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William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC, FRS (15 March 1779 – 24 November 1848), was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841). He is best known for his intense and successful mentoring of Queen Victoria in the ways of politics, when she was between the ages of 18 and 21. Historians have concluded that Melbourne
Melbourne
does not rank highly as a Prime Minister, for there were no great foreign wars or domestic issues to handle, he lacked major achievements, and he enunciated no grand principles. "But he was kind, honest and not self-seeking."[1] Melbourne
Melbourne
was Prime Minister of the UK on two occasions. The first occasion ended when he was dismissed by King William IV in 1834, the last Prime Minister of the UK to be dismissed by a monarch. Six months later he was re-appointed and served for six years.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Home Secretary: 1830–1834 3 Prime Minister: 1834, 1835–1841

3.1 Blackmailed 3.2 Queen Victoria 3.3 Continued rule

4 Final vote of no confidence and resignation 5 Later life: 1841–1848 6 Legacy 7 Notes 8 Collected papers 9 Bibliography 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life[edit] Born in London in 1779 to an aristocratic Whig family, William Lamb was the son of the 1st Viscount Melbourne
Viscount Melbourne
and Elizabeth, Viscountess Melbourne
Melbourne
(1751–1818), though his paternity was questioned. He was educated at Eton, Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College, Cambridge
and the University of Glasgow.[2] Against the background of the Napoleonic Wars, Lamb served at home as captain (1803) and major (1804) in the Hertfordshire Volunteer Infantry.[3] He succeeded his elder brother as heir to his father's title in 1805, and married Lady Caroline Ponsonby, an Anglo-Irish aristocrat. The following year, he was elected to the British House of Commons as the Whig MP for Leominster. For the election in 1806 he moved to the seat of Haddington Burghs, and for the 1807 election he successfully stood for Portarlington (a seat he held until 1812).[4] Lamb first came to general notice for reasons he would rather have avoided: his wife had a public affair with Lord Byron—she coined the famous characterisation of Byron as "mad, bad and dangerous to know".[5] The resulting scandal was the talk of Britain in 1812. Lady Caroline published a Gothic novel, Glenarvon, in 1816; this portrayed both the marriage and her affair with Byron in a lurid fashion, which caused William even greater embarrassment, while the spiteful caricatures of leading society figures made them several influential enemies. Eventually the two were reconciled, and, though they separated in 1825, her death in 1828 affected him considerably. In 1816, Lamb was returned for Peterborough
Peterborough
by Whig grandee Lord Fitzwilliam. He told Lord Holland that he was committed to the Whig principles of the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
but not to "a heap of modern additions, interpolations, facts and fictions".[4] He therefore spoke against parliamentary reform, and voted for the suspension of habeas corpus in 1817 when sedition was rife.[4] Lamb's hallmark was finding the middle ground. Though a Whig, he accepted (29 April 1827) the post of Chief Secretary for Ireland
Chief Secretary for Ireland
in the moderate Tory governments of George Canning
George Canning
and Lord Goderich. Upon the death of his father in 1828 and his becoming the 2nd Viscount Melbourne, of Kilmore in the County of Cavan, he moved to the House of Lords. He had spent 25 years in the Commons, largely as a backbencher, and was not politically well known.[6] Home Secretary: 1830–1834[edit] In November 1830, the Whigs came to power under Lord Grey. Melbourne was Home Secretary. During the disturbances of 1830–32 he "acted both vigorously and sensitively, and it was for this function that his reforming brethren thanked him heartily".[4] In the aftermath of the Swing Riots
Swing Riots
of 1830–31, he countered the Tory magistrates' alarmism by refusing to resort to military force; instead, he advocated magistrates' usual powers be fully enforced, along with special constables and financial rewards for the arrest of rioters and rabble-rousers. He appointed a special commission to try approximately 1,000 of those arrested, and ensured that justice was strictly adhered to: one-third were acquitted and most of the one-fifth sentenced to death were instead transported.[4] There remains controversy regarding the hanging of Dic Penderyn, a protester in the Merthyr Rising who was then, and is now, widely judged to have been innocent. He appears to have been executed solely on the word of Melbourne, who sought a victim in order to 'set an example'[7]. The disturbances over reform in 1831–32 were countered with the enforcement of the usual laws; again, Melbourne
Melbourne
refused to pass emergency legislation against sedition.[4] Prime Minister: 1834, 1835–1841[edit] Further information: Whig government, 1830–1834
Whig government, 1830–1834
and Second Melbourne ministry After Lord Grey resigned as Prime Minister in July 1834, the King was forced to appoint another Whig to replace him, as the Tories were not strong enough to support a government. Melbourne
Melbourne
was the man most likely to be both acceptable to the King and hold the Whig party together. Melbourne
Melbourne
hesitated after receiving from Grey the letter from the King requesting him to visit him to discuss the formation of a government. Melbourne
Melbourne
thought he would not enjoy the extra work that accompanied the office of Premier, but he did not want to let his friends and party down. According to Charles Greville, Melbourne
Melbourne
said to his secretary, Tom Young: "I think it's a damned bore. I am in many minds as to what to do". Young replied: "Why, damn it all, such a position was never held by any Greek or Roman: and if it only lasts three months, it will be worth while to have been Prime Minister of England [sic]." "By God, that's true," Melbourne
Melbourne
said, "I'll go!"[8] Compromise was the key to many of Melbourne's actions. As an aristocrat, he had a vested interest in the status quo. He was opposed to the Reform Act 1832
Reform Act 1832
proposed by the Whigs, arguing that Catholic emancipation had not ended in the tranquility expected of it,[9] but reluctantly agreed that it was necessary to forestall the threat of revolution. Later he opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws, arguing not only that Catholic emancipation
Catholic emancipation
had failed, but also that the Reform Act had not improved the condition of the people.[9] King William IV's opposition to the Whigs' reforming ways led him to dismiss Melbourne
Melbourne
in November. He then gave the Tories under Sir Robert Peel
Robert Peel
an opportunity to form a government. Peel's failure to win a House of Commons majority in the resulting general election (January 1835) made it impossible for him to govern, and the Whigs returned to power under Melbourne
Melbourne
that April. This was the last time a British monarch attempted to appoint a government against a parliamentary majority.[10] Blackmailed[edit] The next year, Melbourne
Melbourne
was once again involved in a sex scandal. This time he was the victim of attempted blackmail from the husband of a close friend, society beauty and author Caroline Norton. The husband demanded £1,400, and when he was turned down he accused Melbourne
Melbourne
of having an affair with his wife.[11] At this time such a scandal would be enough to derail a major politician, so it is a measure of the respect contemporaries had for his integrity that Melbourne's government did not fall. The king and the Duke of Wellington urged him to stay on as prime minister. After Norton failed in court, Melbourne was vindicated, but he did stop seeing Norton.[12] Nonetheless, as historian Boyd Hilton concludes, "it is irrefutable that Melbourne's personal life was problematic. Spanking sessions with aristocratic ladies were harmless, not so the whippings administered to orphan girls taken into his household as objects of charity."[13] Queen Victoria[edit] Melbourne
Melbourne
was Prime Minister when Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
came to the throne (June 1837). Barely eighteen, she was only just breaking free from the domineering influence of her mother, the Duchess of Kent, and her mother's adviser, Sir John Conroy. Over the next four years Melbourne trained her in the art of politics, and the two became friends: Victoria was quoted as saying she considered him like a father (her own had died when she was only eight months old), and Melbourne's son had died at a young age.[14] Melbourne
Melbourne
was given a private apartment at Windsor Castle, and unfounded rumours circulated for a time that Victoria would marry Melbourne, 40 years her senior. Tutoring Victoria was the climax of Melbourne's career: the prime minister spent four to five hours a day visiting and writing to her, and she responded with enthusiasm and grew in wisdom.[15] Continued rule[edit]

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Lord Melbourne
Melbourne
(1844, age 65); detail from a painting by John Partridge.[16]

On 7 May 1839, Melbourne
Melbourne
announced his intention to resign. This led to the Bedchamber Crisis. Prospective prime minister Robert Peel requested that Victoria dismiss some of the wives and daughters of Whig MPs who made up her personal entourage, arguing that the monarch should avoid any hint of favouritism to a party out of power. The Queen refused to comply—supported by Melbourne, although he was unaware that Peel had not requested the resignation of all the Queen's ladies as she had led him to believe—and hence, Peel refused to form a new government, and Melbourne
Melbourne
was persuaded to stay on as Prime Minister.[citation needed] Melbourne
Melbourne
left a considerable list of reforming legislation, which, although not as long as that of Lord Grey, is considered worthy nonetheless. Among his government's acts were a reduction in the number of capital offences, reforms of local government, and the reform of the Poor laws. This restricted the terms on which the poor were allowed relief and established compulsory admission to workhouses for the impoverished.[citation needed] On 25 February 1841, Melbourne
Melbourne
was admitted as a Fellow of the Royal Society.[17] Final vote of no confidence and resignation[edit] Following a vote of no confidence initiated by Conservative MP John Stuart-Wortley, Melbourne's government fell, and he resigned as Prime Minister on 30 August 1841.[18] Later life: 1841–1848[edit]

A plaque marking the burial of Melbourne
Melbourne
at St Etheldreda's Church, Hatfield, in Hertfordshire, England

After Melbourne
Melbourne
resigned permanently in August 1841, Victoria continued to write to him; but eventually the correspondence ceased as it was deemed to be inappropriate.[19] It has been observed that Melbourne's role faded as Victoria increasingly relied on her new husband Prince Albert.[citation needed] Though weakened, Melbourne
Melbourne
survived a stroke fourteen months after his departure from politics.[citation needed] In retirement, he lived at Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire. He died on 24 November 1848[20] at Brocket Hall
Brocket Hall
and was buried at nearby St Etheldreda's Church, Hatfield, Hertfordshire.[21] On his death, his titles passed to his brother Frederick, as both of his children—a son, George Augustus Frederick (1807–1836) and a premature daughter (born 1809, died at birth)—had predeceased him.[citation needed] Legacy[edit]

Melbourne, the capital city of Victoria, Australia, was named in his honour in March 1837. He was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the time.[22][23] Mount Melbourne, a stratovolcano in Antarctica, was also named in his honour by the British naval officer and explorer James Clark Ross, in 1841.[24] His favourite and most famous dictum on politics: "Why not leave it alone?", quoted by those who object to change for change's sake.[25]

Notes[edit]

^ J. A. Cannon. Nevertheless he has the city of Melbourne
Melbourne
named after him situated in the State of Victoria, Australia. "Melbourne, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount", in John Cannon, ed., The Oxford Companion to British History (2009) p 634 ^ "Lamb, the Hon. Henry William (LM796HW)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.  ^ [1] History of Parliament article by R.G. Thorne. ^ a b c d e f Peter Mandler, "Lamb, William, second Viscount Melbourne (1779–1848)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008, accessed 27 December 2009. ^ "Ireland: Poetic justice at home of Byron's exiled lover". The Sunday Times. London. 17 November 2002. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2010. 'Mad, bad and dangerous to know' has become Lord Byron’s lasting epitaph. Lady Caroline Lamb coined the phrase after her first meeting with the poet at a society event in 1812.  ^ Henry Dunckley, Lord Melbourne
Melbourne
p 135 ^ Wales Online:Trade unions to mark the legacy of Dic Penderyn and the Merthyr Uprising on 70-mile memorial walk: Robin Turner 2 August 2013: Accessed 12 August 2017 ^ Cecil, David (2001). The Young Melbourne
Melbourne
& Lord M. W&N. p. 321. ISBN 9781842124970.  ^ a b Cecil, David, Melbourne, (Indianapolis, 1954), p.422 ^ Newbould, I. D. C. (1976). "William IV and the Dismissal of the Whigs, 1834". Canadian Journal of History. 11 (3): 311–30.  ^ Wroath, John (1998). Until They Are Seven, The Origins of Women's Legal Rights. Waterside Press. ISBN 1 872 870 57 0.  ^ David Cecil, Melbourne
Melbourne
(1954) ch 11 ^ Boyd Hilton, A Mad, Bad, and Dangerous People? England 1783–1846 (2006), p. 500. ^ "History of William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
Viscount Melbourne
– GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2016.  ^ Cecil, Melbourne
Melbourne
ch 14 ^ Partridge, John (1844). William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. NPG 941. Retrieved from http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/mw04359/William-Lamb-2nd-Viscount-Melbourne. ^ "Lists of Royal Society Fellows". Archived from the original on 22 January 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2006.  ^ "Confidence in the Ministry— Adjourned Debate (Fifth Day)". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 58. House of Commons. 4 June 1841. col. 1121–1247. Retrieved 20 February 2016.  [Narrower col range needed][Narrower col range needed] ^ Gill, Gillian (2009). We Two: Victoria and Albert: Rulers, Partners, Rivals. Random House Publishing Group. p. 173. ISBN 978-0345514929. Retrieved 2017-02-28.  ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 18, 11th Edition ^ Hibbard, Scott David. "William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne". geni.com. geni.com. Retrieved 2017-01-24.  ^ Anonymous. "Short history of Melbourne". Only Melbourne. Only Melbourne. Retrieved 24 January 2017.  ^ "History of the City of Melbourne" (PDF). City of Melbourne. November 1997. pp. 8–10. Retrieved 28 January 2017.  ^ Ross, James Clark (2011) [1847]. A Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and Antarctic Regions, During the Years 1839–43. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 9781108030854 – via Google Books.  ^ Baird, Julia (2016). Victoria: The Queen: An Intimate Biography of the Woman Who Ruled an Empire. Random House. p. 89 – via Google Books. 

Collected papers[edit]

Lloyd Charles Sanders, ed. (1889). "Lord Melbourne's papers". [full citation needed]

Bibliography[edit]

Cecil, David (1954). Melbourne. London.  major biography focused on his psychology Cecil, David (1939). The Young Melbourne: And the Story of His Marriage with Caroline Lamb.  Dunkley, Henry ("VERAX") (1890). Lord Melbourne.  Mandler, Peter (1 January 2008) [1 September 2004]. "Lamb, William, second Viscount Melbourne
Viscount Melbourne
(1779–1848)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press,. Retrieved 27 December 2009.  Marshall, Dorothy (1976). Lord Melbourne. [full citation needed] Mitchell, L. G. (1997). Lord Melbourne, 1779–1848.  Newbould, I. D. C. (December 1976). "William IV and the Dismissal of the Whigs, 1834". Canadian Journal of History. 11 (3).  Newbould, Ian D. C. (1980). "Whiggery and the Dilemma of Reform: Liberals, Radicals, and the Melbourne
Melbourne
Administration, 1835-9". Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. 53 (128).  Ziegler, Philip (1976). Melbourne: A Life of William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. London. [full citation needed]

Further reading[edit]

Hilton, Boyd (2006). A Mad, Bad, and Dangerous People? England 1783–1846. Oxford. [full citation needed] Cameron, R. H. (1976). "The Melbourne
Melbourne
Administration, the Liberals and the Crisis of 1841". Durham University Journal. 69 (1). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne

Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs thepeerage Hansard
Hansard
1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Lamb  "Melbourne, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 90.  More about William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne
Viscount Melbourne
on the Downing Street website Historica's Heritage Minute video docudrama "Responsible Government" (Adobe Flash Player) "Archival material relating to William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne". UK National Archives.  Portraits of William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
Viscount Melbourne
at the National Portrait Gallery, London

Political offices

Preceded by Henry Goulburn Chief Secretary for Ireland 1827–1828 Succeeded by The Lord Francis Leveson-Gower

Preceded by Sir Robert Peel, Bt Home Secretary 1830–1834 Succeeded by Viscount Duncannon

Preceded by The Earl Grey Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 16 July 1834 – 14 November 1834 Succeeded by The Duke of Wellington (caretaker, followed by) Sir Robert Peel, Bt

Leader of the House of Lords 1834 Succeeded by The Duke of Wellington

Preceded by Sir Robert Peel, Bt Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 18 April 1835 – 30 August 1841 Succeeded by Sir Robert Peel, Bt

Preceded by The Duke of Wellington Leader of the House of Lords 1835–1841 Succeeded by The Duke of Wellington

Parliament of the United Kingdom

Preceded by John Lubbock Charles Kinnaird Member of Parliament for Leominster 1806 With: John Lubbock Succeeded by John Lubbock Henry Bonham

Preceded by Sir Oswald Mosley Member of Parliament for Portarlington 1807–1812 Succeeded by Arthur Shakespeare

Preceded by William Elliot George Ponsonby Member of Parliament for Peterborough 1816–1819 With: William Elliot 1816–1819 Sir James Scarlett 1819 Succeeded by Sir James Scarlett Sir Robert Heron, Bt

Preceded by Thomas Brand Sir John Saunders Sebright Member of Parliament for Hertfordshire 1819–1826 With: Sir John Saunders Sebright Succeeded by Sir John Saunders Sebright Nicolson Calvert

Preceded by George Canning William Henry John Scott Member of Parliament for Newport (Isle of Wight) 1827 With: William Henry John Scott Succeeded by William Henry John Scott Spencer Perceval

Preceded by William Russell Charles Tennyson Member of Parliament for Bletchingley 1827–1828 With: Charles Tennyson Succeeded by Charles Tennyson William Ewart

Party political offices

Preceded by The Earl Grey Leaders of the British Whig Party 1834–1842 Succeeded by The Marquess of Lansdowne Lord John Russell

Whig Leader in the House of Lords 1834–1842 Succeeded by The Marquess of Lansdowne

Peerage of Ireland

Preceded by Peniston Lamb Viscount Melbourne Baron Melbourne 1828–1848 Succeeded by Frederick Lamb

Peerage of the United Kingdom

Preceded by Peniston Lamb Baron Melbourne 1828–1848 Succeeded by Frederick Lamb

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 5727074 LCCN: n79017992 ISNI: 0000 0000 8353 3312 GND: 118783041 SELIBR: 314155 SUDOC: 061510394 BNF: cb13536775b (data) NLA: 35345759 NKC: jx20090128

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