The LORD-LIEUTENANT (/lɛfˈtɛnənt/ ) is the British monarch's personal representative in each county of the United Kingdom. Historically, the lieutenant was responsible for organising the county's militia . In 1871, the lieutenant's responsibility over the local militia was removed. However, it was not until 1921 that they formally lost the right to call upon able-bodied men to fight when needed.
Today, the lieutenant is largely an honorary position, usually awarded to a retired notable person in the county.
* 1 Origins
* 2 19th century * 3 20th century
* 4 Present day
* 4.1 Duties * 4.2 Deputies * 4.3 Remuneration * 4.4 Uniform
* 5 Lord Lieutenant of Ireland * 6 Forms of address for the Lord-Lieutenant * 7 Colonial equivalents * 8 Approximate equivalents in other countries * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 External links
ENGLAND AND WALES
Lieutenants were first appointed to a number of English counties by
King Henry VIII in the 1540s, when the military functions of the
sheriff were handed over to him. He raised and was responsible for the
efficiency of the local militia units of the county, and afterwards of
the yeomanry , and volunteers. He was commander of these forces, whose
officers he appointed. These commissions were originally of temporary
duration, and only when the situation required the local militia to be
specially supervised and well prepared; often where invasion by
Lieutenancies soon became more organised, probably in the reign of
his successor King Edward VI , their establishment being approved by
the English parliament in 1550. However, it was not until the threat
of invasion by the forces of Spain in 1585 that lieutenants were
appointed to all counties and counties corporate and became in effect
permanent. Although some counties were left without lieutenants during
the 1590s, following the defeat of the
The office was abolished under the Commonwealth , but was re-established following the Restoration under the City of London Militia Act 1662 , which declared that:
he King's most Excellent Majesty, his Heirs and Successors, shall and
may from Time to Time, as Occasion shall require, issue forth several
Commissions of Lieutenancy to such Persons as his Majesty, his Heirs
and Successors, shall think fit to be his Majesty's Lieutenants for
the several and respective Counties, Cities and Places of
Although not explicitly stated, from that date lieutenants were appointed to "counties at large", with their jurisdiction including the counties corporate within the parent county. For example, lieutenants of Devon in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries appointed deputy lieutenants to the City of Exeter, and were sometimes described as the "Lieutenant of Devon and Exeter" The one exception was Haverfordwest , to which a lieutenant continued to be appointed until 1974. The origin of this anomaly may have lain in the former palatine status of Pembrokeshire.
City of London
The official title of the office at this time was His or Her Majesty's "Lieutenant for the county of x", but as almost all office-holders were peers of the realm , they were referred to as "Lord-Lieutenant".
An Act to make the Militia of this Kingdom more useful (Geo 2, c.9) was passed by the Parliament of Ireland in 1715. This provided for the issuing of commissions to appoint persons as "his Majesty's lieutenant or lieutenants, governor or governors, and commissioners of array for the several and respective counties, cities, and places of Ireland". The lieutenants were empowered to embody militia regiments.
In 1921, with the establishment of Northern Ireland, lord-lieutenants
continued to be appointed through the
Although Colin, Earl of Balcarres was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Fife in 1688, and lieutenants were appointed to a few counties from about 1715, it was not until 1794 that permanent lieutenancies were established by Royal Warrant . By the Militia Act 1797 , the lieutenants appointed "for the Counties, Stewartries, Cities, and Places" were given powers to raise and command county militia units.
While in their lieutenancies, Lord-Lieutenants are among the few
Militia Act 1802 provided for the appointment of lieutenants to
"Lieutenants for the Counties, Ridings, and Places" in
The Regulation of the Forces Act 1871 removed the lieutenant as head of the county militia, as the jurisdiction, duties and command exercised by the lieutenant were revested in the crown, but the power of recommending for first appointments was reserved to the lieutenant.
The Militia Act 1882 revested the jurisdiction of the lieutenants in the crown.
The lieutenancies were reestablished on a new basis by Section 29 of the 1882 Act which stated that "Her Majesty shall from time to time appoint lieutenants for the several counties in the United Kingdom". Counties for lieutenancy purposes were also redefined as "a county at large, with the exception that each riding of the county of York shall be a separate county". The text of the letters patent appointing lieutenants under the act stated they were to be:
...Our Lieutenant of and in the County of X and of all cities boroughs liberties places incorporated and privileged and other places whatsoever within the said county and the limits and precincts of the same.
This was a formal recognition of the situation that had existed since
1662 that the lieutenancies for the majority of counties corporate in
From 1889 lieutenancy counties in
Section 69 of the
Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898
The office of lieutenant was honorary, and held during the royal pleasure, but virtually for life. Appointment to the office is by letters-patent under the great seal . Usually, though not necessarily, the person appointed lieutenant was also appointed custos rotulorum or keeper of the rolls. Appointments to the county bench of magistrates were usually made on the recommendation of the lieutenant.
The Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907 established County Territorial Force Associations, of which the lieutenant was to be head, styled president of the county association . It restated the combination of counties and counties corporate as lieutenancy counties.
In 1921, with the establishment of
Local Government reform in
A more fundamental reform of local government throughout
Existing lords lieutenant were assigned to one of the corresponding new counties wherever possible. Where this could not be done, the existing office-holder became a lieutenant of a county, junior to the lord-lieutenant. For example, the Lord Lieutenant of Montgomeryshire was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Powys , with those of Breconshire and Radnorshire each being designated as simply "Lieutenant of Powys". This measure was temporary, and no lieutenants have been appointed in this way since 1974, although the power still exists.
In 1975 counties ceased to be used for local government purposes in
The Lieutenancy areas of the
In 1996 Scottish regions and districts were abolished on further local government reorganisation, and since that date lord-lieutenants have been appointed to "lieutenancy areas" , roughly equivalent to the old Scottish counties.
Partial reform of local government in
Since the local government re-organisation of 1996 in
City of London
Lords-Lieutenant are the monarch's representatives in their respective lieutenancies. It is their foremost duty to uphold the dignity of the Crown, and in so doing they seek to promote a spirit of co-operation and good atmosphere through the time they give to voluntary and benevolent organisations and through the interest they take in the business and social life of their counties.
The modern responsibilities of Lords-Lieutenant include:
* Arranging visits of members of the royal family and escorting
* Presenting medals and awards on behalf of the sovereign, and
advising on honours nominations;
* Participating in civic, voluntary and social activities within the
* Acting as liaison with local units of the
As the sovereign's representative in his or her county, the Lord-Lieutenant remains non-political and does not hold office in any political party. They are appointed for life, although the customary age of retirement is 75 and the sovereign may remove them.
The Lord-Lieutenant is supported by a Vice Lord-Lieutenant and Deputy Lieutenants that he or she appoints. The Vice Lord-Lieutenant takes over when the Lord-Lieutenant is abroad, ill, or otherwise incapacitated. The Lord-Lieutenant appoints between 30 and 40 deputy lieutenants depending on the county's population.
They are unpaid, but receive minimal allowances for secretarial help, mileage allowance and a driver. Male Lords-Lieutenant receive an allowance for the ceremonial uniform, worn when receiving members of the royal family and on other formal occasions. There is no uniform for a female Lord-Lieutenant, but there is a badge which can be worn on ceremonial occasions.
Lord Lieutenant, full dress uniform (early 20th century)
Since at least the eighteenth century a military-style uniform has
been worn by male Lieutenants (appropriate to the military origins of
the post). Since 1831 this has been analogous to the uniform worn by a
General Staff Officer, but with silver lace in place of the gold worn
by Regular officers. Over time, the design of the uniform changed in
line with changes made to army uniform. At present, it is a dark blue
uniform in the style of a General Officer's Army No. 1 dress (but with
buttons, shoulder-boards, sash etc. in silver rather than gold). A cap
is worn, and a sword with a steel scabbard. The badge on the cap etc.
varies depending on where the Lieutenant's County is situated: a rose
is worn in England, shamrocks in Northern Ireland, a thistle in
LORD LIEUTENANT OF IRELAND
The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the head of the British administration in Ireland until the foundation of the Irish Free State in 1922.
FORMS OF ADDRESS FOR THE LORD-LIEUTENANT
* Written: '(Title and name), Her Majesty's Lord-Lieutenant' * Salutation: 'Dear Lord-Lieutenant' * In a Speech: 'My Lord-Lieutenant' * In conversation: '(Title and name)' or 'Lord-Lieutenant'. * Plural: 'Lord-Lieutenants', although the historic form of 'Lords-Lieutenant' frequently appears.
In the colonies of the English Empire, and subsequently the British Empire, the duties of Lords Lieutenant were generally performed by the commander-in-chief or the governor . Both offices may have been occupied by the same person.
By way of an example, this is still the case in Britain's second, and
oldest remaining, colony,
APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENTS IN OTHER COUNTRIES
Ceremonial counties of England
* ^ "Definition: Lieutenant". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 31
* ^ "History of the Lieutenancy". www.surreylieutenancy.org.
* ^ A B C D One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates
text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed.
(1911). "Lieutenant". Encyclopædia Britannica . 16 (11th ed.).
Cambridge University Press. p. 599.
* ^ A B C Webb, Sidney ; Webb, Beatrice (1906). "1: The Parish and
the County". English Local Government from the Revolution to the
Municipal Corporations Act. London: Longman\'s Green and Co. pp.
* ^ Historical Manuscripts Commission (1916). "The city of Exeter:
Commissions, pardons etc". Report on the Records of the City of
Exeter. British History Online. Archived from the original on
2011-05-26. Retrieved 2009-01-29.
* ^ Henderson, Thomas Finlayson (1893). "Lindsay, Colin". In Lee,
Dictionary of National Biography . 33. London: Smith, Elder &
Co. pp. 286–288.
Militia Act 1797 (37 Geo.3, C.103)
Militia Act 1802 (1802 c.90)
* ^ Regulation of the Forces Act 1871 (1871 c.86) section 6
Militia Act 1882 (1881 c.49) section 5
* ^ Anson, William (1907). The Law and Custom of the Constitution.
II: The Crown. Part I.