See text - Selected Species
HONEYSUCKLES (Lonicera, /lɒˈnɪsərə/ ; syn. Caprifolium
are arching shrubs or twining bines in the family
native to the Northern Hemisphere. Approximately 180 species of
honeysuckle have been identified. About 100 of these species can be
found in China and approximately 20 native species have been
identified in Europe, 20 in India, and 20 in North America. Widely
known species include
Lonicera periclymenum (honeysuckle or woodbine),
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle, white honeysuckle, or Chinese
Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle, trumpet
honeysuckle, or woodbine honeysuckle). Hummingbirds are attracted to
the flowers on some of these plants, especially L. sempervirens and L.
ciliosa (orange honeysuckle).
Honeysuckle derives its name from the
edible sweet nectar obtainable from its tubular flowers. The name
Lonicera stems from
Adam Lonicer , a Renaissance botanist.
* 1 Description
* 3 Cultivation
* 4 Phytochemicals and sensory effects
* 5 Selected species
* 6 References
* 7 External links
Most species of Lonicera are hardy twining climbers, with a large
minority of shrubby habit; a handful of species (including Lonicera
hildebrandiana from the Himalayan foothills and L. etrusca from the
Mediterranean) are tender and can only be grown outside in subtropical
zones. The leaves are opposite, simple oval, 1–10 cm long; most are
deciduous but some are evergreen . Many of the species have sweetly
scented, bilaterally symmetrical flowers that produce a sweet, edible
nectar , and most flowers are borne in clusters of two (leading to the
common name of "twinberry" for certain North American species). Both
shrubby and vining sorts have strongly fibrous stems which have been
used for binding and textiles. The fruit is a red, blue or black
spherical or elongated berry containing several seeds; in most species
the berries are mildly poisonous , but in a few (notably Lonicera
caerulea ) they are edible and grown for home use and commerce. Most
honeysuckle berries are attractive to wildlife, which has led to
species such as L. japonica and L. maackii spreading invasively
outside of their home ranges. Many species of Lonicera are eaten by
the larvae of some
Lepidoptera species — see a list of Lepidoptera
that feed on honeysuckles .
Several species of honeysuckle have become invasive when introduced
outside their native range, particularly in New Zealand and the United
Invasive species include L. japonica , L. maackii , L.
morrowii , and L. tatarica .
Honeysuckles are valued as garden plants, for their ability to cover
unsightly walls and outbuildings, their profuse tubular flowers in
summer, and the intense fragrance of many varieties. The hardy
climbing types need their roots in shade, and their flowering tops in
sunlight or very light shade. Varieties need to be chosen with care,
as they can become substantial.
The following hybrids have gained the
Royal Horticultural Society 's
Award of Garden Merit
Award of Garden Merit :
* L. similis var. delavayi
* L. × purpusii 'Winter Beauty'
* L. × tellmanniana
Other cultivars are dealt with under their species names.
PHYTOCHEMICALS AND SENSORY EFFECTS
Honeysuckle is renowned for its colorful, fragrant flowers and
darkly colored fruit, indicating the presence of complex
phytochemicals underlying these properties. Component analyses of
berries from 30 different honeysuckle cultivars or genotypes showed
the presence of iridoids , anthocyanins , flavonols , flavanonols ,
flavones , flavan-3-ols , and phenolic acids . While sugars determine
the level of sweetness in the berries, organic acids and polyphenols
are responsible for the sour taste and tartness. Some 51 of the same
compounds in berries are found in flowers, although the proportions of
these compounds varied among cultivars studied.
Dozens of Lonicera species are documented:
Honeysuckle -- Lonicera L. ciliosa L.
japonica fruit L. hispidula L. sempervirens L.
tatarica L.caprifolium, Chèvrefeuille
Lonicera albiflora (white honeysuckle)
Lonicera alpigena (Alpine Honeysuckle)
Lonicera arizonica (Arizona honeysuckle)
Lonicera caerulea (blue-berried honeysuckle)
Lonicera canadensis (American fly honeysuckle)
Lonicera caprifolium (goat-leaf honeysuckle, perfoliate honeysuckle.
Lonicera chrysantha (Chrysantha honeysuckle)
Lonicera ciliosa (orange honeysuckle)
Lonicera conjugialis (purpleflower honeysuckle)
Lonicera dasystyla (Tonkinese honeysuckle)
Lonicera dioica - (limber honeysuckle)
Lonicera etrusca (Etruscan honeysuckle)
Lonicera flava (yellow honeysuckle)
Lonicera fragrantissima (winter honeysuckle)
Lonicera × heckrottii (Golden Flame honeysuckle)
Lonicera hellenica (Greek honeysuckle)
Lonicera hildebrandiana (giant Burmese honeysuckle)
Lonicera hirsuta (hairy honeysuckle)
Lonicera hispidula (pink honeysuckle)
Lonicera interrupta (Chaparral honeysuckle)
Lonicera involucrata (bearberry honeysuckle)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Lonicera korolkowii (blueleaf honeysuckle)