LOTHAIR I or LOTHAR I (Dutch and
Medieval Latin : Lotharius, German :
Lothar, French : Lothaire, Italian : Lotario) (795 – 29 September
855) was the
Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father
until 840), and the
King of Bavaria
Lothair was the eldest son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious
and his wife
Ermengarde of Hesbaye , daughter of Ingerman the duke of
* 1 Early life and reign * 2 Breaking kingdom * 3 Death and aftermath * 4 Family * 5 References
EARLY LIFE AND REIGN
Lothair was born in 795, to
Louis the Pious and Emengarde of
Hebsbaye. His father was the son of the reigning Emperor, Charlemagne.
Little is known of Lothair's early life, which was probably passed at
the court of his grandfather
In 822, he assumed the government of
On Lothair's return to his father's court, his stepmother Judith won his consent to her plan for securing a kingdom for her son Charles , a scheme which was carried out in 829, when the young prince was given Alemannia as king. Lothair, however, soon changed his attitude and spent the succeeding decade in constant strife over the division of the Empire with his father. He was alternately master of the Empire, and banished and confined to Italy, at one time taking up arms in alliance with his brothers and at another fighting against them, whilst the bounds of his appointed kingdom were in turn extended and reduced.
The first rebellion began in 830. All three brothers fought their
father, whom they deposed. In 831, their father was reinstated and he
deprived Lothair of his imperial title and gave
Louis the Pious was dying in 840, he sent the imperial insignia
to Lothair, who, disregarding the various partitions, claimed the
whole of the Empire. He was 45 years old when his father died.
Negotiations with his brother
Louis the German and his half-brother
Charles, both of whom resisted this claim, were followed by an
alliance of the younger brothers against Lothair. A decisive battle
was fought at Fontenay-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841, when, in spite of
his and his allied nephew
Pepin II of Aquitaine 's personal
gallantry, Lothair was defeated and fled to Aachen. With fresh troops
he began a war of plunder, but the forces of his brothers were too
strong, and taking with him such treasure as he could collect, he
abandoned his capital to them. He met with the leaders of the
Peace negotiations began, and in June 842 the brothers met on an
island in the
Saône . They agreed to an arrangement which developed,
after much difficulty and delay, into the
Treaty of Verdun , signed in
August 843. By this, Lothair received the imperial title as well as
DEATH AND AFTERMATH
In 855 he became seriously ill, and despairing of recovery renounced the throne, divided his lands between his three sons, and on 23 September entered the monastery of Prüm , where he died six days later. He was buried at Prüm, where his remains were found in 1860.
On 870, Lothair's kingdom was divided between his three sons in a
deal called the TREATY OF MERSEN : the eldest, Louis II , received
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He married Ermengarde of Tours in 821, who died in 851.
* Louis II (825–875) Crowned as King of Italy in 844 by Pope Sergius II . Crowned Emperor in 850. Married Engelberga . * Hiltrude (826–865) Married Berengar of Spoleto . * Ermengard (c. 825–849) Name sometimes given to an unnamed daughter kidnapped and married by Gilbert, Count of the Maasgau * Bertha (c. 830–852) Married to an unknown man, but later Abbess of Avenay. * Gisela (c. 830–856) abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia * Lothair II (835–869) Succeeded his father. Married Teutberga , daughter of Boso the Elder , Count of Arles. * Rotrude (c. 840) Married Lambert III of Nantes . * Charles (845–863) Invested with Provence, Lyon and Transjuranian Burgundy.
One illegitimate child is known.
* Carloman (? – d. 853)
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lothair I.". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. * ^ Constance Brittain Bouchard, Those of My Blood: Creating Noble Families in Medieval Francia, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 106.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to LOTHAIR OF FRANCE .
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article LOTHAIR I. .
* Surviving letters of Lothar I, in Latin with English translation by Richard Matthew Pollard.
1911 Encyclopædia Britannica sources
Preceded by Bernard KING OF ITALY 818 – 23 September 855 with Louis II (844–855) Succeeded by Louis II
KING OF MIDDLE FRANCIA 843 – 23 September 855 Succeeded by Lothair II AS KING OF LOTHARINGIA
Succeeded by Charles AS KING OF PROVENCE
* v * t * e
* Odoacer (476–493)
* Charles I (774–814)
* Pepin (781–810)
* Bernard (810–818)
Non-dynastic (title disputed 887–933)
* UNRUOCHINGS : Berengar I (887–924) * GUIDESCHI : Guy (889–894) * Lambert (891–897) * WELFS : Rudolph (922–933) * BOSONIDS : Louis II (900–905) * Hugh (926–947) * Lothair II (945–950) * ANSCARIDS : Berengar II (950–963) * Adalbert (950–963)
* Otto I (962–973) * Otto II (980–983) * Otto III (996–1002) * Arduin I (1002–1014) * Henry II (1004–1024) * Conrad II (1026–1039) * Henry III (1039–1056) * Henry IV (1056–1105) * Conrad II (1093–1101) * Henry V (1106–1125) * Lothair III (or II) (1125–1137) * Conrad III (1138–1152) * Frederick I (1154–1186) * Henry VI (1186–1197) * Otto IV (1209–1212) * Frederick II (1212–1250) * Henry VII (1311–1313) * Louis IV (1327–1347) * Charles IV (1355–1378) * Sigismund (1431–1437) * Frederick III (1452–1493) * Charles V (1530–1556)
* v * t * e
Kings of Bavaria
* Maximillian I Joseph (1805–1825) * Ludwig I (1825–1848) * Maximilian II (1848–1864) * Ludwig II (1864–1886) * Otto (1886–1913) * Ludwig III (1913–1918)
* v * t * e
Holy Roman Emperors
Carolingian Empire (800–888)
* Charles I (Charlemagne) * Louis I * Lothair I * Louis II * Charles II * Charles III * Guy * Lambert * Arnulf * Louis III * Berengar
Holy Roman Empire (800/962–1806)
* Otto I * Otto II * Otto III * Henry II * Conrad II * Henry III * Henry IV * Henry V * Lothair II * Frederick I * Henry VI * Otto IV * Frederick II * Henry VII * Louis IV * Charles IV * Sigismund * Frederick III * Maximilian I * Charles V * Ferdinand I * Maximilian II * Rudolph II * Matthias * Ferdinand II * Ferdinand III * Leopold I * Joseph I * Charles VI * Charles VII * Francis I * Joseph II *