The LOS ANGELES PHILHARMONIC (LA Phil, LAP,) is an American orchestra
based in Los Angeles, California, United States. It has a regular
season of concerts from October through June at the Walt Disney
Concert Hall , and a summer season at the
Music critics have described the orchestra as the most "contemporary minded", "forward thinking", "talked about and innovative", "venturesome and admired" orchestra in America. According to Salonen, "We are interested in the future. We are not trying to re-create the glories of the past, like so many other symphony orchestras." “Especially since we moved into the new hall,” continues Borda, “our intention has been to integrate 21st-century music into the orchestra’s everyday activity.” Since the opening of the Walt Disney Concert Hall on October 23, 2003, the Los Angeles Philharmonic has presented 57 world premieres, 1 North American premiere, 26 U.S. premieres and has commissioned or co-commissioned 63 new works.
* 1 History
* 1.1 1919–1933: Founding the Philharmonic * 1.2 1933–1950: Harvey Mudd rescues orchestra * 1.3 1951–1968: Dorothy Buffum Chandler\'s influence * 1.4 1969–1997: Ernest Fleischmann\'s tenure * 1.5 1998–2009 * 1.6 2009-present
* 2 Performance venues
* 3 Conductors
* 3.1 Music Directors * 3.2 Conductor Laureate * 3.3 Principal Guest Conductors * 3.4 Other notable conductors
* 4 Other resident artists
* 4.1 Composers * 4.2 Artistic director and creative chairs for Jazz
* 5 Recordings * 6 World premieres * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
1919–1933: FOUNDING THE PHILHARMONIC
Walter Henry Rothwell (1872-1927), first Music Director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic.
The orchestra was founded and single-handedly financed in 1919 by William Andrews Clark, Jr. , a copper baron, arts enthusiast, and part-time violinist. He originally asked Sergei Rachmaninoff to be the Philharmonic's first music director; however, Rachmaninoff had only recently moved to New York, and he did not wish to move again. Clark then selected Walter Henry Rothwell , former assistant to Gustav Mahler , as music director, and hired away several principal musicians from East Coast orchestras and others from the competing and soon-to-be defunct Los Angeles Symphony. The orchestra played its first concert in the Trinity Auditorium in the same year, eleven days after its first rehearsal. Clark himself would sometimes sit and play with the second violin section.
1933–1950: HARVEY MUDD RESCUES ORCHESTRA
Otto Klemperer became Music Director in 1933, part of the large group
of German emigrants fleeing Nazi Germany. He conducted many LA Phil
premieres, and introduced Los Angeles audiences to important new works
Igor Stravinsky and
Arnold Schoenberg . The orchestra responded
well to his leadership, but Klemperer had a difficult time adjusting
to Southern California, a situation exacerbated by repeated
Things were further complicated when founder William Andrews Clark
died without leaving the orchestra an endowment. The newly formed
Southern California Symphony Association was created with the goal to
stabilize the orchestra's funding, with the association's president,
Harvey Mudd , stepping up to personally guarantee Klemperer's salary.
The Philharmonic's concerts at the
Then, after completing the 1939 summer season at the Hollywood Bowl,
Klemperer was visiting Boston and was incorrectly diagnosed with a
brain tumor, and the subsequent brain surgery left him partially
paralyzed. He went into a depressive state and was institutionalized.
When he escaped,
The New York Times
1951–1968: DOROTHY BUFFUM CHANDLER\'S INFLUENCE
By the mid-1950s, department store heiress and wife of the publisher
Los Angeles Times
In 1960, the orchestra, led again by Chandler, signed
1969–1997: ERNEST FLEISCHMANN\'S TENURE
In 1969, the orchestra hired
Ernest Fleischmann to be Executive Vice
President and General Manager. During his tenure, the Philharmonic
instituted a number of then-revolutionary ideas, including the
creation of the
Los Angeles Philharmonic
In 1985 Fleischmann turned to André Previn with the hopes that his conducting credentials and time spent at Hollywood Studios would add a local flair and enhance the connection between conductor, orchestra, and city. While Previn's tenure was musically satisfactory, other conductors including Kurt Sanderling , Simon Rattle , and Esa-Pekka Salonen , fared better at the box office. Previn clashed frequently with Fleischmann; one such conflict occurred over Fleischmann's failure to consult Previn over the decision to name Salonen as "Principal Guest Conductor", a move mirroring the prior Solti/Mehta controversy. Because of Previn's objections, the position and Japan tour offer made to Salonen were withdrawn; however, shortly thereafter in April 1989, Previn resigned, and four months later, Salonen was named Music Director Designate, officially taking the post in October 1992. Salonen's U.S. conducting debut with the orchestra had been in 1984.
Salonen's tenure with the orchestra first began with a residency at
Salzburg Festival in concert performances and as the pit
orchestra in a production of the opera Saint François d\'Assise by
Under Salonen's leadership, the Philharmonic has become an extremely progressive and well-regarded orchestra. Alex Ross of The New Yorker said this:
The Salonen era in L.A. may mark a turning point in the recent history of classical music in America. It is a story not of an individual magically imprinting his personality on an institution—what Salonen has called the "empty hype" of conductor worship—but of an individual and an institution bringing out unforeseen capabilities in each other, and thereby proving how much life remains in the orchestra itself, at once the most conservative and the most powerful of musical organisms.
... no American orchestra matches the L.A. Philharmonic in its ability to assimilate a huge range of music on a moment's notice. Adès , who first conducted his own music in L.A. and has become an annual visitor, told me, "They always seem to begin by finding exactly the right playing style for each piece of music—the kind of sound, the kind of phrasing , breathing, attacks, colors, the indefinable whole. That shouldn't be unusual, but it is." John Adams calls the Philharmonic "the most Amurrican of orchestras. They don't hold back and they don't put on airs. If you met them in twos or threes, you'd have no idea they were playing in an orchestra, that they were classical-music people."
When Fleischmann decided to retire in 1998 after 28-years at the
helm, the orchestra named Willem Wijnbergen as its new Executive
Director. Wijnbergen, a Dutch pianist and arts administrator, was the
managing director of the Concertgebouw
One of his most important decisions was to modify Hollywood Bowl programing: he increased the number of jazz concerts and appointed John Clayton serving as the orchestra's first Jazz Chair; in addition, he established a new World Music series with Tom Schnabel as programming director Despite some successes, Wijnbergen left the orchestra in 1999 after only one controversy-filled year, and it is unclear whether he resigned or was fired by the Philharmonic's board of directors.
Later that same year,
Deborah Borda , then the Executive Director of
New York Philharmonic , was hired to take over executive
management of the orchestra. She began her tenure in January 2000, and
was later given the title of President and Chief Executive Officer.
After financial problems experienced during Wijnbergen's short tenure,
Borda — "a formidable executive who runs the orchestra like a lean
company, not like a flabby non-profit" — "put the organization on
solid financial footing." She is widely credited (along with Salonen,
Perhaps Borda's boldest notion is to give visiting composers such as Adams and Thomas Adès the same royal treatment that is extended to the likes of Yo-Yo Ma and Joshua Bell ; Borda talks about "hero composers." A recent performance of Adams's monumental California symphony "Naïve and Sentimental Music" in the orchestra's Casual Fridays series ... drew a nearly full house. Borda's big-guns approach has invigorated the orchestra's long-running new-music series, called Green Umbrella, which Fleischmann established in 1982. In the early days, it drew modest audiences, but in recent years attendance has risen to the point where as many as sixteen hundred people show up for a concert that in other cities might draw thirty or forty. The Australian composer Brett Dean recently walked onstage for a Green Umbrella concert and did a double take, saying that it was the largest new-music audience he'd ever seen.
On July 13, 2005, a young Venezuelan conductor, Gustavo Dudamel, made his debut with the LA Phil at the orchestra’s summer home, the Hollywood Bowl. In his U.S. debut Tuesday night, a 24-year-old conductor from Venezuela with curly hair, long sideburns and a baby face accomplished something increasingly rare and difficult at the Hollywood Bowl. He got a normally restive audience’s full, immediate and rapt attention. And he kept it.
On January 4, 2007, Dudamel made his
Walt Disney Concert Hall debut
with the LA Phil prompting
Los Angeles Times
Gustavo Dudamel began his official tenure as music director of the
Los Angeles Philharmonic
The orchestra played its first season at
Trinity Auditorium at Grand
Ave and Ninth Street. In 1920, it moved to Fifth Street and Olive Ave,
in a venue that had previously been known as Clune\'s Auditorium , but
was renamed Philharmonic Auditorium. From 1964 to 2003, the orchestra
played its main subscription concerts in the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion
Los Angeles Music Center . In 2003, a move was made to the new
Walt Disney Concert Hall next door designed by
Since 1922, the orchestra has played outdoor concerts during the
summer at the
The LA Philharmonic has played at least one concert a year in its
sister city, Santa Barbara , presented by the Community Arts Music
Association (CAMA), along with other regular concerts throughout
various Southern California cities such as
Costa Mesa as part of the
Orange County Philharmonic Society's series,
* 2009–present Esa-Pekka Salonen
Before Salonen's last concert as Music Director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic on April 19, 2009, the orchestra announced his appointment as its first ever Conductor Laureate "as acknowledgement of our profound gratitude to him and to signify our continuing connection." In response, Salonen said:
"When the Board asked me if I would accept the position of Conductor
Laureate I was overwhelmed. This organization has been at the very
center of my musical life for 17 years. I am very proud and honored
that they would even consider me for such a prestigious title and it
gives me great pleasure to accept. The
Los Angeles Philharmonic
PRINCIPAL GUEST CONDUCTORS
Rattle and Tilson Thomas were named Principal Guest Conductor concurrently under Carlo Maria Giulini , though Tilson Thomas's tenure ended much earlier. Until 2016, they were the only two conductors to officially hold the title as such (though as stated above, Esa-Pekka Salonen was initially offered the position under Previn before having the offer withdrawn).
Beginning in the Summer of 2005, the Philharmonic created the new position of Principal Guest Conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the Hollywood Bowl. Leonard Slatkin was initially given a two-year contract, and in 2007 he was given a one-year extension. In March 2008, Bramwell Tovey was named to the post for an initial two-year contract beginning Summer of 2008; he subsequently received a one-year extension. After Tovey's term ended, no conductor has since held the position at the Hollywood Bowl.
In April 2016, the LA Phil announced that Susanna Mälkki would be the orchestra's third-ever Principal Guest Conductor beginning with the 2017-18 season. Her initial contract is for three years.
OTHER NOTABLE CONDUCTORS
Other conductors with whom the orchestra has had close ties include
Many composers have conducted the Philharmonic in concerts and/or
world premieres of their works, including
Igor Stravinsky , William
John Harbison ,
A number of the Philharmonic's Assistant/Associate Conductors have gone on to have notable careers in their own rights. These include Lawrence Foster , Calvin E. Simmons , and William Kraft under Mehta, Sidney Harth and Myung-whun Chung under Giulini, Heiichiro Ohyama and David Alan Miller under Previn, and Grant Gershon , Miguel Harth-Bedoya , Kristjan Järvi , and Alexander Mickelthwate under Salonen. Lionel Bringuier was originally named Assistant Conductor under Salonen before being promoted to Associate Conductor and, finally, Resident Conductor under Dudamel; since then, Mirga Gražinytė-Tyla has served as Assistant Conductor and Associate Conductor under Dudamel.
OTHER RESIDENT ARTISTS
Kraft and Harbison held the title "Composer-in-Residence" as part of a Meet the Composer (MTC) sponsorship. Steiger was given the title "Composer-Fellow", serving as an assistant to both Harbison and Stucky.
Stucky was also a MTC "Composer-in-Residence" from 1988–1992, but was kept on as "New Music Advisor" after his official MTC-sponsored tenure ended; in 2000, his title was again changed to "Consulting Composer for New Music." In the end, his 21-year residency with the orchestra was the longest such relationship of any composer with an American orchestra.
Adams has been named the orchestra's "Creative Chair" beginning in Fall 2009.
ARTISTIC DIRECTOR AND CREATIVE CHAIRS FOR JAZZ
Reeves was named the first "Creative Chair for Jazz" in March 2002. Instead of just focusing on summer programming, the new position involved the scheduling of jazz programming and educational workshops year round; as such, she led the development of the subscription jazz series the orchestra offered when it moved into Walt Disney Concert Hall . In addition, she was the first performer at the 2003 inaugural gala at the Walt Disney Concert Hall. Her contract was initially for two years, and was subsequently renewed for an additional two years.
McBride took over the position in 2006 for an initial two-year position that was subsequently renewed for an additional two years through to the start of the 2010 summer season at the Hollywood Bowl. In 2009, the orchestra introduced Hancock as McBride's eventual replacement.
In 1998, prior to the establishment of the Creative Chair for Jazz,
John Clayton was given the title "Artistic Director of Jazz" at the
Main article: Los Angeles Philharmonic discography
The orchestra occasionally made 78-rpm recordings and LPs in the
early years with
Alfred Wallenstein and
Leopold Stokowski for Capitol
Records , and began recording regularly in the 1960s, for London/Decca
, during the tenure of
Los Angeles Philharmonic
SEASON DATE COMPOSER COMPOSITION CONDUCTOR
2011–11–11 Richard Dubugnon Battlefield Semyon Bychkov
2012–04–10 Oscar Bettison New York John Adams
2012–05–08 Joseph Pereira Percussion Concerto Gustavo Dudamel
2012–05–31 John Adams The Gospel According to the Other Mary Gustavo Dudamel
2012–13 2012–09–28 Steven Stucky Symphony Gustavo Dudamel
2012–10–16 Daníel Bjarnason Over Light Earth John Adams
2013–02–26 Unsuk Chin Graffiti Gustavo Dudamel
2013–02–26 Joseph Pereira Concerto for Percussion and Chamber Orchestra Gustavo Dudamel
2013–04–16 Matt Marks TBD Alan Pierson
2013–04–18 Ted Hearne But I Voted for Shirley Chisholm Joshua Weilerstein
2014-15 2014-11-20 Stephen Hartke Symphony No. 4 Gustavo Dudamel
2015-05-14 Kaija Saariaho True Fire Gustavo Dudamel
2015-05-29 Steven Mackey Mnemosyne's Pool Gustavo Dudamel
* Los Angeles portal
* ^ A B C D E Ross, Alex (April 30, 2007). "The Anti-maestro; How
Esa-Pekka Salonen transformed the Los Angeles Philharmonic". The New
* ^ Ross, Alex (January 7, 2008). "Maestra; Marin Alsop leads the
Baltimore Symphony.". The New Yorker.
* ^ Patner, Andrew (April 10, 2007). "'Say it ain't so,' music fans
lament; Triumphant CSO debut makes pain of losing him worse". Chicago
* ^ Page, Tim (April 10, 2007). "Dudamel, 26, to Lead L.A.
Orchestra". The Washington Post.
* ^ Jacobs, Tom. "A Conversation with Deborah Borda, President of
the Los Angeles Philharmonic". The Independent.
* ^ Vincent, Roger (September 19, 2005). "Another L.A. Comeback: A
landmark auditorium will reopen as part of the conversion of a defunct
downtown hotel into the Gansevoort West.". The Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved October 10, 2015.
* ^ A B C D Swed, Mark (31 August 2003). "The Salonen-Gehry Axis".
Los Angeles Times
* ^ Swed, Mark. "He holds Bowl in palm of his hands". Los Angeles
* ^ Swed, Mark. "Indoors or out, this guy\'s the real deal". Los
* ^ "The Kids Are Alright". Spirit Magazine. March 2013.
* ^ Gelb, Peter (May 11, 2009). "The World's Most Influential
People". Time Magazine.
* ^ Swed, Mark. "Bowled over by L.A.’s new maestro". Los Angeles
* ^ Swed, Mark. "Music review: L.A. Phil embraces a new generation
with Dudamel". Los Angeles Times.
* ^ "ASCAP Announces Year 2010
* Official LOS ANGELES PHILHARMONIC website