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The Info List - Lonicera



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See text - Selected Species

HONEYSUCKLES (Lonicera, /lɒˈnɪsərə/ ; syn. Caprifolium Mill. ) are arching shrubs or twining bines in the family Caprifoliaceae , native to the Northern Hemisphere. Approximately 180 species of honeysuckle have been identified. About 100 of these species can be found in China and approximately 20 native species have been identified in Europe, 20 in India, and 20 in North America. Widely known species include Lonicera periclymenum
Lonicera periclymenum
(honeysuckle or woodbine), Lonicera japonica
Lonicera japonica
(Japanese honeysuckle, white honeysuckle, or Chinese honeysuckle) and Lonicera sempervirens
Lonicera sempervirens
(coral honeysuckle, trumpet honeysuckle, or woodbine honeysuckle). Hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers on some of these plants, especially L. sempervirens and L. ciliosa (orange honeysuckle). Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
derives its name from the edible sweet nectar obtainable from its tubular flowers. The name Lonicera stems from Adam Lonicer
Adam Lonicer
, a Renaissance botanist.

CONTENTS

* 1 Description * 2 Invasive species
Invasive species
* 3 Cultivation * 4 Phytochemicals and sensory effects * 5 Selected species * 6 References * 7 External links

DESCRIPTION

Most species of Lonicera are hardy twining climbers, with a large minority of shrubby habit; a handful of species (including Lonicera hildebrandiana from the Himalayan foothills and L. etrusca from the Mediterranean) are tender and can only be grown outside in subtropical zones. The leaves are opposite, simple oval, 1–10 cm long; most are deciduous but some are evergreen . Many of the species have sweetly scented, bilaterally symmetrical flowers that produce a sweet, edible nectar , and most flowers are borne in clusters of two (leading to the common name of "twinberry" for certain North American species). Both shrubby and vining sorts have strongly fibrous stems which have been used for binding and textiles. The fruit is a red, blue or black spherical or elongated berry containing several seeds; in most species the berries are mildly poisonous , but in a few (notably Lonicera caerulea ) they are edible and grown for home use and commerce. Most honeysuckle berries are attractive to wildlife, which has led to species such as L. japonica and L. maackii spreading invasively outside of their home ranges. Many species of Lonicera are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
species — see a list of Lepidoptera that feed on honeysuckles .

INVASIVE SPECIES

Several species of honeysuckle have become invasive when introduced outside their native range, particularly in New Zealand and the United States. Invasive species
Invasive species
include L. japonica , L. maackii , L. morrowii , and L. tatarica . Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle

CULTIVATION

Honeysuckles are valued as garden plants, for their ability to cover unsightly walls and outbuildings, their profuse tubular flowers in summer, and the intense fragrance of many varieties. The hardy climbing types need their roots in shade, and their flowering tops in sunlight or very light shade. Varieties need to be chosen with care, as they can become substantial.

The following hybrids have gained the Royal Horticultural Society
Royal Horticultural Society
's Award of Garden Merit
Award of Garden Merit
:

* * L. similis var. delavayi * L. × purpusii 'Winter Beauty' * L. × tellmanniana

Other cultivars are dealt with under their species names.

PHYTOCHEMICALS AND SENSORY EFFECTS

Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
is renowned for its colorful, fragrant flowers and darkly colored fruit, indicating the presence of complex phytochemicals underlying these properties. Component analyses of berries from 30 different honeysuckle cultivars or genotypes showed the presence of iridoids , anthocyanins , flavonols , flavanonols , flavones , flavan-3-ols , and phenolic acids . While sugars determine the level of sweetness in the berries, organic acids and polyphenols are responsible for the sour taste and tartness. Some 51 of the same compounds in berries are found in flowers, although the proportions of these compounds varied among cultivars studied.

SELECTED SPECIES

Dozens of Lonicera species are documented: Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
Lonicera japonica Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
-- Lonicera L. ciliosa L. japonica fruit L. hispidula L. sempervirens L. tatarica L.caprifolium, Chèvrefeuille

Lonicera acuminata Lonicera albiflora (white honeysuckle) Lonicera alpigena (Alpine Honeysuckle) Lonicera altmannii Lonicera angustifolia Lonicera anisocalyx Lonicera arborea Lonicera arizonica (Arizona honeysuckle) Lonicera biflora Lonicera bournei Lonicera brevisepala Lonicera buchananii Lonicera buddleioides Lonicera caerulea (blue-berried honeysuckle) Lonicera calcarata Lonicera calvescens Lonicera canadensis (American fly honeysuckle) Lonicera caprifolium (goat-leaf honeysuckle, perfoliate honeysuckle. Type species) Lonicera carnosifolis Lonicera cerviculata Lonicera chrysantha (Chrysantha honeysuckle) Lonicera ciliosa (orange honeysuckle) Lonicera ciliosissima Lonicera cinerea Lonicera codonantha Lonicera confusa Lonicera conjugialis (purpleflower honeysuckle) Lonicera crassifolia Lonicera cyanocarpa Lonicera dasystyla (Tonkinese honeysuckle) Lonicera dioica - (limber honeysuckle) Lonicera elisae Lonicera etrusca (Etruscan honeysuckle) Lonicera fargesii Lonicera ferdinandii Lonicera ferruginea Lonicera flava (yellow honeysuckle) Lonicera fragilis Lonicera fragrantissima (winter honeysuckle) Lonicera fulvotomentosa Lonicera glutinosa Lonicera graebneri Lonicera gynochlamydea Lonicera × heckrottii (Golden Flame honeysuckle) Lonicera hellenica (Greek honeysuckle) Lonicera hemsleyana Lonicera heterophylla Lonicera hildebrandiana (giant Burmese honeysuckle) Lonicera hirsuta (hairy honeysuckle) Lonicera hispida Lonicera hispidula (pink honeysuckle) Lonicera humilis Lonicera hypoglauca Lonicera hypoleuca Lonicera implexa Lonicera inconspicua Lonicera inodora Lonicera interrupta (Chaparral honeysuckle) Lonicera involucrata (bearberry honeysuckle) Lonicera japonica
Lonicera japonica
(Japanese honeysuckle) Lonicera jilongensis Lonicera kansuensis Lonicera kawakamii Lonicera korolkowii (blueleaf honeysuckle) Lonicera lanceolata Lonicera ligustrina Lonicera litangensis Lonicera longiflora Lonicera longituba Lonicera maackii
Lonicera maackii
(Amur honeysuckle) Lonicera macrantha Lonicera macranthoides Lonicera maximowiczii Lonicera microphylla Lonicera minuta Lonicera minutifolia Lonicera modesta Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle) Lonicera mucronata Lonicera myrtillus Lonicera nervosa Lonicera nigra (black-berried honeysuckle) Lonicera nitida (boxleaf honeysuckle) Lonicera nubium Lonicera nummulariifolia Lonicera oblata Lonicera oblongifolia (swamp fly honeysuckle) Lonicera oiwakensis Lonicera oreodoxa Lonicera orientalis Lonicera pampaninii Lonicera paradoxa Lonicera periclymenum
Lonicera periclymenum
(honeysuckle, woodbine) Lonicera pileata (privet honeysuckle) Lonicera pilosa (Mexican honeysuckle) Lonicera praeflorens Lonicera prostrata Lonicera pyrenaica Lonicera quinquelocularis Lonicera reticulata (grape honeysuckle) Lonicera retusa Lonicera rhytidophylla Lonicera rupicola Lonicera ruprechtiana (Manchurian honeysuckle) Lonicera saccata Lonicera schneideriana Lonicera semenovii Lonicera sempervirens
Lonicera sempervirens
(trumpet honeysuckle) Lonicera serreana Lonicera setifera Lonicera similis Lonicera spinosa Lonicera splendida (evergreen honeysuckle) Lonicera standishii (Standish's honeysuckle) Lonicera stephanocarpa Lonicera subaequalis Lonicera subhispida Lonicera sublabiata Lonicera subspicata (southern honeysuckle) Lonicera szechuanica Lonicera taipeiensis Lonicera tangutica Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle) Lonicera tatarinowii Lonicera tomentella Lonicera tragophylla Lonicera tricalysioides Lonicera trichogyne Lonicera trichosantha Lonicera trichosepala Lonicera tubuliflora Lonicera utahensis (Utah honeysuckle) Lonicera villosa (mountain fly honeysuckle) Lonicera virgultorum Lonicera webbiana Lonicera xylosteum
Lonicera xylosteum
(fly woodbine) Lonicera yunnanensis

REFERENCES

* ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607 * ^ "Honeysuckle". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 2017. * ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964 . * ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Lonicera similis var. delavayi". Retrieved 22 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Lonicera x purpusii \'Winter Beauty\'". Retrieved 22 May 2013. * ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Lonicera x tellmannia". Retrieved 22 May 2013. * ^ Beardshaw, Chris (2 May 2009). "The honey trap". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 June 2017. * ^ Taft, Dave (24 June 2016). "Why the Sweet Scent of Japanese Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
Signals Trouble". New York Times. Retrieved 1 June 2017. * ^ A B Kucharska, A. Z.; Sokół-Łętowska, A; Oszmiański, J; Piórecki, N; Fecka, I (2017). "Iridoids, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Edible Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle
Berries (Lonicera caerulea var. Kamtschatica Sevast.)". Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 22 (3): 405. PMID 28273885 . doi :10.3390/molecules22030405 . * ^ Kula, M; Głód, D; Krauze-Baranowska, M (2016). "Application of on-line and off-line heart-cutting LC in determination of secondary metabolites from the flowers of Lonicera caerulea cultivar varieties". Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 131: 3