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Longyan
Longyan
(simplified Chinese: 龙岩; traditional Chinese: 龍岩; pinyin:  Lóngyán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Lêng-nâ or Liong-nâ; literally: "dragon rock"; Hakka: Liùng-ngàm) is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Fujian
Fujian
province, People's Republic of China, bordering Guangdong
Guangdong
to the south and Jiangxi
Jiangxi
to the west.

Contents

1 History 2 Environment 3 Geography and climate 4 Demographics 5 Administration 6 Culture 7 Economy 8 Transport 9 Famous people from Longyan 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] In 736 AD, (the Tang Dynasty), the prefecture of Tingzhou was established in western Fujian, or Minxi (闽西), administering Changting, Huanglian and Xinluo counties. Six years later Xinluo was named Longyan
Longyan
for the nearby cavern, a famous scenic site. Due to the ancient conflicts in central China and aggression from northern tribes, many Han people moved from central China to Longyan. in 1734, the area was designated Longyan
Longyan
Prefecture by the imperial court. In 1913, it reverted to its former name Longyan
Longyan
County and in 1981, Longyan
Longyan
City was established. Minxi was a strategic base during the Chinese Civil War. It's said that tens of thousands of people from Longyan
Longyan
joined the PLA during the Chinese Civil War, and nearly every family had someone sacrificed lives on behalf of CCP side. There are more than 26,000 locals that took part in the Long March which in total is carried out by 86,000. Moreover, during 1955 and 1968, 68 people from Longyan
Longyan
were awarded Brigadier General or above, which accounts for 82% of all generals from Fujian
Fujian
province at the time, therefore, Longyan
Longyan
is also named after "The Home of Generals".[3] Environment[edit] Unlike many Chinese cities, the forest coverage of Longyan
Longyan
reaches an unusually high 77.9%, which is unparalleled in Fujian
Fujian
province.[4] Meihuashan National Nature Reserve, a part of the China Biosphere Reserve Network, is located in Longyan. Goby Rhinogobius longyanensis was first described from Longyan
Longyan
and named after it.[5] Presumably also the prehistoric bivalve Claraia longyanensis got its name from Longyan.[6] Geography and climate[edit] Longyan
Longyan
is situated in the upper reaches of the Jiulong and Ting Rivers. It borders the prefecture-level cities of Sanming
Sanming
to the north, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
to the east, Zhangzhou
Zhangzhou
to the southeast, Meizhou (Guangdong) to the southwest, and Ganzhou
Ganzhou
(Jiangxi) to the west and northwest. Longyan
Longyan
has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with short, mild winters, and long, hot and humid summers. Despite its inland location, the city's summers rank among the mildest in the province, averaging lower than even Xiamen
Xiamen
and the islands of Pingtan County, both of which receive significant maritime moderation.[7] Rainfall is greatest in spring and early summer and at its least in autumn and early winter.

Climate data for Longyan
Longyan
(1981−2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 29.8 (85.6) 31.5 (88.7) 33.8 (92.8) 35.0 (95) 37.5 (99.5) 39.0 (102.2) 37.0 (98.6) 36.6 (97.9) 35.0 (95) 34.6 (94.3) 28.1 (82.6) 39 (102.2)

Average high °C (°F) 17.8 (64) 18.3 (64.9) 20.9 (69.6) 24.8 (76.6) 28.1 (82.6) 30.5 (86.9) 33.2 (91.8) 32.5 (90.5) 30.4 (86.7) 27.5 (81.5) 23.7 (74.7) 19.5 (67.1) 25.6 (78.08)

Daily mean °C (°F) 12.3 (54.1) 13.4 (56.1) 16.4 (61.5) 20.3 (68.5) 23.5 (74.3) 26.0 (78.8) 27.7 (81.9) 26.9 (80.4) 25.3 (77.5) 21.9 (71.4) 17.6 (63.7) 13.4 (56.1) 20.39 (68.69)

Average low °C (°F) 8.8 (47.8) 10.0 (50) 13.3 (55.9) 17.1 (62.8) 20.2 (68.4) 22.9 (73.2) 23.9 (75) 23.4 (74.1) 21.8 (71.2) 17.9 (64.2) 13.4 (56.1) 9.2 (48.6) 16.83 (62.28)

Record low °C (°F) −0.8 (30.6) 0.4 (32.7) 3.4 (38.1) 7.3 (45.1) 12.1 (53.8) 16.1 (61) 19.4 (66.9) 19.3 (66.7) 14.2 (57.6) 8.2 (46.8) 2.2 (36) −3.0 (26.6) −3 (26.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 56.6 (2.228) 113.0 (4.449) 192.4 (7.575) 221.9 (8.736) 234.5 (9.232) 312.1 (12.287) 155.2 (6.11) 201.0 (7.913) 132.4 (5.213) 43.6 (1.717) 37.2 (1.465) 38.8 (1.528) 1,738.7 (68.453)

Average precipitation days 9.5 14.7 17.5 18.1 21.1 17.8 15.2 15.7 13.9 7.4 5.9 6.1 162.9

Average relative humidity (%) 73 76 79 78 78 79 74 77 75 69 67 70 74.6

Source #1: China Meteorological Data Service Center

Source #2: Weather China (precipitation days 1971-2000)

Demographics[edit] The prefecture-level city of Longyan
Longyan
had a population of 2,559,545 inhabitants as of 2010, according to the 2010 National Census.[8] The population of Longyan
Longyan
in 2010 was 4.65% inferior than in 2000 (when the inhabitants of the city stand at 2,684,310), giving an average annual rate of growth of -0.47%.[8] Administration[edit] The municipal executive, legislature and judiciary are in Xinluo District (新罗区), together with the CPC and Public Security bureau. The information about population uses the 2010 Census data.

Map

Xinluo Yongding Changting County Shanghang County Wuping County Liancheng County Zhangping (city)

English Name Simplified Pinyin Hakka Area Population Density

Xinluo District 新罗区 Xīnluó Qū Sîn-lò-khî 2,685 662,429 247

Yongding District 永定区 Yǒngdìng Qū Yún-thin-khî 2,216 362,658 164

Zhangping
Zhangping
City 漳平市 Zhāngpíng Shì Chông-phìn-sṳ 2,975 240,194 81

Changting County 长汀县 Chángtīng Xiàn Tshòng-tin-yen 3,099 393,390 127

Shanghang County 上杭县 Shàngháng Xiàn Sông-hông-yen 2,879 374,047 130

Wuping County 武平县 Wǔpíng Xiàn Vú-phìn-yen 2,630 278,182 106

Liancheng County 连城县 Liánchéng Xiàn Lièn-sàng-yen 2,596 248,645 96

Culture[edit] Longyan
Longyan
is famous for it as the "Home of Hakka People", as 75% of the population is composed of Hakka people.[4] The city of Changting is often referred to as the home of the Hakka, while the Ting River
Ting River
is known as the "mother river" of the Hakka people. The Hoklo people
Hoklo people
in Xinluo and Zhangping
Zhangping
speak Longyan
Longyan
Min, while their speech is somewhat influenced by Hakka Chinese. Due to the difference between Hoklo culture and Hakka's, there is a diversity of traditions and values in Longyan. Economy[edit] Longyan
Longyan
serves as a strategic center for the distribution of goods to Xiamen, Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou. It also acts as a gateway for trade with Guangdong
Guangdong
and Jiangxi
Jiangxi
province. It is the main connection between the inland and coastal area. Longyan
Longyan
is rich in natural resources such as important mineral deposits and forest zones. The Septwolves tobacco business is an important contributor to the local economy, as is the Zijin Mining group. The largest construction equipment maker Lonking Holdings
Lonking Holdings
is based in the city. Transport[edit]

Longyan
Longyan
Guanzhishan Airport Longyan- Xiamen
Xiamen
Railway (high-speed line opened in 2012), Ganzhou– Longyan
Longyan
Railway, Zhangping–Longchuan Railway.

Famous people from Longyan[edit]

Chen Hong (b. 1979), number 1 badminton player on the world ranking list from 2002 to 2003. Deng Zihui
Deng Zihui
(1896–1972) former Chinese vice premier (1951–1965), one of the top leaders of the Chinese Communist Party. He Wenna
He Wenna
(b. 1989), trampoline gymnast, gold medalist at the 2008 Summer Olympics. Lin Dan
Lin Dan
(b. 1983), gold medalist at the 2012 and 2008 Summer Olympics, number 1 badminton player on the world ranking list from 2004 to 2008. Ong Schan Tchow
Ong Schan Tchow
(1900–1945), leading artist whose exhibitions in China and South East Asia raised funds for the war relief effort and civilian victims of the Second Sino-Japanese War Shi Zhiyong (b. 1980), Weightlifter, gold medalist at the 2004 Summer Olympics. Yang Chengwu
Yang Chengwu
(1914–2004), general of the People's Liberation Army. Zeng Jinyan
Zeng Jinyan
(b. 1983), blogger and human rights activist. Zhang Dingcheng
Zhang Dingcheng
(1898 – December 16, 1981), Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate from 1954 to 1975. Zhang Xiangxiang (b. 1983), Weightlifter, gold medalist at the 2008 Summer Olympics and bronze medalist at the 2000 Summer Olympics.

See also[edit]

Fujian
Fujian
Tulou Longyan
Longyan
University

References[edit]

^ 2008年行政区划 (in Chinese). Longyan
Longyan
Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2009-06-05. Retrieved 2009-12-08.  ^ 2009年龙岩市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (in Chinese). Longyan
Longyan
Municipal Statistic Bureau. 2010-03-12. Retrieved 2010-05-03.  ^ 百度百科-龙岩 The introduction of Longyan
Longyan
on Baidu Encyclopedia ^ a b 市情特点. The characteristics of Longyan
Longyan
(in Simplified Chinese) ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Rhinogobius longyanensis" in FishBase. August 2013 version. ^ "† Claraia longyanensis Chen 1976 (clam)". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  ^ Weather China ^ a b (in Chinese) Longyan
Longyan
Statistic Bureau. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Longyan.

English Guide to Longyan Government website of Longyan
Longyan
(in Chinese) Longyan
Longyan
University Guide to Longyan
Longyan
Tour Sites Fujian's Hakka Earthen Roundhouses Website of Longyan
Longyan
(in Chinese)

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