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Lotus Software
Software
(called Lotus Development Corporation before its acquisition by IBM) was an American software company based in Massachusetts. Lotus is most commonly known for the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet application, the first feature-heavy, user-friendly, reliable and WYSIWYG-enabled product to become widely available in the early days of the IBM
IBM
PC, when there was no graphical user interface. Much later, in conjunction with Ray Ozzie's Iris Associates, Lotus also released a groupware and email system, Lotus Notes. IBM
IBM
purchased the company in 1995 for US$3.5 billion, primarily to acquire Lotus Notes and to establish a presence in the increasingly important client–server computing segment, which was rapidly making host-based products such as IBM's OfficeVision obsolete.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Dominance 1.2 "Look and feel" lawsuits 1.3 Diversification and acquisition by IBM 1.4 Assimilation of name, web site, and branding

2 Corporate culture

2.1 Origins

3 Products

3.1 Current products 3.2 Products in maintenance mode 3.3 Discontinued products

4 References 5 External links

History[edit] Lotus was founded in 1982 by partners Mitch Kapor
Mitch Kapor
and Jonathan Sachs with backing from Ben Rosen. Lotus's first product was presentation software for the Apple II
Apple II
known as Lotus Executive Briefing System. Kapor founded Lotus after leaving his post as head of development at VisiCorp, the distributors of the VisiCalc
VisiCalc
spreadsheet, and selling all his rights to Visi-Plot and Visi-Trend to Visi-Corp. Shortly after Kapor left Visi-Corp, he and Sachs produced an integrated spreadsheet and graphics program. Even though IBM
IBM
and VisiCorp had a collaboration agreement whereby Visi-Calc was being shipped simultaneously with the PC, Lotus had a clearly superior product. Lotus released Lotus 1-2-3
Lotus 1-2-3
on January 26, 1983. The name referred to the three ways the product could be used, as a spreadsheet, graphics package, and database manager. In practice the latter two functions were less often used, but 1-2-3 was the most powerful spreadsheet program available. Lotus was almost immediately successful, becoming the world's third largest microcomputer software company in 1983 with $53 million in sales in its first year,[3] compared to its business plan forecast of $1 million in sales. In 1982 Jim Manzi — a graduate of Colgate University and The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
— came to Lotus as a management consultant with McKinsey & Company, and became an employee four months later. In October 1984 he was named President, and in April 1986 he was appointed CEO, succeeding Kapor. In July of that same year he also became Chairman of the Board. Manzi remained at the head of Lotus until 1995. Dominance[edit] As the popularity of the personal computer grew, Lotus quickly came to dominate the spreadsheet market. Lotus introduced other office products such as Ray Ozzie's Symphony in 1984 and the Jazz office suite for the Apple Macintosh
Apple Macintosh
computer in 1985. Jazz did very poorly in the market (in Guy Kawasaki's book The Macintosh Way, Lotus Jazz was described as being so bad, "even the people who pirated it returned it"). Also in 1985, Lotus bought Software
Software
Arts and discontinued its VisiCalc
VisiCalc
program. In the late 1980s Lotus developed Lotus Magellan, a file management and indexing utility. In this period Manuscript, a word processor, Lotus Agenda, an innovative personal information manager (PIM) which flopped, and Improv, a ground-breaking modeling package (and spreadsheet) for the NeXT
NeXT
platform, were released. Improv also flopped, and none of these products made a significant impact on the market. "Look and feel" lawsuits[edit] Lotus was involved in a number of lawsuits, of which the most significant were the "look and feel" cases which started in 1987. Lotus sued Paperback Software
Software
and Mosaic for copyright infringement, false and misleading advertising, and unfair competition over their low-cost clones of 1-2-3, VP Planner and Twin, and sued Borland
Borland
over its Quattro spreadsheet. This led[citation needed] Richard Stallman, founder of the Free Software
Software
Foundation, to found the League for Programming Freedom (LPF) and hold protests outside Lotus Development offices. Paperback and Mosaic lost and went out of business; Borland won and survived. The LPF filed an amicus curiae brief in the Borland case.[4] Diversification and acquisition by IBM[edit] In the 1990s, to compete with Microsoft's Windows applications, Lotus had to buy in products such as Ami Pro (word processor), Approach (database), and Threadz, which became Lotus Organizer. Several applications (1-2-3, Freelance Graphics, Ami Pro, Approach, and Lotus Organizer) were bundled together under the name Lotus SmartSuite. Although SmartSuite was bundled cheaply with many PCs and may initially have been more popular than Microsoft Office, Lotus quickly lost its dominance in the desktop applications market with the transition from 16- to 32-bit
32-bit
applications running on Windows 95. In large part due to its focusing much of its development resources on a suite of applications for IBM's new (and eventually commercially unsuccessful) OS/2
OS/2
operating system, Lotus was late in delivering its suite of 32-bit
32-bit
products, and failed to capitalize on the transition to the new version of Windows. It now has very little market share. The last significant new release was the SmartSuite Millennium Edition released in 1999. All new development of the suite was ended in 2000, with ongoing maintenance being moved overseas. Lotus began its diversification from the desktop software business with its 1984 strategic founding investment in Ray Ozzie's Iris Associates, the creator of its Lotus Notes
Lotus Notes
groupware platform. As a result of this early speculative move, Lotus had gained significant experience in network-based communications years before other competitors in the PC world had even started thinking about networked computing or the Internet. Lotus initially brought Lotus Notes
Lotus Notes
to market in 1989, and later reinforced its market presence with the acquisition of cc:Mail in 1991. In 1994, Lotus acquired Iris Associates. Lotus's dominant groupware position attracted IBM, which needed to make a strategic move away from host-based messaging products and to establish a stronger presence in client–server computing, but it also soon attracted stiff competition from Microsoft Exchange Server. In the second quarter of 1995 IBM
IBM
launched a hostile bid for Lotus with a $60-per-share tender offer, when Lotus' stock was only trading at $32. Jim Manzi looked for potential white knights, and forced IBM to increase its bid to $64.50 per share, for a $3.5 billion buyout of Lotus in July 1995.[5] On October 11, 1995 Manzi announced his resignation from what had become the Lotus Development division of IBM; he left with stock worth $78 million. Assimilation of name, web site, and branding[edit] While IBM
IBM
allowed Lotus to develop, market and sell its products under its own brand name, a restructuring in January 2001 [1] brought it more in line with its parent company, IBM. Also, IBM
IBM
moved key marketing and management functions from Cambridge, Mass., to IBM's New York office [2]. Gradually, the Lotus.com web site changed the "About us" section of its web site to eliminate references to "Lotus Development Corporation". The Lotus.com web page in 2001 clearly showed the company as "Lotus Development Corporation" with "a word from its CEO" [3] by 2002 the "About us" section was removed from its site menu, and the Lotus logo was replaced with the IBM
IBM
logo[4]. By 2003 an "About Lotus" link returned to the Lotus.com page on its sidebar, but this time identifying the company as "Lotus software from IBM" and showing in its contact information "Lotus Software, IBM
IBM
Software
Software
Group" [5]. By 2008 the Lotus.com domain name stopped showing a standalone site, instead redirecting to www.ibm.com/software/lotus, and in 2012 the site discontinued all reference to Lotus Software
Software
in favor of IBM Collaboration Solutions. IBM
IBM
discontinued development of IBM
IBM
Lotus Symphony in 2012 with the final release of version 3.0.1, moving future development effort to Apache OpenOffice, and donating the source code to the Apache Software Foundation.[6] Later that year, IBM
IBM
announced it was discontinuing the Lotus brand[7] and on March 13, 2013, IBM
IBM
announced the availability of IBM
IBM
Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition,[8] replacing prior versions of IBM
IBM
Lotus Notes
Lotus Notes
and IBM Lotus Domino
IBM Lotus Domino
and marking the end of Lotus as an active brand. Corporate culture[edit]

Mitch Kapor

Lotus's first employee was Janet Axelrod who created the Human Resources organization and was the central figure in creating the Lotus culture. As she continued to build her organization and play a central role with senior management, she eventually hired Freada Klein as the first Director of Employee Relations. Lotus was the first major company to support an AIDS walk, in 1986. In 1990 Lotus opened a daycare center for the children of its employees. In 1992 Lotus was the first major company to offer full benefits to same-sex partners. In 1998 Lotus was named one of the top 10 companies for working mothers to work for by Working Mother magazine. In 1995 Lotus had over 4,000 employees worldwide; IBM's acquisition of Lotus was greeted with apprehension by many Lotus employees, who feared that the corporate culture of "Big Blue" would smother their creativity. To the surprise of many employees and journalists, IBM initially adopted a very hands-off, laissez-faire attitude towards its new acquisition.[citation needed] However, by 2000 the assimilation of Lotus was well underway. While the mass employee defections that IBM
IBM
feared did not materialize, many long-time Lotus employees did complain about the transition to IBM's culture—IBM's employee benefits programs, in particular, were singled out as inferior to Lotus's very progressive programs.[citation needed] Lotus's headquarters in Cambridge were originally divided into two buildings, the Lotus Development Building (LDB) on the banks of the Charles River, and the Rogers Street building, adjacent to the CambridgeSide Galleria. However, in 2001, then President and General Manager, Al Zollar decided not to renew the lease of LDB. The subsequent migration of employees across the street (and into home offices) generally coincided with what was probably the final exodus of employees from the company. Later, IBM's offices at 1 Rogers St supported mobile employees, the Watson Research Center on User interface, and IBM
IBM
DataPower. The integration of Lotus into IBM
IBM
continued and eventually the Lotus brand was discontinued, but many former Lotus employees still identified with Lotus and saw themselves as part of the Lotus community for a considerable period after the takeover.[citation needed] Origins[edit] Mitch Kapor
Mitch Kapor
got the name for his company from 'The Lotus Position' or 'Padmasana'. Kapor used to be a teacher of Transcendental Meditation technique as taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Incidentally, competitor Borland
Borland
code-named their Quattro Pro software "Buddha", as the software was meant to "assume the Lotus position" and take over Lotus 1-2-3's market. Products[edit] IBM
IBM
sponsors the "Lotus Greenhouse", a community web site featuring software from IBM
IBM
and its business partners. Current products[edit]

Lotus Connections Lotus Domino Lotus Domino
Lotus Domino
Web Access Lotus Expeditor Lotus Forms Lotus Foundations LotusLive Lotus Mashups Lotus Notes Lotus Notes
Lotus Notes
Traveler IBM
IBM
Lotus Quickr, which replaces Lotus QuickPlace Lotus Sametime IBM
IBM
Lotus Web Content Management

Products in maintenance mode[edit]

Lotus SmartSuite

Lotus 1-2-3 Lotus Word Pro Lotus Freelance Graphics Lotus Approach Lotus Organizer

Discontinued products[edit]

Lotus Domino
Lotus Domino
Document Manager (discontinued on 30-Sep-2012) Lotus Agenda Lotus cc:Mail Lotus HAL Lotus Impress Lotus Improv Lotus Jazz Lotus Magellan Lotus Manuscript Lotus Marketplace Lotus Symphony (DOS version) IBM
IBM
Lotus Symphony[9] LotusWorks[10] (formerly AlphaWorks, bought from Alpha Software
Software
in May 1990)[11]

References[edit]

^ Kendall, Robert (15 September 1993). "LotusWorks 3.0 review". PC Magazine. 11 (3): 333. Retrieved 20 February 2018.  ^ Dunn, John E. (18 September 2007), IBM
IBM
takes fight to Microsoft with Lotus Symphony, Techworld.com, retrieved 2007-12-10  ^ Caruso, Denise (1984-04-02). "Company Strategies Boomerang". InfoWorld. pp. 80–83. Retrieved 10 February 2015.  ^ Moglen, Eben; Karlan, Pamela S. (1995), Brief of Amicus Curiae: League for Programming Freedom in Support of Respondent, retrieved 2007-12-10  ^ Darrow, Barbara (12 December 2003), Jim Manzi, CRN.com [permanent dead link] ^ Gavin Clarke (July 14, 2011). " IBM
IBM
crams Lotus Symphony back into OpenOffice". The Register. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ Darryl K. Taft (November 17, 2012). " IBM
IBM
Drops Lotus Brand, Takes Notes and Domino Forward". Eweek. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ " IBM
IBM
Notes and Domino 9.0 Social Edition puts you on a solid path to becoming a social business". IBM
IBM
United States
United States
Software
Software
Announcement 213-085. IBM. March 12, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013.  ^ Noyes, Katherine (27 January 2012). "Coming Soon: An ' IBM
IBM
Edition' of Apache OpenOffice". PCWorld. Retrieved 11 April 2012.  ^ Kendall, Robert (15 September 1993). "LotusWorks 3.0 review". PC Magazine. 11 (3): 333. Retrieved 20 February 2018.  ^ Perrators, Ed (August 1991). "Integrated Software
Software
review: LotusWorks 1.0". PC Magazine: 276. Retrieved 20 February 2018. 

External links[edit]

Official website Lotus.com Official website (Archive) THE VIEW Online Knowledgebase An online knowledgebase offering expert instruction, best practices, and tips for IBM
IBM
Lotus projects. AXLE: the Association of ex-Lotus Employees The Lotus Museum, artifacts and video programs from Lotus history Oral history interview with Jonathan Sachs discusses the development of Lotus 1-2-3, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota Lotus HAL.

v t e

Lotus Software

Headquarters Cambridge, Massachusetts Founded 1982 Parent IBM

Current products

Lotus Connections Lotus Domino Lotus Expeditor Lotus Forms Lotus Foundations Lotus iNotes LotusLive Lotus Mashups Lotus Notes Lotus Notes
Lotus Notes
Traveler Lotus Quickr

formerly QuickPlace

Lotus Sametime Lotus Sametime Unyte

Products in maintenance mode

Lotus SmartSuite

1-2-3 WordPro Freelance Graphics Approach Organizer

Discontinued products

Lotus Agenda Lotus cc:Mail Lotus Improv Lotus Jazz Lotus Magellan Lotus Manuscript Lotus Marketplace Lotus Symphony (original) Lotus Symphony

Acquisitions

Software
Software
Arts Iris Associates cc:Mail Approach Software Samna Outblaze

v t e

IBM

History

History of IBM Mergers and acquisitions Think (motto) Operating Systems

Products

Cell microprocessor Mainframe Personal Computer IBM
IBM
Power Systems Information Management Software Lotus Software Rational Software SPSS ILOG Tivoli Software: Service Automation Manager WebSphere alphaWorks Criminal Reduction Utilising Statistical History Mashup Center PureQuery Redbooks FlashSystem Fortran Connections

Business entities

Center for The Business of Government Cloud computing Global Services International subsidiaries jStart Kenexa Research The Weather Company
The Weather Company
(Weather Underground)

Facilities

Towers

1250 René-Lévesque, Montreal, QC One Atlantic Center, Atlanta, GA

Software
Software
Labs

Rome Software
Software
Lab Toronto Software
Software
Lab

IBM
IBM
Buildings

330 North Wabash, Chicago, IL Johannesburg Seattle

Research Labs

Africa Almaden Austin Laboratory Australia Brazil China Laboratory Haifa Laboratory India Laboratory Ireland Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
Center, New York Tokyo Zurich Laboratory

Facilities

Hakozaki Facility Yamato Facility

Cambridge Scientific Center IBM
IBM
Hursley Canada Head Office Building IBM
IBM
Rochester Somers Office Complex

Initiatives

Academy of Technology Centers for Advanced Studies: CASCON Deep Thunder IBM
IBM
Fellow Pulse conference The Great Mind Challenge DeveloperWorks: Develothon Linux Technology Center IBM
IBM
Virtual Universe Community Smarter Planet World Community Grid

Inventions

Automated teller machine Electronic keypunch Hard disk drive Floppy disk DRAM Relational model Selectric typewriter Financial swaps Universal Product Code Magnetic stripe card Sabre airline reservation system Scanning tunneling microscope

Terminology

Globally Integrated Enterprise Commercial Processing Workload Consumability e-business

CEOs

Thomas J. Watson
Thomas J. Watson
(1914–1956) Thomas Watson Jr.
Thomas Watson Jr.
(1956–1971) T. Vincent Learson
T. Vincent Learson
(1971–1973) Frank T. Cary (1973–1981) John R. Opel (1981–1985) John Fellows Akers (1985–1993) Louis V. Gerstner Jr.
Louis V. Gerstner Jr.
(1993–2002) Samuel J. Palmisano
Samuel J. Palmisano
(2002–2011) Ginni Rometty
Ginni Rometty
(2012–present)

Board of directors

Alain Belda William R. Brody Kenneth Chenault Michael L. Eskew David Farr Shirley Ann Jackson Andrew N. Liveris James McNerney James W. Owens Samuel J. Palmisano Virginia M. Rometty Joan E. Spero Sidney Taurel Lorenzo Zambrano

Other

A Boy and His Atom Common Public License/ IBM
IBM
Public License Customer engineer Deep Blue Deep Thought Dynamic infrastructure GUIDE International IBM
IBM
and the Holocaust IBM
IBM
international chess tournament Lucifer cipher Mathematica IBM
IBM
Plex SHARE computing ScicomP Watson

.