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Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
(Italian pronunciation: [loˈrɛntso de ˈmɛːditʃi], 1 January 1449 – 8 April 1492[1]) was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic
Florentine Republic
and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance
Renaissance
culture in Italy.[2][3][4] Also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent (Lorenzo il Magnifico [loˈrɛntso il maɲˈɲiːfiko]) by contemporary Florentines, he was a magnate, diplomat, politician and patron of scholars, artists and poets. As a patron, he is best known for his sponsorship of artists such as Botticelli
Botticelli
and Michelangelo. He held the balance of power within the Italic League, an alliance of states that stabilized political conditions on the Italian peninsula for decades, and his life coincided with the mature phase of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Golden Age of Florence.[5] The Peace of Lodi
Peace of Lodi
of 1454 that he helped maintain among the various Italian states collapsed with his death. He is buried in the Medici Chapel
Medici Chapel
in Florence.

Contents

1 Youth 2 Politics 3 Patronage 4 Marriage and children 5 Later years, death, and legacy 6 In popular culture 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Youth[edit] Lorenzo's grandfather, Cosimo de' Medici, was the first member of the Medici
Medici
family to lead the Republic of Florence
Florence
and run the Medici
Medici
Bank simultaneously. As one of the wealthiest men in Europe, Cosimo spent a very large portion of his fortune on government and philanthropy, for example as a patron of the arts and financier of public works.[6] Lorenzo's father, Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, was equally at the centre of Florentine civic life, chiefly as an art patron and collector, while Lorenzo's uncle, Giovanni di Cosimo de' Medici, took care of the family's business interests. Lorenzo's mother, Lucrezia Tornabuoni, was a writer of sonnets and a friend to poets and philosophers of the Medici
Medici
Academy. She became her son's advisor after the deaths of his father and uncle.[6] Lorenzo, considered the most promising of the five children of Piero and Lucrezia, was tutored by a diplomat and bishop, Gentile de' Becchi, and the humanist philosopher Marsilio Ficino,[7] and he was trained in Greek by John Argyropoulos.[8] With his brother Giuliano, he participated in jousting, hawking, hunting, and horse breeding for the Palio, a horse race in Siena. In 1469, aged 19, he won first prize in a jousting tournament sponsored by the Medici. The joust was the subject of a poem written by Luigi Pulci.[9] Niccolò Machiavelli
Niccolò Machiavelli
also wrote of the occasion, perhaps sarcastically, that he won "not by way of favour, but by his own valour and skill in arms".[10] He carried a banner painted by Verrocchio, and his horse was named Morello di Vento.[11][12] Piero sent Lorenzo on many important diplomatic missions when he was still a youth, including trips to Rome to meet the pope and other important religious and political figures.[13] Lorenzo was described as rather plain of appearance and of average height, having a broad frame and short legs, dark hair and eyes, swarthy skin, a squashed nose, short-sighted eyes and a harsh voice. Giuliano, on the other hand, was regarded as handsome and was used as a model by Botticelli
Botticelli
in his painting of Mars and Venus.[14] Even Lorenzo's close friend Niccolo Valori described him as homely, saying, "nature had been a step mother to him in regards to his personal appearance, although she had acted as a loving mother in all things concocted with the mind. His complexion was dark, and although his face was not handsome it was so full of dignity as to compel respect."[15]

Paintings by Botticelli
Botticelli
that use the Medici
Medici
family as models

Madonna of the Magnificat
Madonna of the Magnificat
shows Lucrezia de' Medici
Lucrezia de' Medici
as the Madonna surrounded by her children, with Lorenzo holding a pot of ink.

The Adoration of the Magi includes several generations of the Medici family and their retainers. Sixteen-year-old Lorenzo is to the left, with his horse, prior to his departure on a diplomatic mission to Milan.

Politics[edit] Lorenzo, groomed for power, assumed a leading role in the state upon the death of his father in 1469, when he was twenty. Already drained by his grandfather's building projects and constantly stressed by mismanagement, wars, and political expenses, the assets of the Medici Bank contracted seriously during the course of Lorenzo's lifetime.[16] Lorenzo, like his grandfather, father, and son, ruled Florence indirectly through surrogates in the city councils by means of threats, payoffs and strategic marriages.[17] He effectively reigned as a despot, and ordinary citizens had little political freedom.[18] Rival Florentine families inevitably harboured resentments over the Medicis' dominance, and enemies of the Medici
Medici
remained a factor in Florentine life long after Lorenzo's passing.[17] The most notable of the rival families was the Pazzi, who nearly brought Lorenzo's reign to an end.[19] On Easter Sunday, 26 April 1478, in an incident known as the Pazzi conspiracy, a group headed by Girolamo Riario, Francesco Pazzi, and Francesco Salviati (the archbishop of Pisa), attacked Lorenzo and his brother and co-ruler Giuliano in the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in an attempt to seize control of the Florentine government.[20] Shockingly, Salviati acted with the blessing of his patron Pope
Pope
Sixtus IV. Giuliano was killed, brutally stabbed to death, but Lorenzo escaped with only a minor wound to the shoulder, having been defended by the poet Poliziano.[21] News of the conspiracy spread throughout Florence
Florence
and was brutally put down by the populace through such measures as the lynching of the archbishop of Pisa and members of the Pazzi
Pazzi
family who were involved in the conspiracy.[19] In the aftermath of the Pazzi
Pazzi
conspiracy and the punishment of supporters of Pope
Pope
Sixtus IV, the Medici
Medici
and Florence
Florence
earned the wrath of the Holy See, which seized all the Medici
Medici
assets that Sixtus could find, excommunicated Lorenzo and the entire government of Florence, and ultimately put the entire Florentine city-state under interdict.[22] When these moves had little effect, Sixtus formed a military alliance with King Ferdinand I of Naples, whose son, Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, led an invasion of the Florentine Republic, still ruled by Lorenzo.[23] Lorenzo rallied the citizens. However, with little support from the traditional Medici
Medici
allies in Bologna
Bologna
and Milan,[19] the war dragged on, and only diplomacy by Lorenzo, who personally traveled to Naples and became a prisoner of the king for several months, ultimately resolved the crisis. That success enabled Lorenzo to secure constitutional changes within the government of the Florentine Republic that further enhanced his own power.[17] Thereafter, Lorenzo, like his grandfather Cosimo de' Medici, pursued a policy of maintaining peace, balancing power between the northern Italian states and keeping major European states such as France and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
out of Italy. Lorenzo maintained good relations with Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
of the Ottoman Empire, as the Florentine maritime trade with the Ottomans was a major source of wealth for the Medici.[24] Efforts to acquire revenue from the mining of alum in Tuscany unfortunately marred Lorenzo's reputation. Alum
Alum
had been discovered by local citizens of Volterra, who turned to Florence
Florence
to get backing to exploit this important natural resource. A key commodity in the glass-making, tanning and textile industries, alum was available from only a few sources under the control of the Ottomans and monopolized by Genoa
Genoa
before the discovery of alum sources in Italy at Tolfa. First the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
in 1462, and then Lorenzo and the Medici Bank
Medici Bank
less than a year later, got involved in backing the mining operation, with the pope taking a two-ducat commission for each cantar quintal of alum retrieved and ensuring a monopoly against the Turkish-derived goods by prohibiting trade in alum with infidels.[25] When they realized the value of the alum mine, the people of Volterra
Volterra
wanted its revenues for their municipal funds rather than having it enter the pockets of their Florentine backers. Thus began an insurrection and secession from Florence, which involved putting to death several opposing citizens. Lorenzo sent mercenaries to suppress the revolt by force, and the mercenaries ultimately sacked the city. Lorenzo hurried to Volterra
Volterra
to make amends, but the incident would remain a dark stain on his record.[26][27] Patronage[edit]

The Angel appearing to Zacharias in the Tornabuoni Chapel
Tornabuoni Chapel
in Florence contains portraits of members of the Medici
Medici
Academy: Marsilio Ficino, Cristoforo Landino, Agnolo Poliziano
Poliziano
and either Demetrios Chalkokondyles or Gentile de' Becchi.

Lorenzo's court included artists such as Piero and Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Andrea del Verrocchio, Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio
Domenico Ghirlandaio
and Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Buonarroti, who were instrumental in achieving the 15th-century Renaissance. Although Lorenzo did not commission many works himself, he helped these artists to secure commissions from other patrons. Michelangelo
Michelangelo
lived with Lorenzo and his family for five years, dining at the family table and participating in discussions led by Marsilio Ficino. Lorenzo himself was an artist and wrote poetry in his native Tuscan. In his poetry, he celebrates life while acknowledging with melancholy the fragility and instability of the human condition, particularly in his later works. Love, feasts and light dominate his verse.[28] Cosimo had started the collection of books that became the Medici Library (also called the Laurentian Library), and Lorenzo expanded it. Lorenzo's agents retrieved from the East large numbers of classical works, and he employed a large workshop to copy his books and disseminate their content across Europe. He supported the development of humanism through his circle of scholarly friends, including the philosophers Marsilio Ficino, Poliziano
Poliziano
and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola.[29] They studied Greek philosophers and attempted to merge the ideas of Plato
Plato
with Christianity. Apart from a personal interest, Lorenzo also used the Florentine milieu of fine arts for his diplomatic efforts. An example includes the commission of Ghirlandaio, Botticelli, Pietro Perugino
Pietro Perugino
and Cosimo Rosselli from Rome to paint murals in the Sistine Chapel, a move that has been interpreted as sealing the alliance between Lorenzo and Pope Sixtus IV.[29] In 1471, Lorenzo calculated that his family had spent some 663,000 florins (about US$460 million today) on charity, buildings and taxes since 1434. He wrote,

"I do not regret this for though many would consider it better to have a part of that sum in their purse, I consider it to have been a great honour to our state, and I think the money was well-expended and I am well-pleased."[30]

Marriage and children[edit]

Lorenzo by Girolamo Macchietti
Girolamo Macchietti
(16th century)

Lorenzo married Clarice Orsini
Clarice Orsini
by proxy on 7 February 1469. The marriage in person took place in Florence
Florence
on 4 June 1469. She was a daughter of Giacomo Orsini, Lord of Monterotondo
Monterotondo
and Bracciano
Bracciano
by his wife and cousin Maddalena Orsini. Clarice and Lorenzo had 10 children, all except Contessina Antonia born in Florence:

Lucrezia Maria Romola de' Medici
Medici
(1470–1553), who married Jacopo Salviati on 10 September 1486 and had 10 children of her own, including Cardinal Giovanni Salviati, Cardinal Bernardo Salviati, Maria Salviati
Maria Salviati
(mother of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany), and Francesca Salviati (mother of Pope
Pope
Leo XI) Twins who died after birth (March 1471) Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici
Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici
(1472–1503), called "the Unfortunate", was ruler of Florence
Florence
after his father's death Maria Maddalena Romola de' Medici
Medici
(1473–1528) married Franceschetto Cybo (illegitimate son of Pope
Pope
Innocent VIII) on 25 February 1487 and had seven children Contessina Beatrice de' Medici, died shortly after her birth on 23 September 1474 Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
(1475–1521), ascended to the papacy as Leo X in 1513[31] Luisa de' Medici
Medici
(1477–1488),[32] also called Luigia, was betrothed to Giovanni de' Medici
Medici
il Popolano, but died young Contessina Antonia Romola de' Medici
Medici
(1478-1515), born in Pistoia, married Piero Ridolfi (1467–1525) in 1494 and had five children, including Cardinal Niccolò Ridolfi Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
(1479–1516) was created Duke of Nemours in 1515 by King Francis I of France

Lorenzo also adopted his nephew Giulio, the illegitimate son of his slain brother Giuliano. Giulio later became Pope
Pope
Clement VII.

Detail of Domenico Ghirlandaio's Confirmation of the Franciscan Rule from the Sassetti Chapel
Sassetti Chapel
frescos. Mounting the stairs in the forefront are the tutor of Lorenzo's sons, Angelo Poliziano, and Lorenzo's sons Giuliano, Piero and Giovanni, followed by two members of the Humanist Academy.

Later years, death, and legacy[edit] During Lorenzo's tenure, several branches of the family bank collapsed because of bad loans, and in later years he got into financial difficulties and resorted to misappropriating trust and state funds. Toward the end of Lorenzo's life, Florence
Florence
came under the spell of Savonarola, who believed Christians had strayed too far into Greco-Roman culture. Lorenzo played a role in bringing Savonarola
Savonarola
to Florence.[33]

A posthumous portrait of Lorenzo by Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
(16th century)

Lorenzo died during the late night of 8 April, at the longtime family villa of Careggi. Savonarola
Savonarola
visited Lorenzo on his death bed. The rumour that Savonarola
Savonarola
damned Lorenzo on his deathbed has been refuted in Roberto Ridolfi's book, Vita di Girolamo Savonarola. Letters written by witnesses to Lorenzo's death report that he died peacefully after listening to the Gospel
Gospel
of the day. Many signs and portents were claimed to have taken place at the moment of his death, including the dome of Florence
Florence
Cathedral being struck by lightning, ghosts appearing, and the lions kept at Via Leone fighting one another.[34] The Signoria and councils of Florence
Florence
issued a decree:

"Whereas the foremost man of all this city, the lately deceased Lorenzo de' Medici, did, during his whole life, neglect no opportunity of protecting, increasing, adorning and raising this city, but was always ready with counsel, authority and painstaking, in thought and deed; shrank from neither trouble nor danger for the good of the state and its freedom..... it has seemed good to the Senate and people of Florence.... to establish a public testimonial of gratitude to the memory of such a man, in order that virtue might not be unhonoured among Florentines, and that, in days to come, other citizens may be incited to serve the commonwealth with might and wisdom."[35]

Lorenzo was buried with his brother Giuliano in the Church of San Lorenzo in the red porphyry sarcophagus designed for Piero and Giovanni de' Medici, not, as might be expected, in the New Sacristy, designed by Michelangelo. The latter holds the two monumental tombs of Lorenzo and Giuliano's less known namesakes: Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, and Giuliano, Duke of Nemours.[36] According to Williamson and others, the statues of the lesser Lorenzo and Giuliano were carved by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
to incorporate the essence of the famous men. In 1559, the bodies of Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
("the Magnificent") and his brother Giuliano were interred in the New Sacristy in an unmarked tomb beneath Michelangelo's statue of the Madonna.[36] Lorenzo's heir was his eldest son, Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici, known as "Piero the Unfortunate". In 1494, he squandered his father's patrimony and brought down the Medici
Medici
dynasty in Florence. His second son, Giovanni, who became Pope
Pope
Leo X, retook the city in 1512 with the aid of a Spanish army. [37] In 1529, Lorenzo's nephew Giulio - whom Lorenzo had raised as his own son and then reigned as Pope
Pope
Clement VII - formalized Medici
Medici
rule of Florence
Florence
by installing Alessandro de' Medici
Medici
as the city's first hereditary duke. [38] In popular culture[edit]

Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
is depicted as a teenager in CBBC's Leonardo, played by actor Colin Ryan. However, the historical accuracy of the series is questionable.[39] Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
appears as a supporting character to the protagonist in Assassin's Creed II. Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
is portrayed by Elliot Cowan in the 2013 TV series Da Vinci's Demons. Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
is portrayed by Daniel Sharman
Daniel Sharman
in the TV series Medici: Masters of Florence.[40]

References[edit]

^ Medici, Lorenzo de', detto il Magnifico Enciclopedia Italiana ^ Parks, Tim (2008). Medici
Medici
Money: Banking, Metaphysics, and Art in Fifteenth-Century Florence. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. p. 288.  ^ "Fact about Lorenzo de' Medici". 100 Leader in world history. 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-15.  ^ Kent, F.W. (2006). Lorenzo De' Medici
Medici
and the Art of Magnificence. USA: JHU Press. p. 248. ISBN 0-8018-8627-9.  ^ Gene Brucker, Living on the Edge in Leonardo's Florence, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), pp. 14–15. ^ a b Hugh Ross Williamson, Lorenzo the Magnificent, Michael Joseph, (1974), ISBN 07181 12040 ^ Hugh Ross Williamson, p. 67 ^ Durant, Will (1953). The Renaissance. The Story of Civilization. 5. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 110.  ^ Davie, Mark. "LUIGI PULCI'S STANZE PER LA GIOSTRA: VERSE AND PROSE ACCOUNTS OF A FLORENTINE JOUST OF 1469". Italian Studies. 44 (1): 41–58. doi:10.1179/007516389790509128.  ^ Machiavelli, Niccolò (1906). The Florentine history. 2. London : A. Constable and co. limited. p. 169.  ^ 1454-1494., Poliziano, Angelo, (1993). The Stanze of Angelo Poliziano. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. x. ISBN 0271009373. OCLC 26718982.  ^ Christopher Hibbert, chapter 9 ^ Niccolò Machiavelli, History of Florence, Book VIII, Chpt. 7. ^ Hugh Ross Williamson, p. 70 ^ Janet Ross. "Florentine Palaces & Their Stories". August 14, 2016. Page 250. ^ Walter, Ingeborg (2013). "Lorenzo der Prächtige: Mäzen, Schöngeist und Tyrann" [Lorenzo the Magnificent: Patron, Aesthete and Tyrant]. Damals
Damals
(in German). Vol. 45 no. 3. p. 32.  ^ a b c Reinhardt, Volker (2013). "Die langsame Aushöhlung der Republik" [The Slow and Steady Erosion of the Republic]. Damals
Damals
(in German). Vol. 45 no. 3. pp. 16–23.  ^ Guicciardini, Francesco (1964). History of Italy and History of Florence. New York: Twayne Publishers. p. 8.  ^ a b c Thompson, Bard (1996). Humanists and Reformers: A History of the Renaissance
Renaissance
and Reformation. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 189 ff. ISBN 0-8028-6348-5.  ^ Jensen, De Lamar (1992). Renaissance
Renaissance
Europe: Age of Recovery and Reconciliation. Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath and Company. p. 80.  ^ Durant, Will (1953). The Renaissance. The Story of Civilization. 5. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 125.  ^ Hancock, Lee (2005). Lorenzo de' Medici: Florence's Great Leader and Patron of the Arts. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 57. ISBN 1-4042-0315-X.  ^ Martines, Lauro (2000). April Blood: Florence
Florence
and the Plot Against the Medici. Oxford University Press.  ^ Inalcik, Halil (2000). The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300–1600. London: Orion Publishing Group. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-84212-442-0.  ^ de Roover, Raymond (1963). The Rise and Decline of the Medici
Medici
Bank, 1397–1494. Harvard University Press. pp. 152–154.  ^ Machiavelli, Niccolò (1906). The Florentine history. 2. London : A. Constable and co. limited. pp. 197–198.  ^ Durant, Will (1953). The Renaissance. The Story of Civilization. 5. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 112.  ^ La Poesie di Lorenzo di Medici
Medici
The Poetry of Lorenzo di Medici- Lydia Ugolini; Lecture (1985); Audio ^ a b Schmidt, Eike D. (2013). "Mäzene auf den Spuren der Antike" [Patrons in the footsteps of Antiquity]. Damals
Damals
(in German). 45 (3): 36–43.  ^ Brucker, G., ed. (1971). The Society of Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence: A Documentary Study. New York: Harper & Row. p. 27.  ^ J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford 1986), p. 256. ^ Tomas, Natalie R. (2003). The Medici
Medici
Women: Gender and Power in Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 7,21. ISBN 0754607771.  ^ Donald Weinstein, Savonarola
Savonarola
the Rise and Fall of a Renaissance Prophet (New Haven, 2011) Chap 5: The Magnificent Lorenzo ^ Hugh Ross Williamson, p. 268. ^ Williamson, pp. 268–9 ^ a b Hugh Ross Williamson, p. 270-80 ^ http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=gjg ^ http://www.blackpast.org/gah/de-medici-alessandro-1510-1537 ^ Leonardo on IMDBLeonardo on IMDB ^ Clarke, Stewart (10 August 2017). " Daniel Sharman
Daniel Sharman
and Bradley James Join Netflix's 'Medici' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved 11 August 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Lorenzo de' Medici, The Complete Literary Works, edited and translated by Guido A. Guarino (New York: Italica Press, 2016). Miles J. Unger, Magnifico: The Brilliant Life and Violent Times of Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
(Simon and Schuster 2008) is a vividly colorful new biography of this true "renaissance man", the uncrowned ruler of Florence
Florence
during its golden age. André Chastel, Art et Humanisme à Florence
Florence
au temps de Laurent le Magnifique (Paris, 1959). Christopher Hibbert, The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall (Morrow-Quill, 1980) is a highly readable, non-scholarly general history of the family, and covers Lorenzo's life in some detail. F. W. Kent, Lorenzo de- Medici
Medici
and the Art of Magnificence (The Johns Hopkins Symposia in Comparative History) (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004) A summary of 40 years of research with a specific theme of Il Magnifico's relationship with the visual arts. Peter Barenboim, Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Drawings – Key to the Medici
Medici
Chapel Interpretation (Moscow, Letny Sad, 2006) ISBN 5-98856-016-4, is a new interpretation of Lorenzo the Magnificent' image in the Medici Chapel. Barenboim P. D. / Peter Barenboim. (2017). "The Mouse that Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Did Carve in the Medici
Medici
Chapel: An Oriental Comment to the Famous Article of Erwin Panofsky". CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Date and year (link) Williamson, Hugh Ross, Lorenzo the Magnificent. Michael Joseph, London. (1974) ISBN 0-7181-1204-0 Parks, Tim, Medici
Medici
Money: Banking, Metaphysics, and Art in Fifteenth-Century Florence
Florence
(W. W. Norton & Company 2005) ISBN 0393328457, is a mixture of history and finance, documenting the logistics of Lorenzo and the Medici
Medici
Banks

Historical novels

Robin Maxwell, Signora da Vinci (NAL Trade, 2009), a novel that follows Leonardo da Vinci's mother, Caterina, as she travels to Florence
Florence
to be with her son.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lorenzo il Magnifico.

Texts of Lorenzo de' Medici Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
as patron "Info Please Lorenzo De' Medici" Works by Lorenzo de' Medici
Medici
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

v t e

House of Medici

People

Lords of Florence

Cosimo il Vecchio Piero "The Gouty" Lorenzo il Magnifico Giuliano Piero il Fatuo Giovanni (Leo X) Giuliano Lorenzo II Giulio (Clement VII) Ippolito Alessandro "The Moor"

Dukes of Florence

Alessandro "The Moor" Cosimo I

Grand Dukes of Tuscany

Cosimo I Francesco I Ferdinando I Cosimo II Ferdinando II Cosimo III Gian Gastone

Queens

Caterina Maria

Popes

Leo X Clement VII Leo XI

Cardinals

male line: Giovanni (Leo X) Giulio (Clement VII) Ippolito Alessandro (Leo XI) Giovanni Ferdinando I Carlo Giovan Carlo Leopoldo Francesco Maria Francesco female line: Luigi de' Rossi Giovanni Salviati Innocenzo Cybo Bernardo Salviati Niccolò Ridolfi Lorenzo Strozzi Ferrante Gonzaga Vincenzo II Gonzaga

Bishops and archbishops

Filippo Bernardo Antonio Giuliano Zanobi

Condottieri

Giovanni dalle Bande Nere Don Giovanni Mattias

Genealogy

Genealogical tables of the House of Medici

Festina Lente

Buildings

Villas

Cafaggiolo Trebbio Careggi Fiesole La Quiete Collesalvetti Poggio a Caiano Castello Mezzomonte Agnano Spedaletto La Petraia Camugliano Stabbia La Topaia Cerreto Guidi Marignolle Arena Metato Poggio Imperiale Lapeggi L'Ambrogiana La Màgia Liliano Coltano Montevettolini Artimino Buti Seravezza Madama

Palaces

Casino Mediceo di San Marco Palazzo Medici
Medici
Riccardi Palazzo Madama Palazzo Pitti Villa
Villa
Medici Palazzo Medici
Medici
Tornaquinci Livorno Palazzo delle Vedove Pisa Materdei Palazzo Medici
Medici
di Ottaviano

Fountains and gardens

Medici
Medici
fountain Villa
Villa
di Pratolino

Fortresses

Arezzo Grosseto Piombino Pistoia San Piero a Sieve Siena Volterra

Chapels

Cappelle medicee The Chapel of Medici
Medici
di Gragnano

Patronage

Painters, sculptors and architects

Bartolomeo Ammannati Sandro Botticelli Filippo Brunelleschi Michelangelo Bernardo Buontalenti Leonardo da Vinci Donatello Michelozzo Antonio del Pollaiolo Jacopo della Quercia Giorgio Vasari

Poets and other literary figures

Agnolo Poliziano Niccolò Machiavelli

Humanists and philosophers

Pico della Mirandola Marsilio Ficino

Scientists

Galileo Galilei

Musicians

Emilio de' Cavalieri Jacopo Peri

Heraldry

Medici
Medici
coat of arms Crown of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Order of Saint Stephen

Institutions

Medici
Medici
Bank

Art

Medici
Medici
lions Medici
Medici
porcelain Medici
Medici
Vase Venus de' Medici Arazzeria Medicea

Related

Medici
Medici
giraffe Galilean moons Stories set to music: "opera" Albizzi Pazzi
Pazzi
conspiracy Savonarola

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54169908 LCCN: n78085428 ISNI: 0000 0001 0902 068X GND: 118574418 SELIBR: 209077 SUDOC: 028883683 BNF: cb120626851 (data) BIBSYS: 90345158 ULAN: 500114960 MusicBrainz: 93d4bc61-111f-4c57-aa4a-757b199cdd5b NLA: 35344424 NDL: 00621116 NKC: jx20050404006 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV27759 BNE: XX1159080 RKD: 420

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