LORD PROTECTOR (pl. LORDS PROTECTOR) is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for head of state. It is also a particular title for the British heads of state in respect to the established church. It is sometimes used to refer to holders of other temporary posts, for example, a regent acting for the absent monarch.
* 1 Feudal Royal Regent
* 2 Cromwellian Commonwealth
* 2.1 Lords Protector (1653–59)
* 3 Post-Cromwell * 4 Protector of the church
* 5 References in culture
* 5.1 Literature * 5.2 Television * 5.3 Video games * 5.4 Music
* 6 Notes * 7 Sources and references
FEUDAL ROYAL REGENT
The title of "The Lord Protector" was originally used by royal princes or other nobles exercising an individual regency (i.e. not merely as a member of a collegial regency council) while the English monarch was still a minor or otherwise unable to rule.
Notable cases in England are:
* John, Duke of Bedford , and
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
and in Scotland:
John Stuart, Duke of Albany , was "Governor and Protector of the
Realm" (12 July 1515 – 16 November 1524) for James V of Scotland
James Hamilton, Earl of Arran , was "Governor and Protector of the
Kingdom" (3 January 1543 – 12 April 1554) for
Mary, Queen of Scots
LORD PROTECTOR OF ENGLAND, SCOTLAND AND IRELAND
COAT OF ARMS
STYLE His Highness
Palace of Whitehall
FORMATION 16 December 1653
FIRST HOLDER Oliver Cromwell
FINAL HOLDER Richard Cromwell
ABOLISHED 25 May 1659
Standard of the
The LORD PROTECTOR OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, SCOTLAND AND IRELAND was the title of the head of state during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum ), following the first period when a Council of State held executive power. The title was held by Oliver Cromwell (December 1653 – September 1658) and subsequently his son and designated successor Richard Cromwell (September 1658 – May 1659) during what is now known as The Protectorate .
The 1653 Instrument of Government (republican constitution) stated that—
Captain-General of the forces of England, Scotland
and Ireland, shall be, and is hereby declared to be,
The replacement constitution of 1657, the Humble Petition and Advice
, gave "His
Highness the Lord Protector" the power to nominate his
successor. Cromwell chose his eldest surviving son, the politically
inexperienced Richard. This was a non-representative and de facto
dynastic mode of succession, with royal connotations in both styles
awarded, (even a double invocation 16 December 1653 – 3 September
By the Grace of God and Republic
The younger Cromwell, who succeeded on his father's death in September 1658, held the position for only eight months before resigning in May 1659, being followed by the second period of Commonwealth rule until the Restoration of the exiled heir to the Stuart throne Charles II in May 1660.
LORDS PROTECTOR (1653–59)
PORTRAIT NAME LIFESPAN TERM BEGAN TERM ENDED POLITICAL AFFILIATION(S)
OLIVER CROMWELL Old Ironsides (1599-04-25)25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658(1658-09-03) (aged 59) 16 December 1653 3 September 1658 NEW MODEL ARMY
RICHARD CROMWELL Tumbledown Dick (1626-10-04)4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712(1712-07-12) (aged 85) 3 September 1658 25 May 1659 (Resigned) NEW MODEL ARMY
Since the Restoration the title has not been used in either of the above manners. George, Prince of Wales, appointed to the regency in 1811, was referred to as "His Royal Highness the Prince Regent ". George exercised the powers of the monarchy, just as Lords Protector had, but the title's republican associations had rendered it distasteful.
PROTECTOR OF THE CHURCH
REFERENCES IN CULTURE
In 1659, the royalist
Orson Scott Card
George R.R. Martin 's
A Song of Ice and Fire series, Petyr Baelish
Alan B\'Stard on the final episode of UK sitcom The New Statesman , after winning the general election, proclaims himself Lord Protector of England with seemingly dictatorial powers.
In the Star Trek Voyager episode "Blink of an Eye" , during which the starship Voyager is trapped in orbit above a planet experiencing a rapid passage of time, the first attempt shown by the people to contact Voyager was made during the planet's medieval period by a Lord Protector. By the end of the episode, the planet's technologically advanced society was governed by the Central Protectorate, hinting that the planet's head of state was still called Lord Protector.
Stargate Atlantis the
In Europa Universalis IV by Paradox Interactive , Lord/Lady Protector is the title applied to a country's head of state under the "Republican Dictatorship" form of government, the first natural occurrence being Oliver Cromwell's formation of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
In Dishonored by Arkane Studios the protagonist , Corvo Attano, is the Lord Protector, a title given to the royal bodyguard within the game's setting, before having the title removed for a crime he did not commit.
Trinidadian calypsonian Patrick Jones, or "Chinee Patrick", was also known by the names "Lord Protector" and "Oliver Cromwell".
* ^ Njoroge Njoroge, "Chocolate Surrealism:" Music, Movement, Memory and History, New York University, 2007, pp. 91–92. * ^ Caldwell Taylor, "Patrick Alexander Jones \'Lord Protector\' - Cynosure of Early Calypso", The SpiceIslander TalkShop,
SOURCES AND REFERENCES
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Look up LORD PROTECTOR in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. * United Kingdom at WorldStatesmen.org
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