnicity to a distinct two-party system, with Democrats competing first against Whigs, then Know Nothings, and finally only other Democrats.[80] Secession and the Civil War (1860–1865)[edit]

'Signing the Ordinance of Secession of Louisiana, January 26, 1861', oil on canvas painting, 1861

Capture of New Orleans, April 1862, colored lithograph of engraving

According to the 1860 census, 331,726 people were enslaved, nearly 47% of the state's total population of 708,002.[81] The strong economic interest of elite whites in maintaining the slave society contributed to Louisiana's decision to secede from the Union in January 26, 1861.[82] It followed other Southern states in seceding after the election of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
as President of the United States. Louisiana's secession was announced on January 26, 1861, and it became part of the Confederate States of America. The state was quickly defeated in the Civil War, a result of Union strategy to cut the Confederacy in two by seizing the Mississippi. Federal troops captured New Orleans
New Orleans
on April 25, 1862. Because a large part of the population had Union sympathies (or compatible commercial interests), the Federal government took the unusual step of designating the areas of Louisiana
Louisiana
under Federal control as a state within the Union, with its own elected representatives to the U.S. Congress.[citation needed] US troops stationed in New Orleans complained of insults by its women. Post-Civil War to mid-20th century (1865–1945)[edit] Following the Civil War and emancipation of slaves, violence rose in the South as the war was carried on by insurgent private and paramilitary groups. Initially state legislatures were dominated by former Confederates, who passed Black Codes to regulate freedmen and generally refused to give the vote. They refused to extend voting rights to African Americans
Americans
who had been free before the war and had sometimes obtained education and property (as in New Orleans.) Following the Memphis Riots of 1866
Memphis Riots of 1866
and the New Orleans
New Orleans
Riot the same year, the Fourteenth Amendment was passed that provided suffrage and full citizenship for freedmen. Congress passed the Reconstruction Act, establishing military districts for those states where conditions were considered the worst, including Louisiana. It was grouped with Texas in what was administered as the Fifth Military District. African Americans
Americans
began to live as citizens with some measure of equality before the law. Both freedmen and people of color who had been free before the war began to make more advances in education, family stability and jobs. At the same time, there was tremendous social volatility in the aftermath of war, with many whites actively resisting defeat and the free labor market. White insurgents mobilized to enforce white supremacy, first in Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
chapters. By 1877, when federal forces were withdrawn, white Democrats in Louisiana
Louisiana
and other states had regained control of state legislatures, often by paramilitary groups such as the White League, which suppressed black voting through intimidation and violence. Following Mississippi's example in 1890, in 1898, the white Democratic, planter-dominated legislature passed a new constitution that effectively disenfranchised blacks and people of color, by raising barriers to voter registration, such as poll taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests. The effect was immediate and long lasting. In 1896, there were 130,334 black voters on the rolls and about the same number of white voters, in proportion to the state population, which was evenly divided.[83] The state population in 1900 was 47% African-American: a total of 652,013 citizens. Many in New Orleans
New Orleans
were descendants of Creoles of color, the sizeable population of free people of color before the Civil War.[84] By 1900, two years after the new constitution, only 5,320 black voters were registered in the state. Because of disfranchisement, by 1910 there were only 730 black voters (less than 0.5 percent of eligible African-American men), despite advances in education and literacy among blacks and people of color.[85] Blacks were excluded from the political system and also unable to serve on juries. White Democrats had established one-party Democratic rule, which they maintained in the state for decades deep into the 20th century until after Congressional passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act provided federal oversight and enforcement of the constitutional right to vote. In the early decades of the 20th century, thousands of African Americans
Americans
left Louisiana
Louisiana
in the Great Migration north to industrial cities for jobs and education, and to escape Jim Crow society and lynchings. The boll weevil infestation and agricultural problems cost many sharecroppers and farmers their jobs. The mechanization of agriculture also reduced the need for laborers. Beginning in the 1940s, blacks went West to California
California
for jobs in its expanding defense industries.[86] During some of the Great Depression, Louisiana
Louisiana
was led by Governor Huey Long. He was elected to office on populist appeal. His public works projects provided thousands of jobs to people in need, and he supported education and increased suffrage for poor whites, but Long was criticized for his allegedly demogogic and autocratic style. He extended patronage control through every branch of Louisiana's state government. Especially controversial were his plans for wealth redistribution in the state. Long's rule ended abruptly when the governor was assassinated in the state capitol in 1935. Post- World War II
World War II
(1945–)[edit] Mobilization for World War II
World War II
created jobs in the state. But thousands of other workers, black and white alike, migrated to California
California
for better jobs in its burgeoning defense industry. Many African Americans left the state in the Second Great Migration, from the 1940s through the 1960s to escape social oppression and seek better jobs. The mechanization of agriculture in the 1930s had sharply cut the need for laborers. They sought skilled jobs in the defense industry in California, better education for their children, and living in communities where they could vote.[87] In the 1950s the state created new requirements for a citizenship test for voter registration. Despite opposition by the States Rights Party, downstate black voters had begun to increase their rate of registration, which also reflected the growth of their middle classes. In 1960 the state established the Louisiana
Louisiana
State Sovereignty Commission, to investigate civil rights activists and maintain segregation.[88] Despite this, gradually black voter registration and turnout increased to 20% and more, and it was 32% by 1964, when the first national civil rights legislation of the era was passed.[89] The percentage of black voters ranged widely in the state during these years, from 93.8% in Evangeline Parish
Evangeline Parish
to 1.7% in Tensas Parish, for instance, where there were white efforts to suppress the vote in the black-majority parish.[90] Violent attacks on civil rights activists in two mill towns were catalysts to the founding of the first two chapters of the Deacons for Defense and Justice in late 1964 and early 1965, in Jonesboro and Bogalusa, respectively. Made up of veterans of World War II
World War II
and the Korean War, they were armed self-defense groups established to protect activists and their families. Continued violent white resistance in Bogalusa to blacks trying to use public facilities in 1965, following passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, caused the federal government to order local police to protect the activists.[91] Other chapters were formed in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. By 1960 the proportion of African Americans
Americans
in Louisiana
Louisiana
had dropped to 32%. The 1,039,207 black citizens were still suppressed by segregation and disfranchisement.[92] African Americans
Americans
continued to suffer disproportionate discriminatory application of the state's voter registration rules. Because of better opportunities elsewhere, from 1965 to 1970, blacks continued to migrate out of Louisiana, for a net loss of more than 37,000 people. Based on official census figures, the African-American population in 1970 stood at 1,085,109, a net gain of more than 46,000 people compared to 1960. During the latter period, some people began to migrate to cities of the New South
New South
for opportunities.[93] Since that period, blacks entered the political system and began to be elected to office, as well as having other opportunities. On 21 May 1919, the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, giving women full rights to vote, was passed at a national level, and was made the law throughout the United States
United States
on 18 August 1920. Louisiana
Louisiana
finally ratified the amendment on 11 June 1970. 2000 to present[edit] Due to its location on the Gulf Coast, Louisiana
Louisiana
has regularly suffered the effects of tropical storms and damaging hurricanes. In August 2005, New Orleans
New Orleans
and many other low-lying parts of the state along the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
were hit by the catastrophic Hurricane Katrina. It caused widespread damage due to breaching of levees and large-scale flooding of more than 80% of the city. Officials had issued warnings to evacuate the city and nearby areas, but tens of thousands of people, mostly African Americans, stayed behind, many of them stranded. Many people died and survivors suffered through the damage of the widespread floodwaters. In August 2016, an unnamed storm dumped trillions of gallons of rain on southern Louisiana, including the cities of Denham Springs, Baton Rouge, Gonzales, St. Amant and Lafayette, causing catastrophic flooding.[94] An estimated 110,000 homes were damaged[95] and thousands of residents were displaced.[96] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Louisiana

Louisiana's population density

Historical population

Census Pop.

1810 76,556

1820 153,407

100.4%

1830 215,739

40.6%

1840 352,411

63.4%

1850 517,762

46.9%

1860 708,002

36.7%

1870 726,915

2.7%

1880 939,946

29.3%

1890 1,118,588

19.0%

1900 1,381,625

23.5%

1910 1,656,388

19.9%

1920 1,798,509

8.6%

1930 2,000,000

11.2%

1940 2,363,516

18.2%

1950 2,683,516

13.5%

1960 3,257,022

21.4%

1970 3,641,306

11.8%

1980 4,205,900

15.5%

1990 4,219,973

0.3%

2000 4,468,976

5.9%

2010 4,533,372

1.4%

Est. 2017 4,684,333

3.3%

Source:[97]

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Louisiana
Louisiana
was 4,670,724 on July 1, 2015, a 3.03% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[98] The population density of the state is 104.9 people per square mile.[99] The center of population of Louisiana
Louisiana
is located in Pointe Coupee Parish, in the city of New Roads.[100] According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, 5.4% of the population aged 5 and older spoke Spanish at home, up from 3.5% in 2000; and 4.5% spoke French (including Louisiana French
Louisiana French
and Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole), down from 4.8% in 2000.[101][102] Race and ethnicity[edit] According to the US census estimates, the population of Louisiana
Louisiana
in 2014 was:[103]

White Americans
White Americans
– 63.4% (59.3% non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white, 4.1% White Hispanic) Black or African American
African American
– 32.5% Asian – 1.8% Multiracial American
Multiracial American
– 1.5% Native American – 0.8% Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
of any race – 4.8%

The major ancestry groups of Louisiana
Louisiana
are African American
African American
(30.4%), French (16.8%), American (9.5%), German (8.3%), Irish (7.5%), English (6.6%), Italian (4.8%) and Scottish (1.1%).[104] As of 2011, 49.0% of Louisiana's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[105]

Louisiana
Louisiana
Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1990[106] 2000[107] 2010[108]

White 67.3% 63.9% 62.6%

Black 30.8% 30.5% 32.0%

Asian 1.0% 1.8% 1.5%

Native 0.8% 0.8% 0.7%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – 0.1% –

Other race 0.5% 0.7% 1.5%

Two or more races – 1.1% 1.6%

Religion[edit]

Religion in Louisiana
Louisiana
(2014)[109]

religion

percent

Protestant

57%

Catholic

26%

No religion

13%

Jehovah's Witness

1%

Other Christian

1%

Buddhist

1%

Other faith

1%

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Catholic
Catholic
Church with 1,200,900; Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
with 709,650; and the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
with 146,848. Non-denominational Evangelical Protestant
Protestant
congregations had 195,903 members.[110] As in other Southern states, the majority of Louisianians belong to various Protestant
Protestant
denominations, with Protestants comprising 57% of the state's adult population. Protestants are concentrated in the northern and central parts of the state and in the northern tier of the Florida
Florida
Parishes. Because of French and Spanish heritage, and their descendants the Creoles, and later Irish, Italian, Portuguese and German immigrants, southern Louisiana
Louisiana
and the greater New Orleans area are predominantly Catholic.[111] Since Creoles were the first settlers, planters and leaders of the territory, they have traditionally been well represented in politics. For instance, most of the early governors were Creole Catholics.[112] Because Catholics still constitute a significant fraction of Louisiana's population, they have continued to be influential in state politics. As of 2008[update] both Senators and the Governor were Catholic. The high proportion and influence of the Catholic
Catholic
population makes Louisiana
Louisiana
distinct among Southern states.[113] Jewish communities are established in the state's larger cities, notably New Orleans
New Orleans
and Baton Rouge.[114][115] The most significant of these is the Jewish community of the New Orleans
New Orleans
area. In 2000, before the 2005 Hurricane Katrina, its population was about 12,000. Louisiana was among the southern states with a significant Jewish population before the 20th century; Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia also had influential Jewish populations in some of their major cities from the 18th and 19th centuries. The earliest Jewish colonists were Sephardic Jews
Sephardic Jews
who immigrated with English colonists from London. Later in the 19th century, German Jews began to immigrate, followed by those from eastern Europe and the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Prominent Jews in Louisiana's political leadership have included Whig (later Democrat) Judah P. Benjamin
Judah P. Benjamin
(1811–1884), who represented Louisiana
Louisiana
in the U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
before the American Civil War
American Civil War
and then became the Confederate Secretary of State; Democrat-turned-Republican Michael Hahn
Michael Hahn
who was elected as governor, serving 1864–1865 when Louisiana
Louisiana
was occupied by the Union Army, and later elected in 1884 as a US Congressman;[116] Democrat Adolph Meyer
Adolph Meyer
(1842–1908), Confederate Army
Confederate Army
officer who represented the state in the U.S. House from 1891 until his death in 1908; Republican Secretary of State Jay Dardenne (1954–), and Republican (Democrat before 2011) Attorney General Buddy Caldwell (1946–). Major cities[edit] See also: List of municipalities in Louisiana, List of Louisiana metropolitan areas, and List of Louisiana
Louisiana
locations by per capita income

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Louisiana Source:[117][118]

Rank Name Parish Pop.

New Orleans

Baton Rouge 1 New Orleans Orleans 391,495

Shreveport

Lafayette

2 Baton Rouge East Baton Rouge 227,715

3 Shreveport Caddo 194,920

4 Lafayette Lafayette 127,626

5 Lake Charles Calcasieu 76,848

6 Bossier City Bossier 68,485

7 Kenner Jefferson 67,089

8 Monroe Ouachita 49,297

9 Alexandria Rapides 47,832

10 Houma Terrebonne 34,024

Economy[edit] See also: Louisiana
Louisiana
locations by per capita income The total gross state product in 2010 for Louisiana
Louisiana
was US$213.6 billion, placing it 24th in the nation. Its per capita personal income is $30,952, ranking 41st in the United States.[119][120] In 2014, Louisiana
Louisiana
was ranked as one of the most small business friendly states, based on a study drawing upon data from over 12,000 small business owners.[121] The state's principal agricultural products include seafood (it is the biggest producer of crawfish in the world, supplying approximately 90%), cotton, soybeans, cattle, sugarcane, poultry and eggs, dairy products, and rice. Industry generates chemical products, petroleum and coal products, processed foods and transportation equipment, and paper products. Tourism is an important element in the economy, especially in the New Orleans
New Orleans
area. The Port
Port
of South Louisiana, located on the Mississippi
Mississippi
River between New Orleans
New Orleans
and Baton Rouge, is the largest volume shipping port in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
and 4th largest in the world, as well as the largest bulk cargo port in the world.[122] New Orleans, Shreveport, and Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
are home to a thriving film industry.[123] State financial incentives since 2002 and aggressive promotion have given Louisiana
Louisiana
the nickname "Hollywood South". Because of its distinctive culture within the United States, only Alaska
Alaska
is Louisiana's rival in popularity as a setting for reality television programs.[124] In late 2007 and early 2008, a 300,000-square-foot (28,000 m2) film studio was scheduled to open in Tremé, with state-of-the-art production facilities, and a film training institute.[125] Tabasco sauce, which is marketed by one of the United States' biggest producers of hot sauce, the McIlhenny Company, originated on Avery Island.[126] Louisiana
Louisiana
has three personal income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6%. The sales tax rate is 4%: a 3.97% Louisiana
Louisiana
sales tax and a .03% Louisiana
Louisiana
Tourism Promotion District sales tax. Political subdivisions also levy their own sales tax in addition to the state fees. The state also has a use tax, which includes 4% to be distributed by the Department of Revenue to local governments. Property taxes are assessed and collected at the local level. Louisiana
Louisiana
is a subsidized state, receiving $1.44 from the federal government for every dollar paid in. Tourism and culture are major players in Louisiana's economy, earning an estimated $5.2 billion per year.[127] Louisiana
Louisiana
also hosts many important cultural events, such as the World Cultural Economic Forum, which is held annually in the fall at the New Orleans
New Orleans
Morial Convention Center.[128] As of July 2017, the state's unemployment rate was 5.3%.[129] Federal subsidies and spending[edit] Louisiana
Louisiana
taxpayers receive more federal funding per dollar of federal taxes paid compared to the average state. Per dollar of federal tax collected in 2005, Louisiana
Louisiana
citizens received approximately $1.78 in the way of federal spending. This ranks the state fourth highest nationally and represents a rise from 1995 when Louisiana
Louisiana
received $1.35 per dollar of taxes in federal spending (ranked seventh nationally). Neighboring states and the amount of federal spending received per dollar of federal tax collected were: Texas
Texas
($0.94), Arkansas
Arkansas
($1.41), and Mississippi
Mississippi
($2.02). Federal spending in 2005 and subsequent years since has been exceptionally high due to the recovery from Hurricane Katrina. Tax Foundation. Energy[edit]

The oil slick just off the Louisiana
Louisiana
coast on April 30, 2010. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill
Deepwater Horizon oil spill
is now considered the biggest environmental disaster in U.S. history.

Louisiana
Louisiana
is rich in petroleum and natural gas. Petroleum
Petroleum
and gas deposits are found in abundance both onshore and offshore in State-owned waters. In addition, vast petroleum and natural gas reserves are found offshore from Louisiana
Louisiana
in the federally administered Outer Continental Shelf
Outer Continental Shelf
(OCS) in the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Energy Information Administration, the Gulf of Mexico OCS is the largest U.S. petroleum-producing region. Excluding the Gulf of Mexico OCS, Louisiana
Louisiana
ranks fourth in petroleum production and is home to about 2 percent of total U.S. petroleum reserves. Louisiana's natural gas reserves account for about 5 percent of the U.S. total. The recent discovery of the Haynesville Shale
Haynesville Shale
formation in parts of or all of Caddo, Bossier, Bienville, Sabine, De Soto, Red River, and Natchitoches parishes have made it the world's fourth largest gas field with some wells initially producing over 25 million cubic feet of gas daily.[130] Louisiana
Louisiana
was the first site of petroleum drilling over water in the world, on Caddo
Caddo
Lake in the northwest corner of the state. The petroleum and gas industry, as well as its subsidiary industries such as transport and refining, have dominated Louisiana's economy since the 1940s. Beginning in 1950, Louisiana
Louisiana
was sued several times by the U.S. Interior Department, in efforts by the federal government to strip Louisiana
Louisiana
of its submerged land property rights. These control vast stores of reservoirs of petroleum and natural gas. When petroleum and gas boomed in the 1970s, so did Louisiana's economy. The Louisiana
Louisiana
economy as well as its politics of the last half-century cannot be understood without thoroughly accounting for the influence of the petroleum and gas industries. Since the 1980s, these industries' headquarters have consolidated in Houston, but many of the jobs that operate or provide logistical support to the U.S. Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
crude-oil-and-gas industry remained in Louisiana
Louisiana
as of 2010[update]. Law and government[edit]

Louisiana

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Louisiana

Constitution and Law

United States
United States
Constitution

Louisiana
Louisiana
Constitution

Louisiana
Louisiana
Law

Executive

Governor John Bel Edwards
John Bel Edwards
(D)

State Cabinet

Lieutenant Governor Billy Nungesser
Billy Nungesser
(R)

Secretary of State Tom Schedler (R)

Attorney General Jeff Landry
Jeff Landry
(R)

State Treasurer John Schroder (R)

Commissioner of Agriculture and Forestry Mike Strain (R)

Commissioner of Insurance Jim Donelon (R)

Public Service Commission

Board of Elementary and Secondary Education

Legislature

State Senate

President John Alario (R)

President pro tempore Gerald Long (R)

House of Representatives

Speaker Taylor Barras (R)

Speaker pro tempore Walt Leger III (D)

Judiciary

Supreme Court

Chief Justice Bernette Joshua Johnson (D)

Weimer (N) Guidry (R) Clark (R) Hughes (R) Crichton (R) Genovese (R)

Louisiana
Louisiana
Circuit Courts of Appeal Louisiana
Louisiana
District Courts Parish and City Courts Mayor’s Courts Justice of the Peace Courts

Elections

Nonpartisan blanket primary Political parties Qualified Louisiana
Louisiana
Parties

Democratic Party Republican Party Green Party Reform Party Libertarian Party National minor parties

Political party strength

Political Subdivisions

Parishes (64) Municipalities (303) School districts

Federal Representation

United States
United States
Senators

See also: List of United States
United States
Senators from Louisiana

David Vitter
David Vitter
(R) Bill Cassidy
Bill Cassidy
(R)

U.S. Representatives

1: Steve Scalise
Steve Scalise
(R) 2: Cedric Richmond
Cedric Richmond
(D) 3: Charles Boustany
Charles Boustany
(R) 4: John Fleming (R) 5: Ralph Abraham (R) 6: Garret Graves
Garret Graves
(R)

Politics of the United States Politics portal United States
United States
portal Louisiana
Louisiana
portal

v t e

Further information: List of Louisiana
Louisiana
Governors, Louisiana
Louisiana
law, and Louisiana
Louisiana
Constitution

The Louisiana State Capitol
Louisiana State Capitol
in Baton Rouge, the tallest state capitol building in the United States.

The Louisiana
Louisiana
Governor's Mansion

In 1849, the state moved the capital from New Orleans
New Orleans
to Baton Rouge. Donaldsonville, Opelousas, and Shreveport have briefly served as the seat of Louisiana
Louisiana
state government. The Louisiana State Capitol
Louisiana State Capitol
and the Louisiana Governor's Mansion
Louisiana Governor's Mansion
are both located in Baton Rouge. The Louisiana
Louisiana
Supreme Court, however, did not move to Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
but remains headquartered in New Orleans. Louisiana
Louisiana
and California
California
(whose supreme court is seated in San Francisco) are the only two states whose high courts are not headquartered in the state capital. The current Louisiana
Louisiana
governor is Democrat John Bel Edwards.The current United States
United States
Senators are Republicans John Neely Kennedy
John Neely Kennedy
and Bill Cassidy. Louisiana
Louisiana
has six congressional districts and is represented in the U.S. House
U.S. House
of Representatives by five Republicans and one Democrat. Louisiana
Louisiana
had eight votes in the Electoral College for the 2012 election. It lost one House seat due to stagnant population growth in the 2010 Census. Administrative divisions[edit] Louisiana
Louisiana
is divided into 64 parishes (the equivalent of counties in most other states).[131]

List of parishes in Louisiana Louisiana
Louisiana
census statistical areas

Most parishes have an elected government known as the Police Jury, dating from the colonial days. It is the legislative and executive government of the parish, and is elected by the voters. Its members are called Jurors, and together they elect a President as their chairman. A more limited number of parishes operate under home rule charters, electing various forms of government. This include mayor–council, council–manager (in which the council hires a professional operating manager for the parish), and others. Civil law[edit] The Louisiana
Louisiana
political and legal structure has maintained several elements from the times of French and Spanish governance. One is the use of the term "parish" (from the French: paroisse) in place of "county" for administrative subdivision. Another is the legal system of civil law based on French, German, and Spanish legal codes and ultimately Roman law, as opposed to English common law. Louisiana's civil law system is what the majority of nations in the world use, especially in Europe and its former colonies, excluding those that derive from the British Empire. However, it is incorrect to equate the Louisiana Civil Code
Louisiana Civil Code
with the Napoleonic Code. Although the Napoleonic Code
Napoleonic Code
and Louisiana law
Louisiana law
draw from common legal roots, the Napoleonic Code
Napoleonic Code
was never in force in Louisiana, as it was enacted in 1804, after the United States
United States
had purchased and annexed Louisiana
Louisiana
in 1803. While the Louisiana Civil Code
Louisiana Civil Code
of 1808 has been continuously revised and updated since its enactment, it is still considered the controlling authority in the state. Differences are found between Louisianan civil law and the common law found in the other U.S. states. While some of these differences have been bridged due to the strong influence of common law tradition,[132] the civil law tradition is still deeply rooted in most aspects of Louisiana
Louisiana
private law. Thus property, contractual, business entities structure, much of civil procedure, and family law, as well as some aspects of criminal law, are still based mostly on traditional Roman legal thinking. Marriage[edit] In 1997, Louisiana
Louisiana
became the first state to offer the option of a traditional marriage or a covenant marriage.[133] In a covenant marriage, the couple waives their right to a "no-fault" divorce after six months of separation, which is available in a traditional marriage. To divorce under a covenant marriage, a couple must demonstrate cause. Marriages between ascendants and descendants, and marriages between collaterals within the fourth degree (i.e., siblings, aunt and nephew, uncle and niece, first cousins) are prohibited.[134] Same-sex marriages were prohibited by statute,[135][136] but the Supreme Court declared such bans unconstitutional in 2015, in its ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges. Same-sex marriages are now performed statewide. Louisiana
Louisiana
is a community property state.[137] Elections[edit] Main articles: Elections in Louisiana
Elections in Louisiana
and Political party strength in Louisiana

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by parish, 2016 presidential election.

From 1898 to 1965, a period when Louisiana
Louisiana
had effectively disfranchised most African Americans
Americans
and many poor whites by provisions of a new constitution,[138] this was essentially a one-party state dominated by white Democrats. Elites had control in the early 20th century, before populist Huey Long
Huey Long
came to power as governor.[139] In multiple acts of resistance, blacks left behind the segregation, violence and oppression of the state and moved out to seek better opportunities in northern and western industrial cities during the Great Migrations of 1910–1970, markedly reducing their proportion of population in Louisiana. The franchise for whites was expanded somewhat during these decades, but blacks remained essentially disfranchised until after the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, gaining enforcement of their constitutional rights through passage by Congress of the Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
of 1965. Since the 1960s, when civil rights legislation was passed under President Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Johnson
to protect voting and civil rights, most African Americans
Americans
in the state have affiliated with the Democratic Party. In the same years, many white social conservatives have moved to support Republican Party candidates in national, gubernatorial and statewide elections. In 2004, David Vitter
David Vitter
was the first Republican in Louisiana
Louisiana
to be popularly elected as a U.S. Senator. The previous Republican Senator, John S. Harris, who took office in 1868 during Reconstruction, was chosen by the state legislature under the rules of the 19th century. Louisiana
Louisiana
is unique among U.S. states in using a system for its state and local elections similar to that of modern France. All candidates, regardless of party affiliation, run in a nonpartisan blanket primary (or "jungle primary") on Election Day. If no candidate has more than 50% of the vote, the two candidates with the highest vote totals compete in a runoff election approximately one month later. This run-off did not take into account party identification; therefore, it was not uncommon for a Democrat to be in a runoff with a fellow Democrat or a Republican to be in a runoff with a fellow Republican. Congressional races have also been held under the jungle primary system. All other states (except Washington and California) use single-party primaries followed by a general election between party candidates, each conducted by either a plurality voting system or runoff voting, to elect Senators, Representatives, and statewide officials. Between 2008 and 2010, federal congressional elections were run under a closed primary system – limited to registered party members. However, upon the passage of House Bill 292, Louisiana
Louisiana
again adopted a nonpartisan blanket primary for its federal congressional elections. Louisiana
Louisiana
has six seats in the U.S. House
U.S. House
of Representatives, five of which are currently held by Republicans and one by a Democrat. The state lost a House seat at the end of the 112th Congress
112th Congress
due to stagnant population growth as recorded by the 2010 United States Census. Louisiana
Louisiana
is not classified as a "swing state" for future presidential elections, as since the late 20th century, it has regularly supported Republican candidates. The state's two U.S. senators are Bill Cassidy
Bill Cassidy
(R) John Neely Kennedy
John Neely Kennedy
(R). Law enforcement[edit] See also: List of law enforcement agencies in Louisiana Louisiana's statewide police force is the Louisiana
Louisiana
State Police. It began in 1922 with the creation of the Highway Commission. In 1927, a second branch, the Bureau of Criminal Investigations, was formed. In 1932, the State Highway Patrol was authorized to carry weapons. On July 28, 1936, the two branches were consolidated to form the Louisiana
Louisiana
Department of State Police; its motto was "courtesy, loyalty, service". In 1942, this office was abolished and became a division of the Department of Public Safety, called the Louisiana State Police. In 1988, the Criminal Investigation Bureau was reorganized.[140] Its troopers have statewide jurisdiction with power to enforce all laws of the state, including city and parish ordinances. Each year, they patrol over 12 million miles (20 million km) of roadway and arrest about 10,000 impaired drivers. The State Police are primarily a traffic enforcement agency, with other sections that delve into trucking safety, narcotics enforcement, and gaming oversight. The elected sheriff in each parish is the chief law enforcement officer in the parish. They are the keepers of the local parish prisons, which house felony and misdemeanor prisoners. They are the primary criminal patrol and first responder agency in all matters criminal and civil. They are also the official tax collectors in each parish. The sheriffs are responsible for general law enforcement in their respective parishes. Orleans Parish is an exception, as the general law enforcement duties fall to the New Orleans
New Orleans
Police Department. Before 2010, Orleans parish was the only parish to have two sheriff's offices. Orleans Parish divided sheriffs' duties between criminal and civil, with a different elected sheriff overseeing each aspect. In 2006, a bill was passed which eventually consolidated the two sheriff's departments into one parish sheriff responsible for both civil and criminal matters. In 2015, Louisiana
Louisiana
had a higher murder rate (10.3 per 100,000) than any other state in the country for the 27th straight year. Louisiana is the only state with an annual average murder rate (13.6 per 100,000) at least twice as high as the U.S. annual average (6.6 per 100,000) during that period, according to Bureau of Justice Statistics from FBI Uniform Crime Reports. In a different kind of criminal activity, the Chicago
Chicago
Tribune reports that Louisiana
Louisiana
is the most corrupt state in the United States.[141] According to the Times Picayune, Louisiana
Louisiana
is the prison capital of the world. Many for-profit private prisons and sheriff-owned prisons have been built and operate here. Louisiana's incarceration rate is nearly five times Iran's, 13 times China's and 20 times Germany's. Minorities are incarcerated at rates disproportionate to their share of the state's population.[142] Judiciary[edit] The judiciary of Louisiana
Louisiana
is defined under the Constitution and law of Louisiana
Louisiana
and is composed of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Supreme Court, the Louisiana
Louisiana
Circuit Courts of Appeal, the District Courts, the Justice of the Peace Courts, the Mayor's Courts, the City Courts, and the Parish Courts. The Chief Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court
Louisiana Supreme Court
is the chief administrator of the judiciary. Its administration is aided by the Judiciary Commission of Louisiana, the Louisiana
Louisiana
Attorney Disciplinary Board, and the Judicial Council of the Supreme Court of Louisiana. National Guard[edit] Louisiana
Louisiana
has more than 9,000 soldiers in the Louisiana
Louisiana
Army National Guard, including the 225th Engineer Brigade
225th Engineer Brigade
and the 256th Infantry Brigade. Both these units have served overseas during the War on Terror in either Iraq, Afghanistan, or both. The Louisiana
Louisiana
Air National Guard has over 2,000 airmen and its 159th Fighter Squadron has likewise seen overseas service in combat theaters. Training sites in the state include Camp Beauregard
Camp Beauregard
near Pineville, Camp Villere near Slidell, Camp Minden near Minden, England Air Park (formerly England Air Force Base) near Alexandria, Gillis Long Center near Carville, and Jackson Barracks
Jackson Barracks
in New Orleans. Media[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2017)

See also: Category: Louisiana
Louisiana
media Education[edit] Further information: List of school districts in Louisiana, List of colleges and universities in Louisiana, and French immersion in Louisiana Louisiana
Louisiana
is home to several prominent colleges and universities, which include Louisiana State University
Louisiana State University
in Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
and Tulane University in New Orleans. Louisiana State University
Louisiana State University
is the largest and most comprehensive university in Louisiana.[143] Tulane University is a private research university and the wealthiest university in Louisiana
Louisiana
with an endowment over $1.1 billion.[144] Tulane is also highly regarded for its academics nationwide, ranked fortieth on U.S. News & World Report's 2018 list of best national universities.[145] The Louisiana
Louisiana
Science Education Act[146] is a controversial law passed by the Louisiana
Louisiana
Legislature
Legislature
on June 11, 2008 and signed into law by Governor Bobby Jindal
Bobby Jindal
on June 25. The act allows public school teachers to use supplemental materials in the science classroom which are critical of established science on such topics as the theory of evolution and global warming.[147][148] Sports[edit] See also: List of sports teams in Louisiana and Sports in New Orleans Louisiana
Louisiana
is nominally the least populous state with more than one major professional sports league franchise: the National Basketball Association's New Orleans
New Orleans
Pelicans and the National Football League's New Orleans
New Orleans
Saints. Louisiana
Louisiana
has a AAA Minor League baseball team, the New Orleans
New Orleans
Baby Cakes. The Baby Cakes are currently affiliated with the Miami
Miami
Marlins. Louisiana
Louisiana
has 12 collegiate NCAA
NCAA
Division I programs, a high number given its population. The state has no NCAA
NCAA
Division II teams and only two NCAA
NCAA
Division III teams. The LSU Tigers
LSU Tigers
football team has won 11 Southeastern Conference
Southeastern Conference
titles, six Sugar Bowls and three national championships. Each year New Orleans
New Orleans
plays host to the Sugar Bowl
Sugar Bowl
and the New Orleans Bowl college football games, and Shreveport hosts the Independence Bowl. Also, New Orleans
New Orleans
has hosted the Super Bowl
Super Bowl
a record seven times, as well as the BCS National Championship Game, NBA All-Star Game and NCAA
NCAA
Men's Division I Basketball Championship. The Zurich Classic of New Orleans, is a PGA Tour
PGA Tour
golf tournament held since 1938. The Rock ‘n' Roll Mardi Gras Marathon and Crescent City Classic are two road running competitions held at New Orleans. As of 2016, Louisiana
Louisiana
was the birthplace of the most NFL players per capita for the eighth year in a row.[149] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Louisiana

Dishes typical of Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole cuisine.

Louisiana
Louisiana
is home to many, especially notable are the distinct culture of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Creoles, typically people of color, descendants of free mixed-race families of the colonial and early statehood periods. African culture[edit] The French colony of La Louisiane
La Louisiane
struggled for decades to survive. Conditions were harsh, the climate and soil were unsuitable for certain crops the colonists knew, and they suffered from regional tropical diseases. Both colonists and the slaves they imported had high mortality rates. The settlers kept importing slaves, which resulted in a high proportion of native Africans from West Africa, who continued to practice their culture in new surroundings. As described by historian Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, they developed a marked Afro-Creole culture in the colonial era.[150][151] At the turn of the 18th century and in the early 1800s, New Orleans received a major influx of white and mixed-race refugees fleeing the violence of the Haitian Revolution, many of whom brought their slaves with them. This added another infusion of African culture to the city, as more slaves in Saint-Domingue
Saint-Domingue
were from Africa
Africa
than in the United States. They strongly influenced the African-American culture of the city in terms of dance, music and religious practices. Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole culture[edit] Creole culture is an amalgamation of French, African, Spanish (and other European), and Native American cultures.[152] Creole comes from the Portuguese word crioulo; originally it referred to a colonist of European (specifically French) descent who was born in the New World, in comparison to immigrants from France.[153] The oldest Louisiana manuscript to use the word "Creole," from 1782, applied it to a slave born in the French colony.[154] But originally it referred more generally to the French colonists born in Louisiana. Over time, there developed in the French colony a relatively large group of Creoles of Color
Creoles of Color
(gens de couleur libres), who were primarily descended from African slave women and French men (later other Europeans became part of the mix, as well as some Native Americans.) Often the French would free their concubines and mixed-race children, and pass on social capital to them. They might educate sons in France, for instance, and help them enter the French Army for a career. They also settled capital or property on their mistresses and children. The free people of color gained more rights in the colony and sometimes education; they generally spoke French and were Roman Catholic. Many became artisans and property owners. Over time, the term "Creole" became associated with this class of Creoles of Color, many of whom achieved freedom long before the Civil War. Wealthy French Creoles generally maintained town houses in New Orleans as well as houses on their large sugar plantations outside town along the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. New Orleans
New Orleans
had the largest population of free people of color in the region; they could find work there and created their own culture, marrying among themselves for decades. Acadian
Acadian
culture[edit] The ancestors of Cajuns
Cajuns
immigrated from west central France
France
to New France, where they settled in the Atlantic provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, known originally as Acadia. After the British defeated France
France
in the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
(Seven Years' War) in 1763, France
France
ceded its territory east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River to Britain. The British forcibly separated families and evicted them from Acadia
Acadia
because they refused to vow loyalty to the new British regime. The Acadians were deported to England, New England, and France. Some escaped the British remained in French Canada. Others scattered, to France, Canada, Mexico, or the Falkland Islands. Many Acadian
Acadian
refugees settled in south Louisiana
Louisiana
in the region around Lafayette and the LaFourche Bayou country. They developed a distinct rural culture there that was different from that of the French Creole colonists in the New Orleans
New Orleans
area. Intermarrying with others in the area, they developed what was called Cajun
Cajun
music, cuisine and culture. Until the 1970s, the term "Cajun" was considered somewhat derogatory. Isleño culture[edit] A third distinct culture in Louisiana
Louisiana
is that of the Isleños, descendants of Spanish Canary Islanders who migrated from the Canary Islands of Spain
Spain
under the Spanish crown beginning in the mid-1770s. They developed four main communities, but many relocated to what is modern-day St. Bernard Parish. This is where the majority of the Isleño population is still concentrated. An annual festival called Fiesta celebrates the heritage of the Isleños. St Bernard Parish has an Isleños
Isleños
museum, cemetery and church, as well as many street names with Spanish words and Spanish surnames from this heritage. Some members of the Isleño community still speak Spanish – with their own Canary Islander accent. Numerous Isleño identity organizations, and many members of Isleños
Isleños
society keep contact with the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
of Spain. Languages[edit]

The languages of historic Native American tribes that occupied what is now Louisiana
Louisiana
include: Tunica, Caddo, Natchez, Choctaw, Atakapa, Chitimacha and Houma.

According to a 2010 study by the Modern Language Association, among persons five years old and older,[155] 91.26% of Louisiana
Louisiana
residents speak only English at home, 3.45% speak French (standard French, French Creole, or Cajun
Cajun
French), 3.30% speak Spanish, and 0.59% speak Vietnamese. Historically, Native American peoples in the area at the time of European encounter were seven tribes distinguished by their languages: Caddo, Tunica, Natchez, Houma, Choctaw, Atakapa, and Chitimacha. Of these, only Caddo
Caddo
and Choctaw still have living native speakers, although several other tribes are working to teach and revitalize their languages. Other Native American peoples migrated into the region, escaping from European pressure from the east. Among these were Alabama, Biloxi, Koasati, and Ofo peoples. Starting in the 1700s, French colonists began to settle along the coast and founded New Orleans. They established French culture and language institutions. They imported thousands of slaves from tribes of West Africa, who spoke several different languages. In the creolization process, the slaves developed a Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole dialect incorporating both French and African forms, which colonists adopted to communicate with them, and which persisted beyond slavery. In the 20th century, there were still people of mixed race, particularly, who spoke Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole French. During the 19th century after the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
by the United States, English gradually gained prominence for business and government due to the shift in population with settlement by numerous Americans
Americans
who were English speakers. Many ethnic French families continued to use French in private. Slaves and some free people of color also spoke Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole French. The State Constitution of 1812 gave English official status in legal proceedings, but use of French remained widespread. Subsequent state constitutions reflect the diminishing importance of French. The 1868 constitution, passed during the Reconstruction era
Reconstruction era
before Louisiana
Louisiana
was re-admitted to the Union, banned laws requiring the publication of legal proceedings in languages other than English. Subsequently, the legal status of French recovered somewhat, but it never regained its pre-Civil War prominence.[156] Several unique dialects of French, Creole, and English are spoken in Louisiana. Dialects of the French language
French language
are: Colonial French
Colonial French
and Houma French. Louisiana Creole French
Louisiana Creole French
is the term for one of the Creole languages. Two unique dialects developed of the English language: Louisiana
Louisiana
English, a French-influenced variety of English; and what is informally known as Yat, which resembles the New York City dialect, particularly that of historical Brooklyn. Both accents were influenced by large communities of immigrant Irish and Italians, but the Yat dialect, which developed in New Orleans, was also influenced by French and Spanish.

Louisiana's bilingual state welcome sign, recognizing its French heritage.

Colonial French
Colonial French
was the dominant language of white settlers in Louisiana
Louisiana
during the French colonial period; it was spoken primarily by the French Creoles (native-born). In addition to this dialect, the mixed-race people and slaves developed Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole, with a base in West African languages. The limited years of Spanish rule at the end of the 18th century did not result in widespread adoption of the Spanish language. French and Louisiana
Louisiana
Creole are still used in modern-day Louisiana, often in family gatherings. English and its associated dialects became predominant after the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
of 1803, after which the area became dominated by numerous English speakers. In some regions, English was influenced by French, as seen with Louisiana
Louisiana
English. Colonial French, although mistakenly named Cajun
Cajun
French by some Cajuns, has persisted alongside English. Renewed interest in the French language
French language
in Louisiana
Louisiana
has led to the establishment of Canadian-modeled French immersion schools, as well as bilingual signage in the historic French neighborhoods of New Orleans and Lafayette. Organizations such as CODOFIL promote use of the French language in the state. Literature[edit] Main article: Literature of Louisiana Music[edit] Main article: Music of Louisiana See also[edit]

Louisiana
Louisiana
portal

Louisiana
Louisiana
(New France) Index of Louisiana-related articles Outline of Louisiana
Outline of Louisiana
– organized list of topics about Louisiana

Notes[edit]

^ Louisiana
Louisiana
French: La Louisiane, [la lwizjan, luz-];[9] Louisiana Creole: Léta de la Lwizyàn; Standard French: État de Louisiane [lwizjan] ( listen); Spanish: Luisiana

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leads hometowns". Usafootball.com. September 24, 2010. Retrieved April 23, 2014.  ^ Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century (1992) ^ Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, comp. Afro- Louisiana
Louisiana
History and Genealogy, 1719–1820. Database http://www.ibiblio.org/laslave/, 2003. ^ "French Creole Heritage". Laheritage.org. Archived from the original on August 30, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2014.  ^ Delehanty, Randolph.New Orleans: Elegance and Decadence, Chronicle Books, 1995, pg. 14 ^ Kein, Sybil. Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana's Free People of Color, Louisiana State University
Louisiana State University
Press, 2009, p. 73. ^ "United States". Modern Language Association. Retrieved September 2, 2013.  ^ Ward, Roger K (Summer 1997). "The French Language in Louisiana
Louisiana
Law and Legal Education: A Requiem". Louisiana
Louisiana
Law Review. 57 (4). 

Bibliography[edit]

The Sugar Masters: Planters and Slaves in Louisiana's Cane World, 1820–1860 by Richard Follett, Louisiana State University
Louisiana State University
Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8071-3247-0 The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870 by Hugh Thomas. 1997: Simon and Schuster. p. 548. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World by David Brion Davis 2006: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533944-4 Yiannopoulos, A.N., The Civil Codes of Louisiana
Louisiana
(reprinted from Civil Law System: Louisiana
Louisiana
and Comparative law, A Coursebook: Texts, Cases and Materials, 3d Edition; similar to version in preface to Louisiana Civil Code, ed. by Yiannopoulos) Rodolfo Batiza, "The Louisiana Civil Code
Louisiana Civil Code
of 1808: Its Actual Sources and Present Relevance," 46 TUL. L. REV. 4 (1971); Rodolfo Batiza, "Sources of the Civil Code of 1808, Facts and Speculation: A Rejoinder," 46 TUL. L. REV. 628 (1972); Robert A. Pascal, Sources of the Digest of 1808: A Reply to Professor Batiza, 46 TUL. L. REV. 603 (1972); Joseph M. Sweeney, Tournament of Scholars Over the Sources of the Civil Code of 1808,46 TUL. L. REV. 585 (1972). The standard history of the state, though only through the Civil War, is Charles Gayarré's History of Louisiana' (various editions, culminating in 1866, 4 vols., with a posthumous and further expanded edition in 1885). A number of accounts by 17th- and 18th-century French explorers: Jean-Bernard Bossu, François-Marie Perrin du Lac, Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix, Dumont (as published by Fr. Mascrier), Fr. Louis Hennepin, Lahontan, Louis Narcisse Baudry des Lozières, Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, and Laval. In this group, the explorer Antoine Simon Le Page du Pratz
Antoine Simon Le Page du Pratz
may be the first historian of Louisiana
Louisiana
with his Histoire de la Louisiane (3 vols., Paris, 1758; 2 vols., London, 1763) François Xavier Martin's History of Louisiana
History of Louisiana
(2 vols., New Orleans, 1827–1829, later ed. by J. F. Condon, continued to 1861, New Orleans, 1882) is the first scholarly treatment of the subject, along with François Barbé-Marbois' Histoire de la Louisiane et de la cession de colonie par la France
France
aux Etats-Unis (Paris, 1829; in English, Philadelphia, 1830). Alcée Fortier's A History of Louisiana
History of Louisiana
(N.Y., 4 vols., 1904) is the most recent of the large-scale scholarly histories of the state. The official works of Albert Phelps and Grace King, the publications of the Louisiana
Louisiana
Historical Society and several works on the history of New Orleans
New Orleans
(q.v.), among them those by Henry Rightor and John Smith Kendall provide background.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutLouisianaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Louisiana
Louisiana
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Louisiana
Louisiana
Geographic Information Center Louisiana
Louisiana
Endowment for the Humanities Louisiana
Louisiana
Weather and Tides

Geology links[edit]

Geology

Generalized Geologic Map of Louisiana, 2008 Generalized Geology of Louisiana
Louisiana
(text to Generalized Geologic Map of Louisiana) Loess Map of Louisiana Other Louisiana
Louisiana
Geological Maps Louisiana
Louisiana
Geofacts

Government[edit]

Official State of Louisiana
Louisiana
website Louisiana
Louisiana
State Databases – Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Louisiana
Louisiana
state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association. Census Statistics on Louisiana

U.S. government[edit]

Energy Profile for Louisiana USDA Louisiana
Louisiana
Statistical Facts USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Louisiana 1st district: Steve Scalise
Steve Scalise
– Website 2nd district: Cedric Richmond
Cedric Richmond
– Website & Campaign Website 3rd district: Charles Boustany
Charles Boustany
– Website 4th district: John C. Fleming
John C. Fleming
– Website 5th district: Ralph Abraham – Website 6th district: Garret Graves
Garret Graves
– Website

News media[edit]

The Times-Picayune major Louisiana
Louisiana
newspaper WWL-TV
WWL-TV
Louisiana
Louisiana
television station

Ecoregions[edit]

Ecoregions of Louisiana Ecoregions of the Mississippi
Mississippi
Alluvial Plain

Tourism[edit]

Official site of Louisiana
Louisiana
tourism Official site of the New Orleans
New Orleans
Convention & Tourism Bureau Official site of New Orleans
New Orleans
Plantation Country tourism Geographic data related to Louisiana
Louisiana
at OpenStreetMap

Preceded by Ohio List of U.S. states
List of U.S. states
by date of admission to the Union Admitted on April 30, 1812 (18th) Succeeded by Indiana

Topics related to Louisiana The Pelican State

v t e

 State of Louisiana

Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge
(capital)

Topics

Index History Music Louisianians Constitution Governors Lieutenant Governors Secretaries of State Attorneys General Legislature Supreme Court Congressional districts Symbols Tourist attractions

Seal of Louisiana

Society

Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Politics

Regions

Acadiana Ark-La-Tex Central Louisiana Florida
Florida
Parishes Greater New Orleans Northwest Louisiana North Louisiana Southwest Louisiana

Cities

Alexandria Baton Rouge Bossier City Hammond Houma Kenner Lafayette Lake Charles Monroe Natchitoches New Iberia New Orleans Opelousas Ponchatoula Ruston Shreveport Slidell Sulphur

CDPs

Chalmette Harvey LaPlace Marrero Metairie Moss Bluff Terrytown

Metros

Alexandria Baton Rouge Hammond Houma–Bayou Cane–Thibodaux Lafayette Lake Charles Monroe New Orleans Shreveport–Bossier City

Parishes

See: List of parishes in Louisiana

v t e

Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Louisiana

Mitch Landrieu
Mitch Landrieu
(D) (New Orleans) Sharon Weston Broome (D) (Baton Rouge) Ollie Tyler (D) (Shreveport) Joel Robideaux (R) (Lafayette)

v t e

Protected areas of Louisiana

Federal

National Historical Parks

Cane River Creole Jean Lafitte
Jean Lafitte
NHP and Preserve New Orleans
New Orleans
Jazz

National Monuments

Poverty Point

National Marine Sanctuary

Flower Garden Banks

National Forests

Kisatchie

National Wildlife Refuge System

Atchafalaya Bayou Cocodrie Bayou Sauvage Bayou Teche Big Branch Marsh Black Bayou Lake Bogue Chitto Breton Cameron Prairie Cat Island Catahoula D'Arbonne Delta East Cove Grand Cote Handy Brake Lacassine Lake Ophelia Mandalay Red River Shell Keys Sabine Tensas River Upper Ouachita

State

State Parks

Bayou Segnette Bogue Chitto Chemin-A-Haut Chicot Cypremort Point Fairview-Riverside Fontainebleau Grand Isle Hodges Gardens Jimmie Davis Lake Bistineau Lake Bruin Lake Claiborne Lake D-Arbonne Lake Fausse Pointe North Toledo Bend Palmetto Island Poverty Point
Poverty Point
Reservoir St. Bernard Sam Houston
Houston
Jones South Toledo Bend Tickfaw

State Historic Sites

Audubon Centenary Fort Jesup Fort Pike Fort St. Jean Baptiste Forts Randolph & Buhlow Locust Grove Longfellow-Evangeline Los Adaes Mansfield Marksville Plaquemine Lock Port
Port
Hudson Poverty Point Rebel State Rosedown Plantation Winter Quarters

State Preservation Area

Louisiana
Louisiana
State Arboretum

State Forests

Alexander Indian Creek

State Wildlife Refuges

Elmer's Island Marsh Island Rockefeller St. Tammany State Terrebonne Barrier Islands White Lake Wetlands

Wildlife management areas

Acadiana
Acadiana
Conservation Corridor Atchafalaya Delta Attakapas Barataria Preserve Bayou Macon Bayou Pierre Ben Lilly Conservation Area Ben's Creek Big Colewa Bayou Big Lake Biloxi Bodcau Boeuf Bonnet Carré Spillway Buckhorn Camp Beauregard Catahoula Lake Clear Creek Dewey Wills Elbow Slough Elm Hall Floy Ward McElroy Fort Polk Grassy Lake Hutchinson Creek Indian Bayou Jackson Bienville Joyce Lake Boeuf Lake Ramsey Savannah Little River Loggy Bayou Manchac Marsh Bayou Maurepas Swamp Old River Control Ouachita Pass A Loutre Pearl River Peason Ridge Pointe-aux-Chenes Pomme de Terre Red River Russell Sage Sabine Island Sabine Salvador/Timken Sandy Hollow Sherburne (See: Atchafalaya Delta) Sicily Island Hills Soda Lake Spring Bayou Tangipahoa Parish School Board Thistlethwaite Three Rivers Tunica Hills Union Walnut Hill West Bay

Other

Private

Bird City Paul J. Rainey Wildlife Sanctuary

City

Bluebonnet Swamp Nature Center

Louisiana
Louisiana
Department of Culture, Recreation & Tourism (web) Louisiana
Louisiana
Department of Agriculture & Forestry (web) Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (web)

v t e

Southern United States

Topics

Culture Cuisine Geography Economy Government and Politics History Sports

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia

Major cities

Atlanta Birmingham Charleston Charlotte Columbia Dallas Fort Worth Greensboro Houston Jacksonville Little Rock Memphis Miami Nashville New Orleans Norfolk Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Orlando Raleigh Richmond Tampa Tulsa

State capitals

Atlanta Austin Baton Rouge Charleston Columbia Jackson Little Rock Montgomery Nashville Raleigh Richmond Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Tallahassee

v t e

 New France
France
(1534–1763)

Subdivisions

Acadia
Acadia
(1604–1713) Canada
Canada
(1608–1763) Pays d'en Haut Domaine du roy Louisiana
Louisiana
(1682–1762, 1802–1803) Illinois
Illinois
Country Ohio
Ohio
Country Newfoundland (1662–1713) Île Royale (1713–1763)

Towns

Acadia
Acadia
( Port
Port
Royal) Canada

Quebec Trois-Rivières Montreal Détroit

Île Royale

Louisbourg

Louisiana

Mobile Biloxi New Orleans

Newfoundland

Plaisance

List of towns

Forts

Fort Rouillé Fort Michilimackinac Fort de Buade Fort de Chartres Fort Detroit Fort Carillon Fort Condé Fort Duquesne Fortress of Louisbourg Castle Hill Fort St. Louis (Illinois) Fort St. Louis (Texas) List of Forts

Government

Canada

Governor General Intendant Sovereign Council Bishop of Quebec Governor of Trois-Rivières Governor of Montreal

Acadia

Governor Lieutenant-General

Newfoundland

Governor Lieutenant-General

Louisiana

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Île Royale

Governor Intendant Superior Council

Law

Intendancy Superior Council Admiralty court Provostship Officiality Seigneurial court Bailiff Maréchaussée Code Noir

Economy

Seigneurial system Fur trade Company of 100 Associates Crozat's Company Mississippi
Mississippi
Company Compagnie de l'Occident Chemin du Roy Coureur des bois Voyageurs

Society

Population

1666 census

Habitants King's Daughters Casquette girls Métis Amerindians Slavery Plaçage Gens de couleur libres

Religion

Jesuit missions Récollets Grey Nuns Ursulines Sulpicians

War and peace

Military of New France Intercolonial Wars French and Iroquois Wars Great Upheaval Great Peace of Montreal Schenectady massacre Deerfield massacre

Related

French colonization of the Americas French colonial empire History of Quebec History of the Acadians History of the French-Americans French West Indies Carib Expulsion Atlantic slave trade

Category Portal Commons

v t e

New Spain
Spain
(1521–1821)

Conflicts

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Anglo-Spanish War (1625–30)
Dutch Revolt
Dutch Revolt
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
→ Piracy in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War
War of Jenkins' Ear
War of Jenkins' Ear
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
→ Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War

Conflicts with indigenous peoples during colonial rule

Mixtón War
Mixtón War
Yaqui Wars
Yaqui Wars
Chichimeca War
Chichimeca War
→ Philippine revolts against Spain
Spain
Acaxee Rebellion
Acaxee Rebellion
Spanish–Moro conflict
Spanish–Moro conflict
Acoma Massacre
Acoma Massacre
Tepehuán Revolt
Tepehuán Revolt
→ Tzeltal Rebellion → Pueblo Revolt
Pueblo Revolt
Pima Revolt
Pima Revolt
→ Spanish American wars of independence

Government and administration

Central government

Habsburg Spain

Charles I Joanna of Castile Philip II Philp III Philip IV Charles II

Bourbon Spain

Philip V (also reigned after Louis I) Louis I Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII of Spain
Spain
(also reigned after Joseph I)

Viceroys of New Spain

List of viceroys of New Spain

Audiencias

Guadalajara Captaincy General of Guatemala Manila Mexico Santo Domingo

Captancies General

Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Yucatán Provincias Internas

Intendancy

Havana New Orleans State of Mexico Chiapas Comayagua Nicaragua Camagüey Santiago de Cuba Guanajuato Valladolid Guadalajara Zacatecas San Luis Potosí Veracruz Puebla Oaxaca Durango Sonora Mérida, Yucatán

Politics

Viceroy Gobernaciones Adelantado Captain general Corregidor (position) Cabildo Encomienda

Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty of Zaragoza Peace of Westphalia Treaty of Ryswick Treaty of Utrecht Congress of Breda Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762) Treaty of Paris (1783) Treaty of Córdoba Adams–Onís Treaty

Notable cities, provinces, & territories

Cities

Mexico City Veracruz Xalapa Puebla Toluca Cuernavaca Oaxaca Morelia Acapulco Campeche Mérida Guadalajara Durango Monterrey León Guanajuato Zacatecas Pachuca Querétaro Saltillo San Luis Potosí Los Ángeles Yerba Buena (San Francisco) San José San Diego Santa Fe Albuquerque El Paso Los Adaes San Antonio Tucson Pensacola St. Augustine Havana Santo Domingo San Juan Antigua Guatemala Cebu Manila

Provinces & territories

La Florida Las Californias Santa Fe de Nuevo México Alta California Baja California Tejas Nueva Galicia Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Extremadura New Kingdom of León Cebu Bulacan Pampanga

Other areas

Spanish Formosa

Explorers, adventurers & conquistadors

Pre-New Spain explorers

Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Vasco Núñez de Balboa Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar

Explorers & conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Juan Ponce de León Nuño de Guzmán Bernal Díaz del Castillo Pedro de Alvarado Pánfilo de Narváez Hernando de Soto Francisco Vásquez de Coronado Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Miguel López de Legazpi Ángel de Villafañe Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Luis de Carabajal y Cueva Juan de Oñate Juan José Pérez Hernández Gaspar de Portolà Manuel Quimper Cristóbal de Oñate Andrés de Urdaneta Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador) Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua) Gil González Dávila Francisco de Ulloa Juan José Pérez Hernández Dionisio Alcalá Galiano Bruno de Heceta Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra Alonso de León Ignacio de Arteaga y Bazán José de Bustamante y Guerra José María Narváez Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa Antonio Gil Y'Barbo Alexander von Humboldt Thomas Gage

Catholic
Catholic
Church in New Spain

Spanish missions in the Americas

Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in Baja California Spanish missions in California Spanish missions in the Carolinas Spanish missions in Florida Spanish missions in Georgia Spanish missions in Louisiana Spanish missions in Mexico Spanish missions in New Mexico Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Spanish missions in Texas Spanish missions in Virginia Spanish missions in Trinidad

Friars, fathers, priests, & bishops

Pedro de Gante Gerónimo de Aguilar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia Bernardino de Sahagún Juan de Zumárraga Alonso de Montúfar Vasco de Quiroga Bartolomé de las Casas Alonso de Molina Diego Durán Diego de Landa Gerónimo de Mendieta Juan de Torquemada Juan de Palafox y Mendoza Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora Eusebio Kino Francisco Javier Clavijero Junípero Serra Francisco Palóu Fermín Lasuén Esteban Tápis José Francisco de Paula Señan Mariano Payeras Sebastián Montero Marcos de Niza Francisco de Ayeta Antonio Margil Francisco Marroquín Manuel Abad y Queipo Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla José María Morelos

Other events

Suppression of the Jesuits California
California
mission clash of cultures Cargo system Indian Reductions

Society and culture

Indigenous peoples

Mesoamerican

Aztec Maya Huastec Mixtec P'urhépecha Totonac Pipil Kowoj K'iche' Kaqchikel Zapotec Poqomam Mam

Caribbean

Arawak Ciboney Guanajatabey

California

Mission Indians Cahuilla Chumash Cupeño Juaneño Kumeyaay Luiseño Miwok Mohave Ohlone Serrano Tongva

Southwestern

Apache Coahuiltecan Cocopa Comanche Hopi Hualapai La Junta Navajo Pima Puebloan Quechan Solano Yaqui Zuni

North-Northwest Mexico

Acaxee Chichimeca Cochimi Kiliwa Ópata Tepehuán

Florida
Florida
& other Southeastern tribes

Indigenous people during De Soto's travels Apalachee Calusa Creek Jororo Pensacola Seminole Timucua Yustaga

Filipino people

Negrito Igorot Mangyan Peoples of Palawan Ati Panay Lumad Bajau Tagalog Cebuano

Others

Taiwanese aborigines Chamorro people

Architecture

Spanish Colonial style by country Colonial Baroque style Forts Missions

Trade & economy

Real Columbian Exchange Manila galleon Triangular trade

People & classes

Casta

Peninsulars

Criollo Indios Mestizo Castizo Coyotes Pardos Zambo Negros

People

Juan Bautista de Anza Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo Francis Drake Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Eusebio Kino La Malinche Fermín Lasuén Limahong Moctezuma II Junípero Serra Hasekura Tsunenaga

New Spain
Spain
Portal

v t e

Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia

West Virginia1

States in exile

Kentucky Missouri

Territory

Arizona2

1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

v t e

Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

v t e

La Francophonie

Membership

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Belgium

French Community

Benin Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada

New Brunswick Quebec

Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Cyprus1 Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Dominica Egypt Equatorial Guinea France

French Guiana Guadeloupe Martinique St. Pierre and Miquelon

Gabon Ghana1 Greece Guinea Guinea-Bissau Haiti Ivory Coast Laos Luxembourg Lebanon Macedonia2 Madagascar Mali Mauritania Mauritius Moldova Monaco Morocco Niger Qatar Romania Rwanda St. Lucia São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Switzerland Togo Tunisia Vanuatu Vietnam

Observers

Argentina Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic Dominican Republic Georgia Hungary Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Montenegro Mozambique Ontario Poland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia South Korea Thailand Ukraine United Arab Emirates Uruguay

1 Associate member. 2 Provisionally referred to by the Francophonie as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

Organization

Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique Agence universitaire de la Francophonie

Secretaries-General

Boutros Boutros-Ghali Abdou Diouf Michaëlle Jean

Culture

French language UN French Language Day International Francophonie Day Jeux de la Francophonie Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie Senghor University AFFOI TV5Monde LGBT rights

Category

Coordinates: 31°N 92°W / 31°N 92°W / 31; -92

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 316750576 LCCN: n79138970 ISNI: 0000 0004 0625 1951 GND: 40363

.