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Los Angeles
Los Angeles
-------------------------

CSA Los Angeles-Long Beach

MSA Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim

PUEBLO September 4, 1781

INCORPORATED April 4, 1850

NAMED FOR Our Lady, Queen of the Angels

GOVERNMENT

• TYPE Mayor-Council-Commission

• BODY Los Angeles City Council
Los Angeles City Council

• MAYOR Eric Garcetti
Eric Garcetti

• CITY ATTORNEY Mike Feuer
Mike Feuer

• CITY CONTROLLER Ron Galperin
Ron Galperin

AREA

• METROPOLITAN CITY 502.76 sq mi (1,302.15 km2)

• LAND 468.74 sq mi (1,214.03 km2)

• WATER 34.02 sq mi (88.12 km2) 6.7%

ELEVATION 305 ft (93 m)

HIGHEST ELEVATION 5,074 ft (1,547 m)

LOWEST ELEVATION 0 ft (0 m)

POPULATION (2010 )

• METROPOLITAN CITY 3,792,621

• ESTIMATE (2016) 3,976,322

• RANK 1st , California 2nd, U.S.

• DENSITY 8,483.02/sq mi (3,275.32/km2)

• URBAN 12,150,996

• METRO 13,131,431

• CSA 18,679,763 (US: 2nd )

DEMONYM(S) Angeleno

TIME ZONE Pacific ( UTC−8
UTC−8
)

• SUMMER (DST ) PDT ( UTC−7
UTC−7
)

ZIP CODES 90001–90068, 90070–90084, 90086–90089, 90091, 90093–90097, 90099, 90101–90103, 90174, 90185, 90189, 90291–90293, 91040–91043, 91303–91308, 91342–91349, 91352–91353, 91356–91357, 91364–91367, 91401–91499, 91601–91609

AREA CODES 213 /323 , 310/424 , 747/818

FIPS CODE 06-44000

GNIS FEATURE IDS 1662328, 2410877

WEBSITE Official website

LOS ANGELES (/lɒs ˈændʒəlᵻs/ ( listen ), Spanish for "The Angels"; Spanish pronunciation: ), officially the CITY OF LOS ANGELES and often known by its initials L.A., is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California
California
. With a U.S. Census -estimated 2016 population of 3,976,322, it is the second most populous city in the United States
United States
(after New York City
New York City
) and the most populous city in the state of California
California
. Located in a large coastal basin surrounded on three sides by mountains reaching up to and over 10,000 feet (3,000 m), Los Angeles
Los Angeles
covers an area of about 469 square miles (1,210 km2). The city is also the seat of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County , the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is the center of the Los Angeles metropolitan area
Los Angeles metropolitan area
, with 13,131,431 residents, and is part of the larger designated Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area (CSA), the second most populous in the nation with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.

Historically home to the Chumash and Tongva , Los Angeles
Los Angeles
was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain
Spain
in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California
California
. The city was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve
Felipe de Neve
. It became a part of Mexico
Mexico
in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and the rest of California
California
were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo , thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California
California
achieved statehood . The discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California
California
, later assured the city's continued rapid growth.

Nicknamed the "City of Angels" in part because of how its name translates from the Spanish, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is known for its Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. The city is also one of the most substantial economic engines within the nation, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is also famous as the home of Hollywood
Hollywood
, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city , it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index . The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
combined statistical area (CSA) also has a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $831 billion (as of 2008 ), making it the third-largest in the world , after the Greater Tokyo
Greater Tokyo
and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
and will host the Olympics for a third time in either 2024 or 2028 .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 The pre-colonial period, up to 1771 * 1.2 The Spanish period, 1771 to 1821 * 1.3 The Mexican period, 1821 to 1847 * 1.4 The American period, 1847 to the present

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Cityscape

* 2.2 Overview

* 2.2.1 Landmarks

* 2.3 Topography * 2.4 Vegetation * 2.5 Geology * 2.6 Climate * 2.7 Environmental issues

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Race and ethnicity * 3.2 Religion

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Fortune 500
Fortune 500

* 5 Culture

* 5.1 Movies and the performing arts * 5.2 Museums and galleries

* 6 Sports

* 7 Government

* 7.1 Federal and state representation * 7.2 Crime

* 8 Education

* 8.1 Colleges and universities * 8.2 Schools and libraries

* 9 Media

* 10 Transportation

* 10.1 Freeways * 10.2 Transit systems * 10.3 Airports * 10.4 Seaports

* 11 Notable people * 12 Twin towns and sister cities * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Further reading * 16 External links

HISTORY

Historical affiliations Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
1781–1821 First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire
1821–1823 United Mexican States
United Mexican States
1823–1848 California
California
Republic 1846 United States
United States
1848–present Main article: History of Los Angeles See also: Timeline of Los Angeles and Los Angeles in the 1920s

THE PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD, UP TO 1771

Chumash people
Chumash people
lived in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
before Europeans settled there.

The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
coastal area was first settled by the Tongva (_Gabrieleños_) and Chumash Native American tribes thousands of years ago. A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called _iyáangẚ_ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), meaning "poison oak place."

Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo , a Portuguese-born explorer, claimed the area of southern California
California
for the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
of the Kingdom of Spain
Spain
in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain
New Spain
in Central and South America
South America
. Gaspar de Portolà
Gaspar de Portolà
and Franciscan
Franciscan
missionary Juan Crespí , reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769.

THE SPANISH PERIOD, 1771 TO 1821

In 1771, Franciscan
Franciscan
friar Junípero Serra
Junípero Serra
directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores " founded the pueblo they called _"El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula;"_ in English, this translates as "The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of Porciúncula." The Queen of the Angels (feast day Aug. 2) is an honorific of the Virgin Mary ; indeed, the present-day city still retains an active Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Archdiocese
Archdiocese
, and as noted below, this archdiocese of Roman Catholicism remains the largest such archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street
Olvera Street
, the oldest part of Los Angeles.

THE MEXICAN PERIOD, 1821 TO 1847

New Spain
New Spain
achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico
Mexico
. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico
Pío Pico
made Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Alta California
California
's regional capital.

THE AMERICAN PERIOD, 1847 TO THE PRESENT

OLD LOS ANGELES

Los Ángeles Plaza in 1869, looking north towards Upper Town.

LEGEND

* The Old Aliso , giant sycamore , historical symbol of Los Angeles. * The Covered Bridge (Macy Street) * Fort Moore * The Calaboose (original adobe jail) * Poundcake Hill * Council Chamber * Government House , seat of the _Asamblea_ when Los Angeles
Los Angeles
was the capital. * Clocktower Courthouse , courtroom/theatre was on the upper floor, market was on the ground floor, and clocktower was on top, with copper dome. * St. Athanasius's Episcopal Church , first Protestant church in Los Angeles, on Temple Road ("Salvation Alley"). * Calle de los Negros * Mellus Block , Gen. Kearney's headquarters * Gov. Downey 's house * Old stage road , to Cahuenga Valley "> The Richfield Tower
Richfield Tower
, an Art Deco
Art Deco
landmark of 1929, was demolished in 1969.

Following the end of World War II
World War II
, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the San Fernando Valley
San Fernando Valley
. The expansion of the Interstate Highway System
Interstate Highway System
during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system , once the world's largest.

The 1960s saw race relations boil over into the Watts Riots
Watts Riots
of 1965 which resulted in 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
riots of 1992 . In 1969, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
became the birthplace of the Internet
Internet
, as the first ARPANET
ARPANET
transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(UCLA) to SRI in Menlo Park .

In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
for the second time . Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries , the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous, and the second Olympics to turn a profit until then – the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles.

Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a Simi Valley
Simi Valley
jury of the police officers captured on videotape beating Rodney King
Rodney King
, culminating in large-scale riots . They were the largest riots in US history causing approximately $1.3 billion in damage as well as 53 deaths and over 2,000 injuries.

In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake
Northridge earthquake
shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. The century ended with the Rampart scandal , one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history.

In 2002, voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley
San Fernando Valley
and Hollywood
Hollywood
to secede from the city.

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
will host the Olympic Games for a third time in 2024 or 2028 .

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Los Angeles Basin
Los Angeles Basin
; San Fernando Valley
San Fernando Valley
; Greater Los Angeles Area ; and Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County, California

CITYSCAPE

Main article: List of districts and neighborhoods of Los Angeles Panorama of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
as viewed from Griffith Observatory
Griffith Observatory
. Left to right: Los Feliz
Los Feliz
, Downtown and Hollywood
Hollywood
Hollywood is a neighborhood in Los Angeles.

The city is divided into over 80 districts and neighborhoods, many of which were incorporated places or communities that merged into the city. These neighborhoods were developed piecemeal, and are well-defined enough that the city has signage marking nearly all of them.

More broadly, the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, East Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and Northeast Los Angeles , South Los Angeles , the Harbor Area , Greater Hollywood
Hollywood
, Wilshire , the Westside , and the San Fernando and Crescenta Valleys .

OVERVIEW

The city's street pattern generally follows a grid plan , with uniform block lengths and occasional roads that cut across blocks. However, this is complicated by rugged terrain, which has necessitated having different grids for each of the valleys that Los Angeles covers. Major streets are designed to move large volumes of traffic through many parts of the city; many of which are extremely long: Sepulveda Boulevard
Sepulveda Boulevard
is 43 miles (69 km) long, while Foothill Boulevard is over 60 miles (97 km) long, reaching as far east as San Bernardino. Drivers in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
suffer from one of the worst rush hour periods in the world, according to an annual traffic index by navigation system maker, TomTom
TomTom
. L.A. drivers spend an additional 92 hours in traffic each year. During the peak rush hour there is 80% congestion, according to the index.

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is often characterized by the presence of low-rise buildings. Outside of a few centers such as Downtown , Warner Center
Warner Center
, Century City
Century City
, Koreatown , Miracle Mile , Hollywood
Hollywood
and Westwood , skyscrapers and high-rise buildings are not common. The few skyscrapers that are built outside of those areas often stand out above the rest of the surrounding landscape. Most construction is done in separate units, rather than wall-to-wall . That being said, downtown Los Angeles
Los Angeles
itself has many buildings over 30 stories, with fourteen over 50 stories, and two over 70 stories (the tallest buildings west of Chicago-see List of tallest buildings in Los Angeles ). Also, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is increasingly becoming a city of apartments rather than single family dwellings, especially in the dense inner city and Westside neighborhoods.

Landmarks

See also: List of sites of interest in the Los Angeles area and National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles, California
California

Important landmarks in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
include the Hollywood Sign
Hollywood Sign
, Walt Disney Concert Hall , Capitol Records Building
Capitol Records Building
, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels , Angels Flight
Angels Flight
, Grauman\'s Chinese Theatre , Dolby Theatre
Dolby Theatre
, Griffith Observatory
Griffith Observatory
, Getty Center
Getty Center
, Getty Villa
Getty Villa
, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
, the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County Museum of Art , the Venice Canal Historic District and boardwalk , Theme Building , Bradbury Building
Bradbury Building
, U.S. Bank Tower
U.S. Bank Tower
, Wilshire Grand Center , Hollywood
Hollywood
Boulevard , Los Angeles City Hall
Los Angeles City Hall
, Hollywood
Hollywood
Bowl , Battleship USS _Iowa_ , Watts Towers , Staples Center
Staples Center
, Dodger Stadium , and Olvera Street
Olvera Street
.

*

L.A. Live *

Grauman's Chinese Theatre
Grauman's Chinese Theatre
*

Griffith Observatory
Griffith Observatory
*

Capitol Records Building
Capitol Records Building
*

Angels Flight
Angels Flight
*

Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles
at sunset

TOPOGRAPHY

The Los Angeles Basin
Los Angeles Basin

The city of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
covers a total area of 502.7 square miles (1,302 km2), comprising 468.7 square miles (1,214 km2) of land and 34.0 square miles (88 km2) of water. The city extends for 44 miles (71 km) longitudinally and for 29 miles (47 km) latitudinally. The perimeter of the city is 342 miles (550 km).

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is both flat and hilly. The highest point in the city proper is 5,074 ft (1,547 m) Mount Lukens , located at the northeastern end of the San Fernando Valley
San Fernando Valley
. The eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains
Santa Monica Mountains
stretches from Downtown to the Pacific Ocean and separates the Los Angeles Basin
Los Angeles Basin
from the San Fernando Valley. Other hilly parts of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
include the Mt. Washington area north of Downtown, eastern parts such as Boyle Heights
Boyle Heights
, the Crenshaw district around the Baldwin Hills , and the San Pedro district.

Surrounding the city are much higher mountains. Immediately to the north lie the San Gabriel Mountains
San Gabriel Mountains
, which is a popular recreation area for Angelenos. Its high point is Mount San Antonio
Mount San Antonio
, locally known as Mount Baldy, which reaches 10,064 feet (3,068 m). Further afield, the highest point in the greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area is San Gorgonio Mountain , with a height of 11,503 feet (3,506 m).

The Los Angeles River
Los Angeles River
, which is largely seasonal, is the primary drainage channel . It was straightened and lined in 51 miles (82 km) of concrete by the Army Corps of Engineers to act as a flood control channel. The river begins in the Canoga Park
Canoga Park
district of the city, flows east from the San Fernando Valley
San Fernando Valley
along the north edge of the Santa Monica
Santa Monica
Mountains, and turns south through the city center, flowing to its mouth in the Port of Long Beach
Port of Long Beach
at the Pacific Ocean. The smaller Ballona Creek
Ballona Creek
flows into the Santa Monica Bay
Santa Monica Bay
at Playa del Rey .

VEGETATION

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is rich in native plant species partly because of its diversity of habitats, including beaches, wetlands , and mountains. The most prevalent plant communities are coastal sage scrub , chaparral shrubland, and riparian woodland . Native plants include: California
California
poppy , matilija poppy , toyon , Ceanothus
Ceanothus
, Chamise , Coast Live Oak , sycamore , willow and Giant Wildrye . Many of these native species, such as the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
sunflower , have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Though it is not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is the Coral Tree (_Erythrina caffra _) and the official flower of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is the Bird of Paradise (_ Strelitzia reginae _). Mexican Fan Palms , Canary Island Palms , Queen Palms , Date Palms , and California
California
Fan Palms are common in the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area, although only the last is native.

GEOLOGY

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is subject to earthquakes because of its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
. The geologic instability has produced numerous faults , which cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes annually in Southern California, though most of them are too small to be felt. The strike-slip San Andreas Fault
San Andreas Fault
system is located at the boundary between the Pacific Plate
Pacific Plate
and the North American Plate
North American Plate
, and is vulnerable to the "big one", a potentially large and damaging event. The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
basin and metropolitan area are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes . Major earthquakes that have hit the Los Angeles area include the 1933 Long Beach , 1971 San Fernando , 1987 Whittier Narrows , and the 1994 Northridge events. Nevertheless, all but a few are of low intensity and are not felt. The USGS has released the UCERF California
California
earthquake forecast which models earthquake occurrence in California. Parts of the city are also vulnerable to tsunamis ; harbor areas were damaged by waves from the Valdivia earthquake in 1960.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Los Angeles MacArthur Park
MacArthur Park
in Westlake. Palms are common in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
due to its climate

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
(Köppen climate classification _Csb_ on the coast, _Csa_ inland), and receives just enough annual precipitation to avoid either Köppen's _BSh_ or _BSk_ (semi-arid climate ) classification. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
has plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually. The coastal region around Los Angeles has a climate that is comparable to coastal areas of southeastern Spain
Spain
such as Alicante
Alicante
or Elche
Elche
, in temperature range and variation, in sunshine hours and as well as annual precipitation levels.

Temperatures in the coastal basin exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on a dozen or so days in the year, from one day a month in April, May, June and November to three days a month in July, August, October and to five days in September. Temperatures in the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys are considerably warmer. Temperatures are subject to substantial daily swings; in inland areas the difference between the average daily low and the average daily high is over 30 °F (17 °C). The average annual temperature of the sea is 63 °F (17 °C), from 58 °F (14 °C) in January to 68 °F (20 °C) in August. Hours of sunshine total more than 3,000 per year, from an average of 7 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12 in July.

The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area is also subject to phenomena typical of a microclimate , causing extreme variations in temperature in close physical proximity to each other. For instance, the average July maximum temperature at the Santa Monica Pier
Santa Monica Pier
is 75 °F (24 °C) whereas it is 95 °F (35 °C) in Canoga Park. The city, like much of the southern California
California
coast, is subject to a late spring/early summer weather phenomenon called " June Gloom
June Gloom
". This involves overcast or foggy skies in the morning which yield to sun by early afternoon.

Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles
averages 14.93 in (379 mm) of precipitation annually, which mainly occurs during November through March, generally in the form of moderate rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall during winter storms. Summer days are usually rainless. Rarely, an incursion of moist air from the south or east can bring brief thunderstorms in late summer, especially to the mountains. The coast gets slightly less rainfall, while the inland and mountain areas get considerably more. Years of average rainfall are rare. The usual pattern is year to year variability, with a short string of dry years of 5–10 in (130–250 mm) rainfall, followed by one or two wet years with more than 20 in (510 mm). Wet years are usually associated with warm water El Niño
El Niño
conditions in the Pacific, dry years with cooler water La Niña
La Niña
episodes. A series of rainy days can bring floods to the lowlands and mudslides to the hills, especially after wildfires have denuded the slopes.

Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely rare in the city basin and along the coast, with the last occurrence of a 32 °F (0 °C) reading at the downtown station being January 29, 1979; freezing temperatures occur nearly every year in valley locations while the mountains within city limits typically receive snowfall every winter. The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was 2.0 inches (5 cm) on January 15, 1932. At the official downtown station, the highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) on September 27, 2010, while the lowest is 28 °F (−2 °C), on January 4, 1949. During autumn and winter, Santa Ana winds
Santa Ana winds
sometimes bring much warmer and drier conditions to Los Angeles, and raise the wildfire risk.

CLIMATE DATA FOR LOS ANGELES (USC , DOWNTOWN ), 1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1877–PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 95 (35) 95 (35) 99 (37) 106 (41) 103 (39) 112 (44) 109 (43) 106 (41) 113 (45) 108 (42) 100 (38) 92 (33) 113 (45)

MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 83.3 (28.5) 84.3 (29.1) 85.8 (29.9) 91.2 (32.9) 89.7 (32.1) 90.2 (32.3) 94.1 (34.5) 95.3 (35.2) 98.9 (37.2) 95.5 (35.3) 88.0 (31.1) 81.4 (27.4) 102.7 (39.3)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 68.2 (20.1) 68.6 (20.3) 70.2 (21.2) 72.7 (22.6) 74.5 (23.6) 78.1 (25.6) 83.1 (28.4) 84.4 (29.1) 83.1 (28.4) 78.5 (25.8) 72.8 (22.7) 67.7 (19.8) 75.2 (24)

DAILY MEAN °F (°C) 58.0 (14.4) 58.9 (14.9) 60.6 (15.9) 63.1 (17.3) 65.8 (18.8) 69.2 (20.7) 73.3 (22.9) 74.3 (23.5) 73.1 (22.8) 68.6 (20.3) 62.4 (16.9) 57.6 (14.2) 65.4 (18.6)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 47.8 (8.8) 49.3 (9.6) 51.0 (10.6) 53.5 (11.9) 57.1 (13.9) 60.3 (15.7) 63.6 (17.6) 64.1 (17.8) 63.1 (17.3) 58.7 (14.8) 52.0 (11.1) 47.5 (8.6) 55.7 (13.2)

MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 41.3 (5.2) 42.9 (6.1) 44.9 (7.2) 48.4 (9.1) 53.6 (12) 57.2 (14) 61.2 (16.2) 61.8 (16.6) 59.2 (15.1) 54.1 (12.3) 45.0 (7.2) 40.8 (4.9) 39.1 (3.9)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) 28 (−2) 28 (−2) 31 (−1) 36 (2) 40 (4) 46 (8) 49 (9) 49 (9) 44 (7) 40 (4) 34 (1) 30 (−1) 28 (−2)

AVERAGE RAINFALL INCHES (MM) 3.12 (79.2) 3.80 (96.5) 2.43 (61.7) 0.91 (23.1) 0.26 (6.6) 0.09 (2.3) 0.01 (0.3) 0.04 (1) 0.24 (6.1) 0.66 (16.8) 1.04 (26.4) 2.33 (59.2) 14.93 (379.2)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 6.1 6.4 5.5 3.2 1.3 0.6 0.3 0.3 1.0 2.5 3.3 5.2 35.7

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 225.3 222.5 267.0 303.5 276.2 275.8 364.1 349.5 278.5 255.1 217.3 219.4 3,254.2

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 71 72 72 78 64 64 83 84 75 73 70 71 73

Source: NOAA (sun 1961–1977)

CLIMATE DATA FOR LOS ANGELES (LAX), 1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1944–PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 91 (33) 92 (33) 95 (35) 95 (35) 91 (33) 103 (39) 93 (34) 98 (37) 106 (41) 101 (38) 101 (38) 94 (34) 106 (41)

MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 81.2 (27.3) 81.0 (27.2) 79.6 (26.4) 83.4 (28.6) 79.9 (26.6) 80.0 (26.7) 83.6 (28.7) 85.7 (29.8) 90.1 (32.3) 89.9 (32.2) 85.5 (29.7) 78.9 (26.1) 94.7 (34.8)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 64.6 (18.1) 64.3 (17.9) 64.4 (18) 66.4 (19.1) 68.1 (20.1) 70.6 (21.4) 73.8 (23.2) 74.9 (23.8) 74.6 (23.7) 72.5 (22.5) 68.9 (20.5) 64.6 (18.1) 69.0 (20.6)

DAILY MEAN °F (°C) 56.7 (13.7) 57.1 (13.9) 58.0 (14.4) 60.1 (15.6) 62.7 (17.1) 65.5 (18.6) 68.8 (20.4) 69.6 (20.9) 68.9 (20.5) 65.9 (18.8) 61.1 (16.2) 56.6 (13.7) 62.6 (17)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 48.8 (9.3) 50.0 (10) 51.7 (10.9) 53.8 (12.1) 57.3 (14.1) 60.5 (15.8) 63.7 (17.6) 64.3 (17.9) 63.2 (17.3) 59.3 (15.2) 53.2 (11.8) 48.7 (9.3) 56.2 (13.4)

MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 41.1 (5.1) 42.5 (5.8) 44.6 (7) 47.5 (8.6) 52.5 (11.4) 56.2 (13.4) 59.8 (15.4) 60.6 (15.9) 58.4 (14.7) 52.7 (11.5) 45.3 (7.4) 40.9 (4.9) 38.8 (3.8)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) 27 (−3) 34 (1) 35 (2) 42 (6) 45 (7) 48 (9) 52 (11) 51 (11) 47 (8) 43 (6) 38 (3) 32 (0) 27 (−3)

AVERAGE RAINFALL INCHES (MM) 2.71 (68.8) 3.25 (82.6) 1.85 (47) 0.70 (17.8) 0.22 (5.6) 0.08 (2) 0.03 (0.8) 0.05 (1.3) 0.21 (5.3) 0.56 (14.2) 1.11 (28.2) 2.05 (52.1) 12.82 (325.6)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 6.0 6.6 5.8 2.8 1.2 0.6 0.5 0.3 1.0 2.3 3.4 5.2 35.7

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 63.4 67.9 70.5 71.0 74.0 75.9 76.6 76.6 74.2 70.5 65.5 62.9 70.8

Source: NOAA (relative humidity 1961–1990)

CLIMATE DATA FOR LOS ANGELES (CANOGA PARK , IN THE SAN FERNANDO VALLEY )

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 93 (34) 94 (34) 101 (38) 105 (41) 113 (45) 113 (45) 115 (46) 116 (47) 115 (46) 110 (43) 99 (37) 96 (36) 116 (47)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 67.9 (19.9) 69.9 (21.1) 72.0 (22.2) 77.7 (25.4) 81.3 (27.4) 88.8 (31.6) 95.0 (35) 96.0 (35.6) 91.7 (33.2) 84.4 (29.1) 74.7 (23.7) 68.8 (20.4) 80.7 (27.1)

DAILY MEAN °F (°C) 53.7 (12.1) 55.4 (13) 57.2 (14) 61.3 (16.3) 65.2 (18.4) 71.0 (21.7) 76.0 (24.4) 76.8 (24.9) 73.5 (23.1) 66.8 (19.3) 58.2 (14.6) 53.6 (12) 64.1 (17.8)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 39.5 (4.2) 40.9 (4.9) 42.3 (5.7) 44.8 (7.1) 49.1 (9.5) 53.2 (11.8) 56.9 (13.8) 57.6 (14.2) 55.2 (12.9) 49.2 (9.6) 41.7 (5.4) 38.3 (3.5) 47.4 (8.6)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) 19 (−7) 18 (−8) 26 (−3) 30 (−1) 33 (1) 36 (2) 42 (6) 42 (6) 38 (3) 27 (−3) 23 (−5) 20 (−7) 18 (−8)

AVERAGE RAINFALL INCHES (MM) 3.83 (97.3) 4.40 (111.8) 3.60 (91.4) 0.88 (22.4) 0.32 (8.1) 0.07 (1.8) 0.01 (0.3) 0.15 (3.8) 0.24 (6.1) 0.62 (15.7) 1.29 (32.8) 2.38 (60.5) 17.79 (452)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 6.2 5.9 6.1 3.0 1.3 0.4 0.1 0.7 1.3 2.0 3.2 4.4 34.6

Source: NOAA

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Further information: Pollution in California
California
§ Los Angeles
Los Angeles
air pollution A view of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
covered in smog

A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called _iyáangẚ_ (written _Yang-na_ by the Spanish), which has been translated as "poison oak place". _Yang-na_ has also been translated as "the valley of smoke". Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
suffers from air pollution in the form of smog . The Los Angeles Basin
Los Angeles Basin
and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion , which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources.

The smog season lasts from approximately May to October. While other large cities rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
gets only 15 inches (380 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act . More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low-emission vehicles . Smog
Smog
is expected to continue to drop in the coming years because of aggressive steps to reduce it, which include electric and hybrid cars, improvements in mass transit , and other measures.

The number of Stage 1 smog alerts in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution. In 2008, the city was ranked the second most polluted and again had the highest year-round particulate pollution. The city met its goal of providing 20 percent of the city's power from renewable sources in 2010. The American Lung Association's 2013 survey ranks the metro area as having the nation's worst smog, and fourth in both short-term and year-round pollution amounts.

Climate change
Climate change
has already affected Los Angeles
Los Angeles
with a 4 degree average temperature rise from 1878 to 2005 with a UCLA
UCLA
study predicting that coastal areas will rise 3 to 4 degrees in temperature and urban areas 4 to 4.5 degrees. In 2014, the fire season never finished in Southern California
California
and studies have predicted that climate change will cause more frequent and larger fires by the end of the century. Climate change
Climate change
is also expected to affect sea levels which are expected to rise 5 to 24 inches from 2000 to 2050 leading to higher storm surge and waves, which could result in more extensive flooding that could threaten critical coastal infrastructure.

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is also home to the nation's largest urban oil field . There are more than 700 active oil wells located within 1,500 feet of homes, churches, schools and hospitals in the city, a situation about which the EPA has voiced serious concerns.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Los Angeles Percent of households with incomes above $150k across LA County census tracts.

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1850 1,610

1860 4,385

172.4%

1870 5,728

30.6%

1880 11,183

95.2%

1890 50,395

350.6%

1900 102,479

103.4%

1910 319,198

211.5%

1920 576,673

80.7%

1930 1,238,048

114.7%

1940 1,504,277

21.5%

1950 1,970,358

31.0%

1960 2,479,015

25.8%

1970 2,811,801

13.4%

1980 2,968,528

5.6%

1990 3,485,398

17.4%

2000 3,694,820

6.0%

2010 3,792,621

2.6%

EST. 2016 3,976,322

4.8%

U.S. Decennial Census

The 2010 United States Census
2010 United States Census
reported that Los Angeles
Los Angeles
had a population of 3,792,621. The population density was 8,092.3 people per square mile (2,913.0/km²). The age distribution was 874,525 people (23.1%) under 18, 434,478 people (11.5%) from 18 to 24, 1,209,367 people (31.9%) from 25 to 44, 877,555 people (23.1%) from 45 to 64, and 396,696 people (10.5%) who were 65 or older. The median age was 34.1 years. For every 100 females there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.6 males.

There were 1,413,995 housing units—up from 1,298,350 during 2005–2009 —at an average density of 2,812.8 households per square mile (1,086.0/km²), of which 503,863 (38.2%) were owner-occupied, and 814,305 (61.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.1%. 1,535,444 people (40.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,172,576 people (57.3%) lived in rental housing units.

According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
had a median household income of $49,497, with 22.0% of the population living below the federal poverty line.

RACE AND ETHNICITY

RACIAL COMPOSITION 2010 1990 1970 1940

Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
28.7% 37.3% 61.1% 86.3%

Black or African American
African American
9.6% 14.0% 17.9% 4.2%

Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino 48.5% 39.9% 17.1% 7.1%

Asian 11.3% 9.8% 3.6% 2.2%

Map of racial distribution in Los Angeles, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: WHITE, BLACK, ASIAN, HISPANIC or OTHER (yellow)

According to the 2010 Census, the racial makeup of Los Angeles included: 1,888,158 Whites (49.8%), 365,118 African Americans
African Americans
(9.6%), 28,215 Native Americans (0.7%), 426,959 Asians (11.3%), 5,577 Pacific Islanders (0.1%), 902,959 from other races (23.8%), and 175,635 (4.6%) from two or more races . Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1,838,822 persons (48.5%). Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages. Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown , Historic Filipinotown , Koreatown , Little Armenia
Armenia
, Little Ethiopia , Tehrangeles
Tehrangeles
, Little Tokyo
Tokyo
, Little Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot character of Los Angeles.

Non-Hispanic whites
Non-Hispanic whites
were 28.7% of the population in 2010, compared to 86.3% in 1940. The majority of the Non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white population is living in areas along the Pacific coast as well as in neighborhoods near and on the Santa Monica Mountains
Santa Monica Mountains
from the Pacific Palisades to Los Feliz
Los Feliz
.

Mexican ancestry make up the largest ethnic group of Hispanics at 31.9% of Los Angeles' population, followed by those of Salvadoran (6.0%) and Guatemalan (3.6%) heritage. The Hispanic
Hispanic
population has a long established Mexican-American and Central American community and is spread well-nigh throughout the entire city of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and its metropolitan area. It is most heavily concentrated in regions around Downtown as East Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, Northeast Los Angeles and Westlake . Furthermore, a vast majority of residents in neighborhoods in eastern South Los Angeles
South Los Angeles
towards Downey are of Hispanic
Hispanic
origin.

The largest Asian ethnic groups are Filipinos (3.2%) and Koreans (2.9%), which have their own established ethnic enclaves−Koreatown in the Wilshire Center and Historic Filipinotown . Chinese people, which make up 1.8% of Los Angeles' population, reside mostly outside of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
city limits and rather in the San Gabriel Valley
San Gabriel Valley
of eastern Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County, but make a sizable presence in the city, notably in Chinatown . Chinatown and Thaitown are also home to many Thais and Cambodians , which make up 0.3% and 0.1% of Los Angeles' population, respectively. Japanese comprise 0.9% of L.A.'s population, and have an established Little Tokyo
Tokyo
in the city's downtown, and another significant community of Japanese Americans is located in the Sawtelle district of West Los Angeles. Vietnamese make up 0.5% of Los Angeles' population. Indians make up 0.9% of the city's population.

The Los Angeles metropolitan area
Los Angeles metropolitan area
is home to a large population of Armenians and Iranians , many of whom live in enclaves like Little Armenia
Armenia
and Tehrangeles
Tehrangeles
. See also: African-American
African-American
neighborhoods in Los Angeles
Los Angeles

African Americans
African Americans
have been the predominant ethnic group in South Los Angeles , which has emerged as the largest African American
African American
community in the western United States
United States
since the 1960s. The neighborhoods of South LA with highest concentration of African Americans
African Americans
include Crenshaw , Baldwin Hills , Leimert Park , Hyde Park , Gramercy Park , Manchester Square and Watts . Apart from South Los Angeles, neighborhoods in the Central region of Los Angeles, as Mid-City and Mid-Wilshire have a moderate concentration of African Americans
African Americans
as well. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 17.9% black, 61.1% non- Hispanic
Hispanic
white and 17.1% Hispanic.

RELIGION

Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels
Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels
is the mother cathedral for the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
archdiocese. Built in 1956, the Los Angeles California
California
Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the second largest LDS temple in the world.

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(65%). Perhaps owing to the fact of its founding by Franciscan
Franciscan
friars of Roman Catholicism, the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Archbishop of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
leads the largest archdiocese in the country. Cardinal Roger Mahony
Roger Mahony
oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels
Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels
, which opened in September 2002 in downtown Los Angeles. Construction of the cathedral marked a coming of age of the city's Catholic, heavily Latino community. There are numerous Catholic churches and parishes throughout Los Angeles.

In 2011, the once common, but ultimately lapsed, custom of conducting a procession and Mass in honor of Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles, in commemoration of the founding of the City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in 1781, was revived by the Queen of Angels Foundation and its founder Mark Albert , with the support and approbation of the Archdiocese
Archdiocese
of Los Angeles as well as several civic leaders. The recently revived custom is a continuation of the original processions and Masses which commenced on the first anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in 1782 and continued for nearly a century thereafter.

With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area (490,000 in city proper), the region has the second largest population of Jews in the United States. Many of Los Angeles' Jews now live on the Westside and in the San Fernando Valley
San Fernando Valley
, though Boyle Heights
Boyle Heights
and Northwest Los Angeles once had large Jewish populations. Many varieties of Judaism are represented in the area, including Reform , Conservative , Orthodox , and Reconstructionist . The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago
Chicago
in its early decades. (It is no longer a sacred space and is being converted to a museum and community center.) The Kabbalah Centre
Kabbalah Centre
also has a presence in the city.

The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
was founded in Los Angeles by Aimee Semple McPherson
Aimee Semple McPherson
in 1927 and remains headquartered there to this day. For many years, the church convened at Angelus Temple , which, when built, was one of the largest churches in the country.

The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
California
California
Temple , the second largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
, is on Santa Monica
Santa Monica
Boulevard in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first LDS temple built in California
California
and it was the largest in the world when completed.

The Hollywood
Hollywood
region of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology
Scientology
.

Because of Los Angeles' large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Islam
Islam
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, Hinduism
Hinduism
, Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
, Sikhism
Sikhism
, Bahá\'í , various Eastern Orthodox Churches , Sufism
Sufism
and others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world. Atheism
Atheism
and other secular beliefs are also common, as the city is the largest in the Western U.S. Unchurched Belt .

ECONOMY

Financial companies such as US Bancorp , Ernst "> Other significant industries include finance, telecommunications, law, healthcare, and transportation. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index , Los Angeles
Los Angeles
was ranked as having the 19th most competitive financial center in the world, and sixth most competitive in United States (after New York City
New York City
, San Francisco
San Francisco
, Chicago
Chicago
, Boston , and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
).

Three of the six major film studios-- Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
, 20th Century Fox , and Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
--are located within the city limits, their locations being part of the so-called "THIRTY-MILE ZONE " of entertainment headquarters in Southern California.

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is the largest manufacturing center in the western United States. The contiguous ports of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and Long Beach together comprise the fifth-busiest port in the world and the most significant port in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
and is vital to trade within the Pacific Rim
Pacific Rim
.

The Los Angeles–Long Beach metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $866 billion (as of 2015 ), making it the third-largest economic metropolitan area in the world, after Tokyo
Tokyo
and New York . Los Angeles
Los Angeles
has been classified an "Alpha world city " according to a 2012 study by a group at Loughborough University
Loughborough University
.

The largest employers in the city as of 2009 were, in descending order, the City of Los Angeles, the County of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, and University of California, Los Angeles
University of California, Los Angeles
. The University of Southern California
California
(USC) is the city's fourth largest employer and the largest private sector employer.

FORTUNE 500

The city was home to six companies in the 2014 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
.

Top publicly traded companies in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
for 2014 (ranked by revenues) _with City and U.S. ranks_

L.A.

CORPORATION

US

1

Occidental Petroleum
Occidental Petroleum
Corporation

116

2

Health Net, Inc.

254

3

Reliance Steel "> The Dolby Theatre
Dolby Theatre
; venue for the Academy Awards Walt Disney Concert Hall
Walt Disney Concert Hall
Main article: Arts and culture of Los Angeles
Los Angeles

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World", because one in every six of its residents works in a creative industry and there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
than any other city at any time in history.

MOVIES AND THE PERFORMING ARTS

The city's Hollywood
Hollywood
neighborhood has become recognized as the center of the motion picture industry . Los Angeles
Los Angeles
plays host to the annual Academy Awards
Academy Awards
and is the site of the USC School of Cinematic Arts
USC School of Cinematic Arts
, the oldest film school in the United States.

The performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles' cultural identity. According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more than 1,100 annual theatrical productions and 21 openings every week." The Los Angeles Music Center is "one of the three largest performing arts centers in the nation", with more than 1.3 million visitors per year. The Walt Disney Concert Hall
Walt Disney Concert Hall
, centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic . Notable organizations such as Center Theatre Group , the Los Angeles Master Chorale , and the Los Angeles Opera are also resident companies of the Music Center. Talent is locally cultivated at premier institutions such as the Colburn School
Colburn School
and the USC Thornton School of Music .

MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES

See also: Los Angeles
Los Angeles
City Museums The Fox Plaza in Century City , headquarters for 20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox

There are 841 museums and art galleries in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County . In fact, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
has more museums per capita than any other city in the world. Some of the notable museums are the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County Museum of Art (the largest art museum in the Western United States
United States
), the Getty Center
Getty Center
(part of the larger J. Paul Getty Trust , the world's wealthiest art institution ), the Battleship Iowa , and the Museum of Contemporary Art . A significant number of art galleries are located on Gallery Row
Gallery Row
, and tens of thousands attend the monthly Downtown Art Walk there.

SPORTS

Dodger Stadium
Dodger Stadium
is the home of the Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers
. See also: Sports in Los Angeles
Sports in Los Angeles
and History of the National Football League in Los Angeles
Los Angeles

The city of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and its metropolitan area are the home of ten top level professional sports teams. These teams include the Los Angeles Dodgers and Los Angeles Angels
Los Angeles Angels
of Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
(MLB), the Los Angeles Rams
Los Angeles Rams
and the Los Angeles Chargers
Los Angeles Chargers
of the National Football League (NFL), the Los Angeles Lakers
Los Angeles Lakers
and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Clippers of the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
(NBA), the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Kings and Anaheim Ducks
Anaheim Ducks
of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL), the Los Angeles Galaxy of Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer
(MLS), and the Los Angeles Sparks
Los Angeles Sparks
of the Women\'s National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
(WNBA).

Other notable sports teams include the UCLA
UCLA
Bruins and the USC Trojans in the National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA), both of which are Division I teams in the Pac-12 Conference
Pac-12 Conference
.

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is the second-largest city in the United States
United States
but hosted no NFL team between 1995 and 2015. At one time, the Los Angeles area hosted two NFL teams: the Rams and the Raiders . Both left the city in 1995, with the Rams moving to St. Louis
St. Louis
, and the Raiders moving back to their original home of Oakland
Oakland
. After 21 seasons in St. Louis, on January 12, 2016, the NFL announced that the Rams would be moving back to Los Angeles
Los Angeles
for the 2016 NFL season
2016 NFL season
. A new stadium will be built in Inglewood, California
California
for the team by the 2020 season. Prior to 1995, the Rams played their home games in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum from 1946 to 1979 and the Raiders played their home games at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
from 1982 to 1994. The San Diego
San Diego
Chargers announced that they will become the Los Angeles Chargers beginning in the 2017 NFL season and will play at the StubHub Center
StubHub Center
in Carson, California
California
for the next three seasons. Staples Center
Staples Center
is a sports arena, home to the Los Angeles Lakers
Los Angeles Lakers
, Los Angeles Sparks , Los Angeles Clippers
Los Angeles Clippers
, and Los Angeles Kings
Los Angeles Kings
.

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
has twice hosted the Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
: in 1932 and in 1984 , and will host the games for a third time in 2024 or 2028 . When the tenth Olympic Games were hosted in 1932, the former 10th Street was renamed Olympic Blvd. Super Bowls I and VII were also held in the city, as well as multiple FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
games at the Rose Bowl in 1994 , including the final . Los Angeles
Los Angeles
also hosted the Deaflympics
Deaflympics
in 1985 and Special
Special
Olympics World Summer Games in 2015 .

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
boasts a number of sports venues, including Dodger Stadium , the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
, The Forum , the StubHub Center , the Staples Center
Staples Center
, and the Rose Bowl in nearby Pasadena.

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Government of Los Angeles See also: Government of Los Angeles County

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is a charter city as opposed to a general law city . The current charter was adopted on June 8, 1999 and has been amended many times since then. The elected government consists of the Los Angeles City Council and the Mayor of Los Angeles
Mayor of Los Angeles
which operate under a mayor-council government , as well as the city attorney (not to be confused with the district attorney , a county office) and controller . The current mayor is Eric Garcetti
Eric Garcetti
. There are 15 city council districts .

The city has many departments and appointed officers, including the Los Angeles Police Department
Los Angeles Police Department
(LAPD), the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Board of Police Commissioners , the Los Angeles Fire Department
Los Angeles Fire Department
(LAFD), the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(HACLA), the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT), and the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Public Library (LAPL).

The Charter of the City of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are relatively autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, and elect their own officers. There are currently about 90 neighborhood councils.

Residents of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
elect supervisors for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th supervisorial districts.

FEDERAL AND STATE REPRESENTATION

In the California
California
State Assembly , Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is split between fourteen districts. In the California
California
State Senate , the city is split between eight districts. In the United States
United States
House of Representatives , it is split between ten congressional districts.

CRIME

See also: Crime in Los Angeles and List of criminal gangs in Los Angeles The LAPD on May Day
May Day
2006 in front of the new Caltrans District 7 Headquarters

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
experienced a significant decline in crime in the 1990s and late 2000s and reached a 50-year low in 2009 with 314 homicides. This is a rate of 7.85 per 100,000 population—a major decrease from 1980 when a homicide rate of 34.2 per 100,000 was reported. This included 15 officer-involved shootings. One shooting led to the death of a SWAT team member, Randal Simmons, the first in LAPD's history. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in the year of 2013 totaled 251 murders, a decrease of 16 percent from the previous year. Police speculate that the drop resulted from a number of factors, including young people spending more time online. Crime increased significantly in 2015 from the low in 2013 with the rate of aggravated assault up 76%, rape up 182.7% and murder up 9.2%.

The Dragna crime family and the Cohen crime family
Cohen crime family
dominated organized crime in the city during the Prohibition era and reached its peak during the 1940s and 1950s with the battle of Sunset Strip as part of the American Mafia
American Mafia
, but has gradually declined since then with the rise of various black and Hispanic
Hispanic
gangs in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

According to the Los Angeles Police Department
Los Angeles Police Department
, the city is home to 45,000 gang members, organized into 450 gangs. Among them are the Crips
Crips
and Bloods
Bloods
, which are both African American
African American
street gangs that originated in the South Los Angeles
South Los Angeles
region. Latino street gangs such as the Sureños
Sureños
, a Mexican American
Mexican American
street gang, and Mara Salvatrucha , which has mainly members of Salvadoran descent, all originated in Los Angeles. This has led to the city being referred to as the "Gang Capital of America".

EDUCATION

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

Second branch of the California
California
State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles
Los Angeles
opened its doors in 1882.

There are three public universities located within the city limits: California
California
State University, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(CSULA), California
California
State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

Private colleges in the city include the American Film Institute Conservatory , Alliant International University
Alliant International University
, Syracuse University ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Campus), American Academy of Dramatic Arts (Los Angeles Campus), American Jewish University , The American Musical and Dramatic Academy – Los Angeles
Los Angeles
campus , Antioch University
Antioch University
's Los Angeles campus, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science , Emperor\'s College , Fashion Institute of Design "> The Los Angeles Central Library is in Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles
. See also: Los Angeles County, California
California
§ Colleges and universities ; and List of high schools in Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County, California

Los Angeles Unified School District
Los Angeles Unified School District
serves almost all of the city of Los Angeles, as well as several surrounding communities, with a student population around 800,000. After Proposition 13 was approved in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding. LAUSD has become known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses, although its 162 Magnet schools help compete with local private schools.

Several small sections of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
are in the Las Virgenes Unified School District . The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts . The Los Angeles Public Library system operates 72 public libraries in the city. Enclaves of unincorporated areas are served by branches of the County of Los Angeles Public Library
Los Angeles Public Library
, many of which are within walking distance to residents.

MEDIA

Main article: Media in Los Angeles
Media in Los Angeles
See also: List of television shows set in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and List of films set in Los Angeles

The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metro area is the second-largest broadcast designated market area in the U.S. (after New York ) with 5,431,140 homes (4.956% of the U.S.), which is served by a wide variety of local AM and FM radio and television stations. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and New York City
New York City
are the only two media markets to have seven VHF
VHF
allocations assigned to them.

As part of the region's aforementioned creative industry , the Big Four major broadcast television networks, ABC , CBS
CBS
, Fox , and NBC
NBC
, all have production facilities and offices throughout various areas of Los Angeles. All four major broadcast television networks, plus major Spanish-language networks Telemundo
Telemundo
and Univision
Univision
, also own and operate stations that both serve the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
market and serve as each network's West Coast flagship station : ABC's KABC-TV
KABC-TV
(Channel 7), CBS's KCBS-TV
KCBS-TV
(Channel 2), Fox's KTTV-TV (Channel 11), NBC's KNBC-TV (Chennel 4), Telemundo's KVEA-TV (Channel 52), and Univision's KMEX-TV (Channel 34). The region also has three PBS stations, as well as KCET
KCET
, the nation's largest independent public television station. KTBN (Channel 40) is the flagship station of the religious Trinity Broadcasting Network , based out of Santa Ana . A variety of independent television stations, such as KCAL-TV
KCAL-TV
(Channel 9) and KTLA-TV (Channel 5), also operate in the area.

The major daily English-language newspaper in the area is the _Los Angeles Times _. _ La Opinión
La Opinión
_ is the city's major daily Spanish-language paper. _The Korea Times _ is the city's major daily Korean language
Korean language
paper while _ The World Journal _ is the city and county's major Chinese newspaper. The _ Los Angeles Sentinel
Los Angeles Sentinel
_ is the city's major African-American
African-American
weekly paper, boasting the largest African-American
African-American
readership in the Western United States
United States
. _Investor\'s Business Daily _ is distributed from its L.A. corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa del Rey. Los Angeles Times headquarters

There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the _ Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Register _, Los Angeles Community News , (which focuses on coverage of the greater Los Angeles area), _ Los Angeles Daily News _ (which focuses coverage on the San Fernando Valley
San Fernando Valley
), _ LA Weekly
LA Weekly
_, _ L.A. Record _ (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles Area
Greater Los Angeles Area
), _Los Angeles Magazine_, the _ Los Angeles Business Journal _, the _Los Angeles Daily Journal_ (legal industry paper), _The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter _, _Variety _ (both entertainment industry papers), and _Los Angeles Downtown News _. In addition to the major papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, including Armenian, English, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, and Arabic. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles
Los Angeles
also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles
Los Angeles
neighborhoods. Examples include _The Daily Breeze
Daily Breeze
_ (serving the South Bay ), and _The Long Beach Press-Telegram _.

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
arts, culture and nightlife news is also covered by a number of local and national online guides like _Time Out Los Angeles_, _ Thrillist
Thrillist
_, _Kristin's List_, _DailyCandy_, _LAist_, and _Flavorpill_.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation in Los Angeles

FREEWAYS

Main article: Southern California
California
freeways The Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange , connecting the Century Freeway (I-105) and the Harbor Freeway (I-110).

The city and the rest of the Los Angeles metropolitan area
Los Angeles metropolitan area
are served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. The Texas Transportation Institute , which publishes an annual Urban Mobility Report, ranked Los Angeles
Los Angeles
road traffic as the most congested in the United States
United States
in 2005 as measured by annual delay per traveler. The average traveler in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
experienced 72 hours of traffic delay per year according to the study. Los Angeles
Los Angeles
was followed by San Francisco / Oakland
Oakland
, Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and Atlanta
Atlanta
, (each with 60 hours of delay). Despite the congestion in the city, the mean travel time for commuters in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is shorter than other major cities, including New York City
New York City
, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Chicago
Chicago
. Los Angeles's mean travel time for work commutes in 2006 was 29.2 minutes, similar to those of San Francisco
San Francisco
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.

Among the major highways that connect LA to the rest of the nation include Interstate 5
Interstate 5
, which runs south through San Diego
San Diego
to Tijuana in Mexico
Mexico
and north through Sacramento , Portland , and Seattle
Seattle
to the Canada–US border ; Interstate 10
Interstate 10
, the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway
Interstate Highway
in the United States, going to Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville, Florida
; and U.S. Route 101
U.S. Route 101
, which heads to the California
California
Central Coast , San Francisco, the Redwood Empire , and the Oregon
Oregon
and Washington coasts.

TRANSIT SYSTEMS

Main article: Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Current Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Metro Rail and Metro Transitway map, showing existing lines

The LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County, with a combined monthly ridership (measured in individual boardings) of 38.8 million as of September 2011. The majority of this (30.5 million) is taken up by the city's bus system, the second busiest in the country. The subway and light rail combined average the remaining roughly 8.2 million boardings per month. In 2005, 10.2% of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
commuters rode some form of public transportation.

The city\'s subway system is the ninth busiest in the United States and its light rail system is the country's second busiest . The rail system includes the Red and Purple subway lines, as well as the Gold , Blue , Expo , and Green light rail lines. In 2016, the Expo Line was extended to the Pacific at Santa Monica
Santa Monica
. The Metro Orange and Silver lines are bus rapid transit lines with stops and frequency similar to those of light rail. The city is also central to the commuter rail system Metrolink , which links Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to all neighboring counties as well as many suburbs. Union Station in Los Angeles, California

Besides the rail service provided by Metrolink and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is served by inter-city passenger trains from Amtrak
Amtrak
. The main rail station in the city is Union Station just north of Downtown.

In addition, the city directly contracts for local and commuter bus service through the Los Angeles Department of Transportation , or LADOT.

AIRPORTS

Main article: List of airports in the Los Angeles area The Theme Building
Theme Building
at Los Angeles Airport
Los Angeles Airport

The main international and domestic airport serving Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is Los Angeles International Airport
Los Angeles International Airport
(IATA : LAX, ICAO : KLAX), commonly referred to by its airport code, LAX. The sixth busiest commercial airport in the world and the third busiest in the United States, LAX handled over 66 million passengers and close to 2 million tons of cargo in 2013.

Other major nearby commercial airports include:

* (IATA : ONT, ICAO : KONT) LA/Ontario International Airport , owned by the city of Los Angeles; serves the Inland Empire. * (IATA : BUR, ICAO : KBUR) Bob Hope Airport
Bob Hope Airport
, formerly known as _Burbank Airport_; serves the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys * (IATA : LGB, ICAO : KLGB) Long Beach Airport
Long Beach Airport
, serves the Long Beach/Harbor area * (IATA : SNA, ICAO : KSNA) John Wayne Airport
John Wayne Airport
of Orange County

One of the world's busiest general-aviation airports is also located in Los Angeles, Van Nuys Airport (IATA : VNY, ICAO : KVNY).

SEAPORTS

The Vincent Thomas Bridge
Vincent Thomas Bridge
is at Terminal Island
Terminal Island
.

The Port of Los Angeles
Port of Los Angeles
is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of Downtown. Also called Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Harbor and WORLDPORT LA, the port complex occupies 7,500 acres (30 km2) of land and water along 43 miles (69 km) of waterfront. It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach
Port of Long Beach
.

The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles
Port of Los Angeles
and Port of Long Beach together make up the _Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor_. Together, both ports are the fifth busiest container port in the world, with a trade volume of over 14.2 million TEU\'s in 2008. Singly, the Port of Los Angeles is the busiest container ports in the United States
United States
and the largest cruise ship center on the West Coast of the United States
United States
– The Port of Los Angeles' World Cruise Center served about 590,000 passengers in 2014.

There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along Los Angeles' coastline. The port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge
Vincent Thomas Bridge
, Henry Ford Bridge , Gerald Desmond Bridge , and Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge . Passenger ferry service from San Pedro to the city of Avalon on Santa Catalina Island is provided by Catalina Express.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of people from Los Angeles

As home to Hollywood
Hollywood
and its entertainment industry, numerous singers, actors and other entertainers live in various districts of Los Angeles.

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

_ This article contains a LIST OF MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION . Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles. (July 2017)_

A sign near City Hall points to the sister cities of Los Angeles.

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
has 25 sister cities , listed chronologically by year joined:

* Eilat
Eilat
, Israel
Israel
(1959) * Nagoya
Nagoya
, Japan
Japan
(1959) * Salvador, Bahia
Salvador, Bahia
, Brazil
Brazil
(1962) * Bordeaux
Bordeaux
, France
France
(1964) * Berlin
Berlin
, Germany
Germany
(1967) * Lusaka
Lusaka
, Zambia
Zambia
(1968) * Mexico
Mexico
City , Mexico
Mexico
(1969) * Auckland
Auckland
, New Zealand
New Zealand
(1971) * Busan
Busan
, South Korea
South Korea
(1971) * Mumbai
Mumbai
, India
India
(1972) * Tehran
Tehran
, Iran
Iran
(1972) * Taipei
Taipei
, Taiwan, Republic of China
China
(1979) * Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, People's Republic of China
China
(1981) * Athens
Athens
, Greece
Greece
(1984) * Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia
Russia
(1984) * Vancouver
Vancouver
, British Columbia, Canada
Canada
(1986) * Giza
Giza
, Egypt
Egypt
(1989) * Jakarta
Jakarta
, Indonesia
Indonesia
(1990) * Kaunas
Kaunas
, Lithuania
Lithuania
(1991) * Makati
Makati
, Philippines
Philippines
(1992) * Split, Croatia
Croatia
(1993) * San Salvador
San Salvador
, El Salvador
El Salvador
(2005) * Beirut
Beirut
, Lebanon
Lebanon
(2006) * Ischia, Campania
Ischia, Campania
, Italy
Italy
(2006) * Yerevan
Yerevan
, Armenia
Armenia
(2007)

In addition, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
has the following "friendship cities":

* London, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Łódź, Poland
Poland
* Manchester, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Tel Aviv, Israel
Israel

SEE ALSO

* Eastside Los Angeles
Eastside Los Angeles
* Largest cities in Southern California
California
* Largest cities in the Americas
Largest cities in the Americas
* List of cities and towns in California
California
* List of hotels in Los Angeles * List of largest California
California
cities by population * List of largest houses in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area * List of museums in Los Angeles * List of museums in Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County, California
* List of music venues in Los Angeles * List of people from Los Angeles * List of tallest buildings in Los Angeles * Los Angeles in popular culture * National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles, California
California

* California
California
portal * Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
portal * New Spain
New Spain
portal * United States
United States
portal

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FURTHER READING

See also: Bibliography of Los Angeles

GENERAL

* Carey McWilliams (2009). _Southern California: An Island on the Land_ (9th ed.). Peregrine Smith. ISBN 978-0-87905-007-8 . * Richard White (1991). _It\'s Your Misfortune and None of My Own : A New History of the American West_. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2567-1 . * David Rieff (1992). _Los Angeles: Capital of the Third World_. Touchstone. ISBN 978-0-671-79210-7 . * Peter Theroux (1994). _Translating LA: A Tour of the Rainbow City_. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-31394-9 . * Paul Glover (1995). _Los Angeles: A History of the Future_. Greenplanners. ISBN 978-0-9622911-0-4 . * Leonard Pitt & Dale Pitt (2000). _ Los Angeles
Los Angeles
A to Z: An Encyclopedia of the City and County_. Berkeley: University of California
California
Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20530-7 . * Kevin Starr
Kevin Starr
and David Ulin (2009). Jim Heimann, ed. _Los Angeles: Portrait of a City_. Taschen
Taschen
America. ISBN 978-3-8365-0291-7 .

ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN THEORY

* Reyner Banham (2009). _Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies_ (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California
California
Press . ISBN 978-0-520-26015-3 . * Mike Davis (2006). _ City of Quartz
City of Quartz
: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles_. Verso. ISBN 978-1-84467-568-5 . * Robert M. Fogelson (1993). _The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles 1850–1930_. Berkeley: University of California
California
Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08230-4 . * Norman M. Klein (1997). _The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory_. Verso. ISBN 978-1-84467-242-4 . * Sam Hall Kaplan (2000). _L.A. Lost & Found: An Architectural History of Los Angeles_. Hennessey and Ingalls. ISBN 978-0-940512-23-8 . * Wim de Wit and Christopher James Alexander (2013). _Overdrive: L.A. Constructs the Future, 1940–1990_. Getty Publications. ISBN 978-1-60606-128-2 .

RACE RELATIONS

* Acuña, Rodolfo (1996). _Anything but Mexican: Chicanos in contemporary Los Angeles_. Verso. ISBN 978-1-85984-031-3 . Retrieved September 30, 2011. * George, Lynell (1992). _No Crystal Stair: African Americans
African Americans
in the City of Angels_. Verso. ISBN 978-0-86091-389-4 . * Sides, Josh (2006). _L.A. City Limits: African American
African American
Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present_. Berkeley: University of California
California
Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24830-4 . * Eduardo Obregón Pagán (2006). _Murder at the Sleepy Lagoon: Zoot Suits, Race, and Riot in Wartime L.A_. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-5494-5 . * R. J. Smith (2007). _The Great Black Way: L.A. in the 1940s and the Last African American
African American
Renaissance_. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-521-4 .

LGBT

* Lillian Faderman and Stuart Timmons (2006). _Gay L