Admiral of the Fleet LOUIS FRANCIS ALBERT VICTOR NICHOLAS
MOUNTBATTEN, 1ST EARL MOUNTBATTEN OF BURMA, KG GCB OM GCSI GCIE GCVO
DSO PC FRS (born PRINCE LOUIS OF BATTENBERG; 25 June 1900 – 27
August 1979) was a British naval officer and statesman, an uncle of
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh , and second cousin once removed of
From 1954 until 1959 he was First Sea Lord , a position that had been held by his father, Prince Louis of Battenberg , some forty years earlier. Thereafter he served as Chief of the Defence Staff until 1965, making him the longest serving professional head of the British Armed Forces to date. During this period Mountbatten also served as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee for a year.
In 1979, Mountbatten, his grandson Nicholas, and two others were
killed by the
Provisional Irish Republican Army
* 1 Early life
* 2 Career
* 2.1 Early career
Second World War
* 3 Personal life
* 3.1 Marriage * 3.2 Daughter as heir * 3.3 Leisure interests * 3.4 Mentorship of the Prince of Wales
* 4 Television appearances
* 5 Death
* 5.1 Assassination * 5.2 Funeral * 5.3 Aftermath
* 6 Legacy
* 7 Honours
* 7.1 Arms
* 8 Titles and styles * 9 Ancestors
* 10 References
* 10.1 Footnotes * 10.2 Works cited
* 11 Further reading * 12 External links
Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, Prince Louis of Battenberg and their four children Princess Alice, Princess Louise, Prince George and Prince Louis.
From the time of his birth at
Frogmore House in the
His paternal grandparents' marriage was morganatic because his
grandmother was not of royal lineage; as a result, he and his father
were styled "Serene Highness" rather than "Grand Ducal Highness", were
not eligible to be titled Princes of Hesse and were given the less
exalted Battenberg title. His siblings were Princess Andrew of Greece
Young Mountbatten's nickname among family and friends was "Dickie",
although "Richard" was not among his given names. This was because his
Mountbatten was educated at home for the first 10 years of his life:
he was then sent to
Lockers Park School in
Mountbatten was posted as midshipman to the battlecruiser HMS Lion in
July 1916 and, after seeing action in August 1916, transferred to the
battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth during the closing phases of the First
World War . In June 1917, when the
He was appointed executive officer (second-in-command) of the small
warship HMS P.31 on 13 October 1918 and was promoted sub-lieutenant on
15 January 1919. HMS P.31 took part in the Peace River Pageant on 4
April 1919. Mountbatten attended Christ\'s College, Cambridge for two
terms, starting in October 1919, where he studied English literature
John Milton and
He was posted to the battlecruiser HMS Renown in March 1920 and
accompanied Edward, Prince of Wales , on a royal tour of Australia in
her. He was promoted lieutenant on 15 April 1920. HMS Renown
returned to Portsmouth on 11 October 1920. Early in 1921 Royal Navy
personnel were used for civil defence duties as serious industrial
unrest seemed imminent. Mountbatten had to command a platoon of
stokers, many of whom had never handled a rifle before, in northern
England. He transferred to the battlecruiser HMS Repulse in March
1921 and accompanied the Prince of Wales on a Royal tour of India and
Japan. Edward and Mountbatten formed a close friendship during the
trip. Mountbatten survived the deep defence cuts known as the Geddes
Axe . Fifty-two percent of the officers of his year had had to leave
Pursuing his interests in technological development and gadgetry,
Mountbatten joined the Portsmouth Signals School in August 1924 and
then went on briefly to study electronics at the Royal Naval College,
Greenwich . Mountbatten became a Member of the Institution of
Electrical Engineers (IEE ), now the Institution of Engineering and
Technology (IET ), which annually awards the Mountbatten Medal for an
outstanding contribution, or contributions over a period, to the
promotion of electronics or information technology and their
application. He was posted to the battleship HMS Centurion in the
Reserve Fleet in 1926 and became Assistant Fleet Wireless and Signals
Officer of the
Mediterranean Fleet under the command of
In 1934, Mountbatten was appointed to his first command – the
destroyer HMS Daring . His ship was a new destroyer which he was to
In July 1939, Mountbatten was granted a patent (UK Number 508,956) for a system for maintaining a warship in a fixed position relative to another ship.
SECOND WORLD WAR
Mountbatten and officers on HMS Kelvin 1940.
When war broke out in September 1939, Mountbatten became commander of
the 5th Destroyer Flotilla aboard HMS Kelly, which became famous for
its exploits. In late 1939 he brought the Duke of Windsor back from
On the night of 9/10 May 1940, Kelly was torpedoed amidships by a German E-boat S 31 off the Dutch coast, and Mountbatten thereafter commanded the 5th Destroyer Flotilla from the destroyer HMS Javelin . He rejoined Kelly in December 1940, by which time the torpedo damage had been repaired.
Kelly was sunk by German dive bombers on 23 May 1941 during the Battle of Crete ; the incident serving as the basis for Noël Coward 's film In Which We Serve . Coward was a personal friend of Mountbatten and copied some of his speeches into the film. Mountbatten was mentioned in despatches on 9 August 1940 and 21 March 1941 and awarded the Distinguished Service Order in January 1941. Mountbatten, Walter Short, Husband Kimmel in Hawaii 1941 Clockwise from lower right, Franklin D. Roosevelt , Winston Churchill, Hastings Ismay , Mountbatten: January 1943 in Casablanca.
In August 1941, Mountbatten was appointed captain of the aircraft
carrier HMS Illustrious which lay in
Norfolk, Virginia , for repairs
following action at
Mountbatten was a favourite of
His duties in this role included inventing new technical aids to assist with opposed landings. Noteworthy technical achievements of Mountbatten and his staff include the construction of "PLUTO", an underwater oil pipeline from the English coast to Normandy , an artificial harbour constructed of concrete caissons and sunken ships , and the development of amphibious tank-landing ships . Another project that Mountbatten proposed to Churchill was Project Habakkuk . It was to be a massive and impregnable 600-metre aircraft carrier made from reinforced ice (" Pykrete "): Habakkuk was never carried out due to its enormous cost.
As commander of Combined Operations, Mountbatten and his staff
planned the highly successful Bruneval raid , which gained important
information and part of a German Würzburg radar installation and one
of the machine's technicians on 27 February 1942. It was Mountbatten
who recognized that surprise and speed were the essential requirements
of any raid against the installation to ensure the radar was captured,
and saw an airborne assault as the only viable method. He was in
large part responsible for the planning and organisation of The Raid
at St. Nazaire in mid-1942, an operation which put out of action one
of the most heavily defended docks in Nazi-occupied
Mountbatten claimed that the lessons learned from the Dieppe Raid
were necessary for planning the Normandy invasion on
D-Day nearly two
years later. However, military historians such as former Royal Marine
Julian Thompson have written that these lessons should not have needed
a debacle such as Dieppe to be recognised. Nevertheless, as a direct
result of the failings of the Dieppe raid, the British made several
innovations, most notably Hobart\'s Funnies – specialized armoured
vehicles which, in the course of the
Normandy Landings , undoubtedly
saved many lives on those three beachheads upon which Commonwealth
soldiers were landing (
In August 1943, Churchill appointed Mountbatten the Supreme Allied
Hugh Lunghi recounted an embarrassing episode
which occurred during the
During his time as
Supreme Allied Commander of the Southeast Asia
Theatre, his command oversaw the recapture of Burma from the Japanese
William Slim . A personal high point was the receipt of
the Japanese surrender in
Following the war, Mountbatten was known to have largely shunned the
Japanese for the rest of his life out of respect for his men killed
during the war, and as per his will, Japan was not invited to send
diplomatic representatives to his funeral in 1979, though he did meet
LAST VICEROY OF INDIA AND FIRST GOVERNOR-GENERAL
His experience in the region and in particular his perceived Labour sympathies at that time led to Clement Attlee appointing him Viceroy of India on 20 February 1947 charged with overseeing the transition of British India to independence no later than 30 June 1948. Mountbatten's instructions emphasised a united India as a result of the transference of power but authorised him to adapt to a changing situation in order to get Britain out promptly with minimal reputational damage. Soon after he arrived, Mountbatten concluded that the situation was too volatile for even that short a wait. Although his advisers favoured a gradual transfer of independence, Mountbatten decided the only way forward was a quick and orderly transfer of independence before 1947 was out. In his view, any longer would mean civil war. The Viceroy also hurried so he could return to his senior technical Navy courses. Lord and Lady Mountbatten at Mussoorie with Congress leader Sardar Patel , his daughter Manibehn Patel and Nehru in the background
Mountbatten was fond of Congress leader
Given the British government's recommendations to grant independence quickly, Mountbatten concluded that a united India was an unachievable goal and resigned himself to a plan for partition, creating the independent nations of India and Pakistan. Mountbatten set a date for the transfer of power from the British to the Indians, arguing that a fixed timeline would convince Indians of his and the British government's sincerity in working towards a swift and efficient independence, excluding all possibilities of stalling the process.
Among the Indian leaders,
Mountbatten brought forward the date of the partition from June 1948
to 15 August 1947. The uncertainty of the borders caused Muslims and
Hindus to move into the direction where they felt they would get the
majority. Hindus and Muslims were thoroughly terrified, and the Muslim
movement from the East was balanced by the similar movement of Hindus
from the West. A boundary committee chaired by Sir Cyril Radcliffe
was charged with drawing boundaries for the new nations. With a
mandate to leave as many Hindus and Sikhs in India and as many Muslims
When India and
Notwithstanding the self-promotion of his own part in Indian independence – notably in the television series The Life and Times of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Mountbatten of Burma, produced by his son-in-law Lord Brabourne , and Freedom at Midnight by Dominique Lapierre and Larry Collins (of which he was the main quoted source) – his record is seen as very mixed; one common view is that he hastened the independence process unduly and recklessly, foreseeing vast disruption and loss of life and not wanting this to occur on the British watch, but thereby actually helping it to occur, especially in Punjab and Bengal. John Kenneth Galbraith , the Canadian-American Harvard University economist, who advised governments of India during the 1950s, an intimate of Nehru who served as the American ambassador from 1961 to 1963, was a particularly harsh critic of Mountbatten in this regard.
The creation of
CAREER AFTER INDIA AND PAKISTAN
After India, Mountbatten served as commander of the 1st Cruiser
Squadron in the
Mediterranean Fleet and, having been granted the
substantive rank of vice admiral on 22 June 1949, he became
Second-in-Command of the
Mediterranean Fleet in April 1950. He became
Fourth Sea Lord at the
Mountbatten served his final posting at the
While serving as First Sea Lord, his primary concerns dealt with
devising plans on how the
Mountbatten was appointed Colonel of the Life Guards , Gold Stick in
Waiting and Life Colonel Commandant of the
Mountbatten was elected a
Fellow of the Royal Society
In 1969, Mountbatten tried unsuccessfully to persuade his cousin, the
Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona , to ease the
eventual accession of his son, Juan Carlos , to the Spanish throne by
signing a declaration of abdication while in exile. The next year
Mountbatten attended an official White House dinner during which he
took the opportunity to have a 20-minute conversation with Richard
Nixon and Secretary of State
William P. Rogers , about which he later
wrote, "I was able to talk to the President a bit about both Tino
(Constantine II of Greece) and Juanito (Juan Carlos of Spain) to try
and put over their respective points of view about
From 1967 until 1978, Mountbatten was president of the United World
Colleges Organisation, then represented by a single college: that of
Atlantic College in South Wales. Mountbatten supported the United
World Colleges and encouraged heads of state, politicians and
personalities throughout the world to share his interest. Under
Mountbatten's presidency and personal involvement, the United World
College of South East Asia was established in
ALLEGED PLOTS AGAINST HAROLD WILSON
Main article: Harold Wilson conspiracy theories
Peter Wright , in his book Spycatcher , claimed that in May 1968 Mountbatten attended a private meeting with press baron Cecil King , and the Government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Solly Zuckerman . Wright alleged that "up to thirty" MI5 officers had joined a secret campaign to undermine the crisis-stricken Labour government of Harold Wilson and that King was an MI5 agent. In the meeting, King allegedly urged Mountbatten to become the leader of a government of national salvation. Solly Zuckerman pointed out that it was "rank treachery", and the idea came to nothing because of Mountbatten's reluctance to act.
In 2006, the BBC documentary The Plot Against Harold Wilson alleged that there had been another plot involving Mountbatten to oust Wilson during his second term in office (1974–76). The period was characterised by high inflation, increasing unemployment and widespread industrial unrest. The alleged plot revolved around right-wing former military figures who were supposedly building private armies to counter the perceived threat from trade unions and the Soviet Union. They believed that the Labour Party , which was (and still is ) partly funded by affiliated trade unions , was unable and unwilling to counter these developments and that Wilson was either a Soviet agent or at the very least a Communist sympathiser – claims Wilson strongly denied. The documentary alleged that a coup was planned to overthrow Wilson and replace him with Mountbatten using the private armies and sympathisers in the military and MI5.
The first official history of MI5, The Defence of the Realm (2009), tacitly confirmed that there was a plot against Wilson and that MI5 did have a file on him. Yet it also made clear that the plot was in no way official and that any activity centred on a small group of discontented officers. This much had already been confirmed by former cabinet secretary Lord Hunt , who concluded in a secret inquiry conducted in 1996 that "there is absolutely no doubt at all that a few, a very few, malcontents in MI5...a lot of them like Peter Wright who were right-wing, malicious and had serious personal grudges – gave vent to these and spread damaging malicious stories about that Labour government."
Louis and Edwina Mountbatten
Mountbatten was married on 18 July 1922 to Edwina Cynthia Annette
Ashley , daughter of Wilfred William Ashley , later 1st Baron Mount
Temple , himself a grandson of the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury . She was
the favourite granddaughter of the Edwardian magnate Sir Ernest Cassel
and the principal heir to his fortune. There followed a honeymoon
tour of European royal courts and America which included a visit to
Mountbatten admitted "Edwina and I spent all our married lives getting into other people's beds." He maintained an affair for several years with Frenchwoman Yola Letellier, Edwina and Jawaharlal Nehru became intimate friends after Indian Independence. During the summers, she would frequent the prime minister's house so she could lounge about on his veranda during the hot Delhi days. Personal correspondence between the two reveals a satisfying yet frustrating relationship. Edwina states in one of her letters. "Nothing that we did or felt would ever be allowed to come between you and your work or me and mine – because that would spoil everything."
DAUGHTER AS HEIR
Lord and Lady Mountbatten had two daughters: Lady Patricia Mountbatten, Countess Mountbatten of Burma (born 14 February 1924, died 13 June 2017), sometime lady-in-waiting to the Queen , and Lady Pamela Carmen Louise (Hicks) (born 19 April 1929), who accompanied them to India in 1947–48 and was also sometime lady-in-waiting to the Queen.
Since Mountbatten had no sons, when he was created VISCOUNT MOUNTBATTEN OF BURMA, OF ROMSEY IN THE COUNTY OF SOUTHAMPTON on 27 August 1946 and then EARL MOUNTBATTEN OF BURMA and BARON ROMSEY, IN THE COUNTY OF SOUTHAMPTON on 28 October 1947, the Letters Patent were drafted such that in the event he left no sons or issue in the male line, the titles could pass to his daughters, in order of seniority of birth, and to their heirs respectively.
Like many members of the royal family, Mountbatten was an aficionado
of polo. He received U.S. patent 1,993,334 in 1931 for a polo stick.
Mountbatten introduced the sport to the
MENTORSHIP OF THE PRINCE OF WALES
Mountbatten was a strong influence in the upbringing of his grand-nephew, Charles, Prince of Wales , and later as a mentor – "Honorary Grandfather" and "Honorary Grandson", they fondly called each other according to the Jonathan Dimbleby biography of the Prince – though according to both the Ziegler biography of Mountbatten and the Dimbleby biography of the Prince, the results may have been mixed. He from time to time strongly upbraided the Prince for showing tendencies towards the idle pleasure-seeking dilettantism of his predecessor as Prince of Wales, King Edward VIII , whom Mountbatten had known well in their youth. Yet he also encouraged the Prince to enjoy the bachelor life while he could and then to marry a young and inexperienced girl so as to ensure a stable married life.
Mountbatten's qualification for offering advice to this particular
heir to the throne was unique; it was he who had arranged the visit of
In 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to his granddaughter, Hon. Amanda Knatchbull . It was about this time he also recommended that the 25-year-old prince get on with "sowing some wild oats". Charles dutifully wrote to Amanda's mother (who was also his godmother), Lady Brabourne , about his interest. Her answer was supportive, but advised him that she thought her daughter still rather young to be courted .
Four years later Mountbatten secured an invitation for himself and Amanda to accompany Charles on his planned 1980 tour of India. Their fathers promptly objected. Prince Philip thought that the Indian public's reception would more likely reflect response to the uncle than to the nephew. Lord Brabourne counselled that the intense scrutiny of the press would be more likely to drive Mountbatten's godson and granddaughter apart than together.
Charles was rescheduled to tour India alone, but Mountbatten did not live to the planned date of departure. When Charles finally did propose marriage to Amanda later in 1979, the circumstances were changed, and she refused him.
In 1969 Mountbatten participated in a 12-part autobiographical
television series Lord Mountbatten: A Man for the Century, also known
as The Life and Times of Lord Mountbatten, produced by
1. The King's Ships Were at Sea (1900–1917) 2. The Kings Depart (1917–1922) 3. Azure Main (1922–1936) 4. The Stormy Winds (1936–1941)
5. United We Conquer (1941–1943) 6. The Imperial Enemy 7. The March to Victory 8. The Meaning of Victory (1945–1947)
9. The Last Viceroy 10. Fresh Fields (1947–1955) 11. Full Circle (1955–1965) 12. A Man of This Century (1900–1968)
On 27 April 1977, shortly before his 77th birthday, Mountbatten
became the first member of the
Christ in Triumph over Darkness and Evil by Gabriel Loire (1982) at St. George\'s Cathedral, Cape Town , South Africa, in memory of Lord Mountbatten
Mountbatten usually holidayed at his summer home, Classiebawn Castle , in Mullaghmore , a small seaside village in County Sligo , Ireland. The village was only 12 miles (19 km) from the border with Northern Ireland and near an area known to be used as a cross-border refuge by IRA members. In 1978, the IRA had allegedly attempted to shoot Mountbatten as he was aboard his boat, but "choppy seas had prevented the sniper lining up his target".
On 27 August 1979, Mountbatten went lobster-potting and tuna fishing
in his 30-foot (9.1 m) wooden boat, Shadow V, which had been moored in
the harbour at Mullaghmore. IRA member Thomas McMahon had slipped
onto the unguarded boat that night and attached a radio-controlled
bomb weighing 50 pounds (23 kg). When Mountbatten was aboard, just a
few hundred yards from the shore, the bomb was detonated. The boat was
destroyed by the force of the blast, and Mountbatten's legs were
almost blown off. Mountbatten, then aged 79, was pulled alive from the
water by nearby fishermen, but died from his injuries before being
brought to shore. Also aboard the boat were his elder daughter
Patricia (Lady Brabourne), her husband John (Lord Brabourne), their
twin sons Nicholas and Timothy Knatchbull, John's mother Doreen,
(dowager) Lady Brabourne , and Paul Maxwell, a young crew member from
The IRA issued a statement afterward, saying:
The IRA claim responsibility for the execution of Lord Louis Mountbatten. This operation is one of the discriminate ways we can bring to the attention of the English people the continuing occupation of our country. The death of Mountbatten and the tributes paid to him will be seen in sharp contrast to the apathy of the British government and the English people to the deaths of over three hundred British soldiers, and the deaths of Irish men, women and children at the hands of their forces.
The IRA gave clear reasons for the execution. I think it is unfortunate that anyone has to be killed, but the furor created by Mountbatten's death showed up the hypocritical attitude of the media establishment. As a member of the House of Lords, Mountbatten was an emotional figure in both British and Irish politics. What the IRA did to him is what Mountbatten had been doing all his life to other people; and with his war record I don't think he could have objected to dying in what was clearly a war situation. He knew the danger involved in coming to this country. In my opinion, the IRA achieved its objective: people started paying attention to what was happening in Ireland.
On the day of the bombing, the IRA also ambushed and killed eighteen
British soldiers in Northern Ireland, sixteen of them from the
Parachute Regiment , in what became known as the
Warrenpoint ambush .
It was the deadliest attack on the
Mountbatten's tomb at Romsey Abbey
On 5 September 1979 Mountbatten received a ceremonial funeral at
Westminster Abbey , which was attended by the Queen, the Royal Family
and members of the European royal houses. Watched by thousands of
people, the funeral procession, which started at
Wellington Barracks ,
included representatives of all three
British Armed Services , and
military contingents from Burma, India, the United States,
Thomas McMahon, who had been arrested two hours before the bomb
detonated at a Garda checkpoint between
On hearing of Mountbatten's death the then Master of the Queen\'s Music , Malcolm Williamson , was moved to write the Lament in Memory of Lord Mountbatten of Burma for violin and string orchestra. The 11-minute work was given its first performance on 5 May 1980 by the Scottish Baroque Ensemble, conducted by Leonard Friedman.
Mountbatten took pride in enhancing intercultural understanding and in 1984, with his elder daughter as the patron, the Mountbatten Institute was developed to allow young adults the opportunity to enhance their intercultural appreciation and experience by spending time abroad.
The city of Ottawa, Ontario , erected Mountbatten Avenue in his memory. The avenue runs from Blossom Drive to Fairbanks Avenue.
RIBBON NAME DATE AWARDED
Knight of the Garter (KG) 1946
Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) 1943
Member of the Order of Merit (Military Division) (OM) 1965
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) 1937
Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO) 1920
Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) 1941
Knight of Justice of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (KStJ) 1940
Naval General Service Medal
Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of Isabella the Catholic
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown (Romania) – 1924
Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of the Star of Romania
War Cross (Kingdom of Greece) – 1941
Distinguished Service Medal (United States) – 1945
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (United States) – 1945
Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour (France) – 1946
1939–1945 War Cross (France) – 1946
King Birendra Coronation Medal
Kingdom of Nepal
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Elephant (Kingdom of Thailand) – 1946
Knight Grand Cross of the
Order of George I
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion (Kingdom of the Netherlands) – 1948
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz (Portuguese Republic) – 1951
Knight of the
Royal Order of the Seraphim
Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog (Kingdom of Denmark) – 1962
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Seal of Solomon (Ethiopian Empire) – 1965
Arms of Louis Mountbatten, 1st
Earl Mountbatten of Burma
Notes The arms of the
Earl Mountbatten of Burma
TITLES AND STYLES
* 25 JUNE 1900 – 14 JULY 1917: His Serene Highness Prince Louis of Battenberg * 14 JULY 1917 – 7 NOVEMBER 1917: Mr Louis Mountbatten * 7 NOVEMBER 1917 – 27 AUGUST 1946: Lord Louis Mountbatten * 27 AUGUST 1946 – 28 OCTOBER 1947: The Right Honourable The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma * 12 FEBRUARY – 15 AUGUST 1947: His Excellency The Right Honourable The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, Viceroy and Governor-General of India * 15 AUGUST – 28 OCTOBER 1947: His Excellency The Right Honourable The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, Governor-General of India * 28 OCTOBER 1947 – 21 JUNE 1948: His Excellency The Right Honourable The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Governor-General of India * 21 JUNE 1948 – 20 JULY 1965: The Right Honourable The Earl Mountbatten of Burma * 20 JULY 1965 – 1 APRIL 1974: His Excellency The Right Honourable The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Governor and Captain of the Isle of Wight * 1 APRIL 1974 – 27 AUGUST 1979: The Right Honourable The Earl Mountbatten of Burma
ANCESTORS OF LOUIS MOUNTBATTEN, 1ST EARL MOUNTBATTEN OF BURMA
16. Louis I, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
8. Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
17. Landgravine Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt
20. Friedrich Carl Emanuel Hauke
10. Count John Maurice Hauke
21. Maria Salomé Schweppenhäuser
5. Countess Julia Hauke
11. Sophie Lafontaine
23. Maria Theresia Kornély
1. LOUIS MOUNTBATTEN, 1ST EARL MOUNTBATTEN OF BURMA
24. Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (= 8)
25. Princess Wilhelmine of Baden (= 9)
6. Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
26. Prince Wilhelm of Prussia
27. Landgravine Marie Anna of Hesse-Homburg
14. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
29. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
15. Victoria of the
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* ^ A B C Montgomery-Massingberd (1973) , pp. 303–304
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* ^ Ziegler (2011) .
* ^ A B Heathcote (2002) , p. 183.
* ^ King & Wilson (2003) , p. 49.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L Heathcote (2002) , p. 184.
* ^ Ziegler 1986, p46
* ^ Heathcote 2002 p.184 states that he studied engineering which
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* ^ Ziegler 1986, p47-9
* ^ Smith 2010, p66
* ^ Ziegler 1985, p49
* ^ "No. 32461".
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* ^ A B Ziegler 1986, p59
* ^ Ziegler 1986, p.60 states that he actually joined HMS Repulse
on 25 June 1921
* ^ Ziegler 1986, p73
* ^ "Mountbatten Medal". IET. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
* ^ "No. 33378".
The London Gazette . 24 April 1928. p. 2900.
* ^ "No. 33899".
The London Gazette . 3 January 1933. p. 48.
* ^ "No. 34279".
The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 April 1936. p.
* ^ "No. 34296".
The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 June 1936. p.
* ^ "No. 34453".
The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1937.
* ^ "No. 34414".
The London Gazette . 2 July 1937. p. 4247.
* ^ A B C D Heathcote (2002) , p. 185.
* ^ "Abstract of GB508956 508,956. Speed governors". Wiki Patents.
Retrieved 20 September 2012.
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* ^ Niemi (2006) , p. 70.
* ^ "No. 34918".
The London Gazette (Supplement). 9 August 1940. p.
* ^ "No. 35113".
The London Gazette (Supplement). 18 March 1941. p.
* ^ A B "No. 35029".
The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December
1940. p. 25. DSO
* ^ O'Toole, Thomas (1982-12-07). "Mountbatten Predicted Pearl
Harbor". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
* ^ Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: Never Despair:
1945–1965. (c) 1988: p.762
* ^ Otway 1966 , pp. 65-66.
* ^ Villa (1989) , pp. 240–241.
* ^ "Who Was Responsible For Dieppe?". CBC Archives. 9 September
1962. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
* ^ Thompson (2001) , p. 263–269.
* ^ "In pictures:
D-Day inventions: The Flail". BBC News. Retrieved
20 September 2012.
* ^ "Obituary: Lt-Col James Allason". The Telegraph. London. 24
June 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
* ^ Montefiore (2004) , p. 501.
* ^ Heathcote (2002) , p. 187
* ^ Park (1946) , p. 2156, para 360.
* ^ Heathcote (2002) , p. 188.
* ^ SPECIAL TO THE NEW YORK TIMESSEPT. 5, 1979 (1979-09-05). "Japan
Is Not Invited to Lord Mountbatten\'s Funeral - The New York Times".
Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
* ^ Talbot & Singh (2009) , p. 40.
* ^ "No. 37916".
The London Gazette . 25 March 1947. p. 1399.
* ^ Ziegler (1985) , p. 359.
* ^ A B White (2012) , p. 428.
* ^ Wolpert (2006) , p. 140
* ^ A B Sardesai (2007) , pp. 309–313.
* ^ Wolpert (2006) , p. 141.
* ^ Greenberg, Jonathan D. (2005). "Generations of Memory:
Remembering Partition in India/
* ^ Wolpert, Stanley (2009). Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the
British Empire in India. Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN
* ^ Ahmed, Akbar (2005). Jinnah,
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* ^ "On This Day—5 September 1979: Mountbatten Buried after Final
* ^ Vickers, Hugo (November 1989). "The Man Who Was Never Wrong".
Royalty Monthly: 42.
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* Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl Mountbatten of Burma * mountbattenofb