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Coordinates : 40°48′N 73°18′W / 40.8°N 73.3°W / 40.8; -73.3

Long Island
Long Island
NATIVE NAME : PAUMANOK

Location of Long Island
Long Island
in New York

GEOGRAPHY

LOCATION Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean

COORDINATES 40°48′N 73°18′W / 40.8°N 73.3°W / 40.8; -73.3

AREA 1,401 sq mi (3,630 km2)

ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES

STATE New York

DEMOGRAPHICS

DEMONYM Long Islander

POPULATION 7,838,722 (2015)

POP. DENSITY 5,595.1 /sq mi (2,160.28 /km2)

ETHNIC GROUPS 54.7% White , 20.4% Black , 0.49% Native American , 12.3% Asian , 0.05% Pacific Islander , 8.8% other races , and 3.2% from two or more races ; 20.5% Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino
Latino
of any race

Part of a series on

REGIONS OF NEW YORK

Downstate New York
Downstate New York

* New York City
New York City
* Long Island * Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
(Lower)

Upstate New York
Upstate New York

* * Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
(Middle and Upper) * Capital District * North Country * Southern Tier
Southern Tier
* Mohawk Valley
Mohawk Valley
* Central New York
Central New York
* Finger Lakes * Western New York
Western New York

Administrative divisions

* Counties * Cities * Towns * Indian reservations * Villages * Census-designated places * Places (including hamlets)

Timelines of town creation

* Downstate New York
Downstate New York
* Hudson Valley
Hudson Valley
* Capital District * North Country * Central New York
Central New York
* Southern Tier
Southern Tier
* Western New York
Western New York

* v * t * e

PART OF A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON

TOPICS

* Geography * History * Economy * Transportation * Politics * Music * People * Popular culture * Recreation * Law enforcement * Viticulture
Viticulture

REGIONS

* Brooklyn
Brooklyn
* Queens
Queens

* Nassau County * Suffolk County

* Municipalities

* North Shore * South Shore

* North Fork * South Fork

* Long Island
Long Island
Sound * Barrier islands

* v * t * e

LONG ISLAND is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States , beginning at New York Harbor
New York Harbor
just 0.35 miles (0.56 km) from Manhattan
Manhattan
Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The island comprises four counties in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of New York : Kings and Queens
Queens
counties (which comprise the New York City
New York City
boroughs of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens
Queens
, respectively) in the west, and Nassau and Suffolk counties in the east. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area (even those living in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens) colloquially use the term "Long Island" (or "The Island") to refer exclusively to Nassau and Suffolk counties, which are mainly suburban in character. The majority of New York City
New York City
residents now live on Long Island.

Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands . North of the island is Long Island Sound , across which lie Westchester County, New York
Westchester County, New York
, and the state of Connecticut
Connecticut
. Across the Block Island Sound
Block Island Sound
to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
. To the west, Long Island
Long Island
is separated from the Bronx and the island of Manhattan
Manhattan
by the East River
East River
. To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island
Staten Island
and the state of New Jersey
New Jersey
by Upper New York Bay
Upper New York Bay
, the Narrows , and Lower New York Bay . To the east lie Block Island
Block Island
and numerous smaller islands.

Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States , Long Island
Long Island
extends 118 miles (190 km) eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point , with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles (37 km) between Long Island
Long Island
Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles (3,630 km2), Long Island
Long Island
is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world —larger than the 1,214 square miles (3,140 km2) of the smallest U.S. state, Rhode Island.

With a Census-estimated population of 7,838,722 in 2015, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island
Long Island
is the most populated island in any U.S. state
U.S. state
or territory, and the 18th-most populous island in the world (ahead of Ireland
Ireland
, Jamaica
Jamaica
, and Hokkaidō ). Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile (2,160.3/km2). If Long Island
Long Island
geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area , it would rank fourth most populous in the United States; while if it were a U.S. state, Long Island
Long Island
would rank 13th in population and first in population density . Long Island
Long Island
is culturally and ethnically diverse , featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties.

As a hub of commercial aviation , Long Island
Long Island
contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport
LaGuardia Airport
, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport ; as well as two major air traffic control radar facilities, the New York TRACON and the New York ARTCC . Nine bridges and 13 tunnels (including railroad tunnels) connect Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens
Queens
to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island
Long Island
Sound to the state of Connecticut
Connecticut
. The Long Island
Long Island
Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America
North America
and operates 24/7 . Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory , Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory , Plum Island Animal Disease Center , State University of New York at Stony Brook
State University of New York at Stony Brook
, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering
Engineering
, the City University of New York , and Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 18th and 19th centuries * 1.3 20th century * 1.4 21st century

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Geology * 2.2 Countyscapes * 2.3 Climate * 2.4 Additional islands

* 3 Demographics * 4 Economy

* 5 Government and politics

* 5.1 Law enforcement * 5.2 Secession proposals

* 6 Transportation

* 6.1 Public transportation

* 6.1.1 Rail * 6.1.2 Bus

* 6.2 Roads

* 6.2.1 Ground transportation

* 7 Education

* 7.1 Primary and secondary education * 7.2 Colleges and universities

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Music * 8.2 Cuisine

* 8.3 Sports

* 8.3.1 Major league sports * 8.3.2 Minor league and college sports * 8.3.3 Other sports * 8.3.4 Notable sportspeople and teams

* 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Long Island
Long Island

EARLY HISTORY

Long Island
Long Island
Native American settlements

Prior to European contact, the Lenape people (named the Delaware by Europeans) inhabited the western end of Long Island, and spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family . Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524. The eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages; they were part of the Pequot and Narragansett peoples inhabiting the area that now includes Connecticut
Connecticut
and Rhode Island
Rhode Island
.

In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island
Coney Island
. Adriaen Block
Adriaen Block
followed in 1615 and is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island
Long Island
are islands.

Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island
Long Island
as Sewanhaka (Sewanhacky and Sewanhacking were other spellings in the transliteration of Lenape). Sewan was one of the terms for wampum (commemorative stringed shell beads, for a while also used as currency by colonists in trades with the Lenape), and is also translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island. The name " 't Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" (later shortened to "Lange Eylandt") appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. Later, the English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (who later also ruled as King William III of England ). It is unclear when the name "Nassau Island" was discontinued. The c. 1806 Old Hook Mill in East Hampton is one of eleven extant windmills in Suffolk County .

The very first settlements on Long Island
Long Island
were by settlers from England
England
and its colonies in present-day New England
England
. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island . The first settlement on the geographic Long Island
Long Island
itself was on October 21, 1640, when Southold was established by the Rev. John Youngs and settlers from New Haven
New Haven
, Connecticut. Peter Hallock, one of the settlers, drew the long straw and was granted the honor to step ashore first. He is considered the first New World settler on Long Island. Southampton was settled in the same year. Hempstead followed in 1644, East Hampton in 1648, Huntington in 1653, Brookhaven in 1655, and Smithtown in 1665. The Old House in Cutchogue , built 1649, is the oldest English-style house in the state.

While the eastern region of Long Island
Long Island
was first settled by the English, the western portion of Long Island
Long Island
was settled by the Dutch. Until 1664, the jurisdiction of Long Island
Long Island
was split, roughly at the present border between Nassau County and Suffolk County . The Dutch founded six towns in present-day Brooklyn
Brooklyn
beginning in 1645. These included: Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, Gravesend , Flatlands , Flatbush , New Utrecht , and Bushwick . The Dutch had granted an English settlement in Hempstead, New York
Hempstead, New York
(now in Nassau County) in 1644 but, after a boundary dispute, drove out English settlers from the Oyster
Oyster
Bay area. However, in 1664, the English returned to take over the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam
, including Long Island.

The 1664 land patent granted to the Duke of York included all islands in Long Island
Long Island
Sound. The Duke of York held a grudge against Connecticut, as New Haven
New Haven
had hidden three of the judges who sentenced the Duke's father, King Charles I , to death in 1649. Settlers throughout Suffolk County pressed to stay part of Connecticut, but Governor Sir Edmund Andros threatened to eliminate the settlers' rights to land if they did not yield, which they did by 1676.

All of Long Island
Long Island
(as well as the islands between it and Connecticut) became part of the Province of New York
Province of New York
within the Shire of York . Present-day Suffolk County was designated as the East Riding (of Yorkshire), present-day Brooklyn
Brooklyn
was part of the West Riding, and present-day Queens
Queens
and Nassau were part of the larger North Riding. In 1683, Yorkshire was dissolved and the three original counties on Long Island were established: Kings, Queens, and Suffolk.

18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES

Battle of Long Island
Long Island

Early in the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
, the island was captured by the British from General George Washington
George Washington
in the Battle of Long Island , a decisive battle after which Washington narrowly evacuated his troops from Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Heights under a dense fog. After the British victory on Long Island, many Patriots fled, leaving mostly Loyalists behind. The island remained a British stronghold until the end of the war in 1783.

General Washington based his espionage activities on Long Island, due to the western part of the island's proximity to the British military headquarters in New York City. The Culper Spy Ring included agents operating between Setauket and Manhattan. This ring alerted Washington to valuable British secrets, including the treason of Benedict Arnold and a plan to use counterfeiting to induce economic sabotage.

Long Island's colonists served both Loyalist and Patriot causes, with many prominent families divided among both sides. During the occupation British troops used a number of civilian structures for defense and demanded to be quartered in the homes of civilians. A number of structures from this era remain. Among these are Raynham Hall , the Oyster
Oyster
Bay home of patriot spy Robert Townsend , and the Caroline Church in Setauket , which contains bullet holes from a skirmish known as the Battle of Setauket
Battle of Setauket
. Also in existence is a reconstruction of Brooklyn's Old Stone House , on the site of the Maryland 400
Maryland 400
's celebrated last stand during the Battle of Long Island . The Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Bridge , the first of multiple crossings constructed across the East River
East River
, connects Long Island
Long Island
with Manhattan
Manhattan
Island (background). Oheka Castle
Oheka Castle
, a Gold Coast estate, is the second-largest private residence in the country.

In the 19th century, Long Island
Long Island
was still mainly rural and devoted to agriculture . The predecessor to the Long Island
Long Island
Rail Road (LIRR) began service in 1836 from the South Ferry in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, through the remainder of Brooklyn, to Jamaica
Jamaica
in Queens
Queens
. The line was completed to the east end of Long Island
Long Island
in 1844 (as part of a plan for transportation to Boston). Competing railroads (soon absorbed by the LIRR) were built along the south shore to accommodate travellers from those more populated areas. For the century from 1830 until 1930, total population roughly doubled every twenty years, with more dense development in areas near Manhattan. Several cities were incorporated, such as the City of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
in Kings County, and Long Island
Long Island
City in Queens.

Until the 1883 completion of the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Bridge , the only means of travel between Long Island
Long Island
and the rest of the United States was by boat or ship. As other bridges and tunnels were constructed, areas of the island began to be developed as residential suburbs, first around the railroads that offered commuting into the city. On January 1, 1898, Kings County and portions of Queens
Queens
were consolidated into The City of Greater New York , abolishing all cities and towns within them. The easternmost 280 square miles (730 km2) of Queens
Queens
County, which were not part of the consolidation plan, separated from Queens
Queens
in 1899 to form Nassau County.

At the close of the 19th century, wealthy industrialists who made vast fortunes during the Gilded Age
Gilded Age
began to construct large "baronial" country estates in Nassau County communities along the North Shore of Long Island, favoring the many properties with water views. Proximity to Manhattan
Manhattan
attracted such men as J. P. Morgan
J. P. Morgan
, William K. Vanderbilt , and Charles Pratt
Charles Pratt
, whose estates led to this area being nicknamed the Gold Coast . This period and the area was immortalized in fiction, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby , which has also been adapted in films .

20TH CENTURY

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
lifted off from Roosevelt Field with his Spirit of Saint Louis for his historic 1927 solo flight to Europe, one of the events that helped to establish Long Island
Long Island
as an early center of aviation during the 20th Century. Other famous aviators such as Wiley Post originated notable flights from Floyd Bennett Field
Floyd Bennett Field
in Brooklyn, which became the first major airport serving New York City
New York City
before it was superseded by the opening of La Guardia Airport in 1939. Long Island was also the site of Mitchel Air Force Base and was a major center of military aircraft production by companies such as Grumman and Fairchild Aircraft
Fairchild Aircraft
during World War II
World War II
and for some decades afterward. Aircraft production on Long Island
Long Island
extended all the way into the Space Age – Grumman
Grumman
was one of the major contractors that helped to build the early lunar flight and space shuttle vehicles. Although the aircraft companies eventually ended their Long Island operations and the early airports were all later closed – Roosevelt Field, for instance, became the site of a major shopping mall – the Cradle of Aviation
Aviation
Museum on the site of the former Mitchel Field documents the Island's key role in the history of aviation.

From the 1920s to the 1940s, Long Island
Long Island
began the transformation from backwoods and farms as developers created numerous suburbs. Numerous branches of the LIRR already enabled commuting from the suburbs to Manhattan. Robert Moses
Robert Moses
engineered various automobile parkway projects to span the island, and developed beaches and state parks for the enjoyment of residents and visitors from the city. Gradually, development also followed these parkways, with various communities springing up along the more traveled routes. Grounds of the 1964 New York World\'s Fair in Flushing, Queens
Queens
A post-war upper-middle class house

After World War II
World War II
, suburban development increased with incentives under the G.I. Bill
G.I. Bill
, and Long Island's population skyrocketed, mostly in Nassau County and western Suffolk County. Second and third-generation children of immigrants moved out to eastern Long Island to settle in new housing developments built during the post-war boom. Levittown became noted as a suburb, where housing construction was simplified to be produced on a large scale. These provided opportunities for World War II
World War II
military veterans returning home to buy houses and start a family.

21ST CENTURY

By the start of the 21st century, a number of Long Island
Long Island
communities had successfully converted their assets from industrial uses to post-industrial roles. Brooklyn
Brooklyn
reversed decades of population decline and factory closings to resurface as a globally renowned cultural and intellectual hotbed. Gentrification
Gentrification
has affected much of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and a portion of Queens, relocating a sizeable swath of New York City's population. On eastern Long Island, such villages as Port Jefferson , Patchogue , and Riverhead have been changed from inactive shipbuilding and mill towns into tourist-centric commercial centers with cultural attractions.

The descendants of late 19th and early 20th-century immigrants from southern and eastern Europe , and black migrants from the South, have been followed by more recent immigrants from Asia
Asia
and Latin America
Latin America
. Long Island
Long Island
has many ethnic Irish , Jews
Jews
, and Italians , as well as an increasing numbers of Asians and Hispanics , reflecting later migrations.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Long Island
Long Island
Montauk Point is at Long Island's rural eastern tip.

The westernmost end of Long Island
Long Island
contains the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
(Kings County) and Queens
Queens
( Queens
Queens
County). The central and eastern portions contain the suburban Nassau and Suffolk counties. However, colloquial usage of the term "Long Island" usually refers only to Nassau and Suffolk counties. For example, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York has a district named "Long Island (Nassau-Suffolk Metro Division)." At least as late as 1911, locations in Queens
Queens
were still commonly referred to as being on Long Island. Some institutions in the New York City
New York City
section of the island use the island's names, like Long Island
Long Island
University and Long Island
Long Island
Jewish Medical Center . In 1985, the United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
ruled in United States v. Maine that Long Island, while geographically an island, was not an island for legal purposes, given that New York State's boundaries contained its offshore soil and seabeds . The four counties of Long Island
Long Island
include two independent counties (Nassau and Suffolk ) and two New York City
New York City
boroughs ( Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens
Queens
).

Nassau County is more densely developed than Suffolk County. While affluent overall, Nassau County has pockets of more pronounced wealth with estates covering greater acreage within the Gold Coast of the North Shore and the Five Towns area on the South Shore . South Shore communities are built along protected wetlands of the island and contain white sandy beaches of Outer Barrier Islands fronting on the Atlantic Ocean. Dutch and English settlers from the time before the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
, as well as communities of Native Americans, populated the island. The 19th century saw the infusion of the wealthiest Americans in the so-called Gold Coast of the North Shore , where wealthy Americans and Europeans in the Gilded Age
Gilded Age
built lavish country homes.

In its easternmost sections, Suffolk County remains semi-rural, as in Greenport on the North Fork and some of the periphery of the area prominently known as The Hamptons
The Hamptons
, although summer tourism swells the population in those areas. The North Fork peninsula of Suffolk County's East End has developed a burgeoning Wine
Wine
Country region. In addition, the South Fork peninsula is known for beach communities, including the Hamptons, and for the Montauk Point Lighthouse at the eastern tip of the island. The Pine
Pine
Barrens is a preserved pine forest encompassing much of eastern Suffolk County.

GEOLOGY

The intersection of Long Island, Manhattan, and the continental mainland

A detailed geomorphological study of Long Island
Long Island
provides evidence of glacial history of the kame and terminal moraines of the island which were formed by the advance and retreat of two ice sheets .

Long Island, as part of the Outer Lands region, is formed largely of two spines of glacial moraine , with a large, sandy outwash plain beyond. These moraines consist of gravel and loose rock left behind during the two most recent pulses of Wisconsin glaciation
Wisconsin glaciation
during the Ice Ages some 21,000 years ago (19,000 BC). The northern moraine, which directly abuts the North Shore of Long Island
Long Island
at points, is known as the Harbor Hill moraine . The more southerly moraine, known as the Ronkonkoma moraine, forms the "backbone" of Long Island; it runs primarily through the very center of Long Island, roughly coinciding with the length of the Long Island
Long Island
Expressway . The bluffs of the North Shore

The land to the south of this moraine to the South Shore is the outwash plain of the last glacier. One part of the outwash plain was known as the Hempstead Plains , and this land contained one of the few natural prairies to exist east of the Appalachian Mountains.

The glaciers melted and receded to the north, resulting in the difference between the North Shore beaches and the South Shore beaches. The North Shore beaches are rocky from the remaining glacial debris, while the South Shore's are crisp, clear, outwash sand. Jayne\'s Hill , at 401 feet (122 m), within Suffolk County near its border with Nassau County, is the highest hill along either moraine; another well-known summit is Bald Hill in Brookhaven Town, not far from its geographical center at Middle Island . The glaciers also formed Lake Ronkonkoma in Suffolk County and Lake Success in Nassau County, each a deep kettle lake .

COUNTYSCAPES

The Downtown Brooklyn
Brooklyn
skyline at the western end of Long Island, the Manhattan
Manhattan
Bridge (far left), and the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Bridge (near left) are seen across the East River
East River
from Lower Manhattan
Manhattan
at sunset in 2013. The growing skyline of Long Island
Long Island
City , Queens
Queens
, facing the East River
East River
at blue hour in 2015. At left is the Queensboro Bridge , connecting Queens
Queens
to Manhattan
Manhattan
. The Village of Freeport on Baldwin Bay in Nassau County . A beach in The Hamptons of Suffolk County .

CLIMATE

Long Island
Long Island
has a climate similar to that of other coastal areas of the Northeastern United States
Northeastern United States
; it has warm, humid summers and chilly, snowy winters with variable precipitation. Under the Köppen climate classification , the east of Long Island
Long Island
lies in a transition zone between a humid subtropical climate (CFA) and a humid continental climate (DFA). The oceanic climate zone (CFB) only exists on the North Fork , the eastern end of the South Fork , islands in Peconic Bay , and Fishers Island
Fishers Island
, and is rare in eastern North America. Parts of the Harbor Hill Moraine are affected by a subtropical highland climate . The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
brings afternoon sea breezes that temper the heat in the warmer months and limit the frequency and severity of thunderstorms. Long Island
Long Island
has a moderately sunny climate, averaging between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually. Cumulus congestus clouds over Long Island
Long Island
on a summer afternoon Clear skies in autumn over the Great Peconic Bay , with the Atlantic Ocean as its primary inflow , separating the North Fork and South Fork at the East End of Long Island
Long Island

Due to its coastal location, Long Island
Long Island
winter temperatures are significantly milder than most of the state. The coldest month is January, when average temperatures range from 30 to 35 °F (−1 to 2 °C), and the warmest month is July, when average temperatures range from 70 to 80 °F (21 to 27 °C). Temperatures seldom fall below 5 °F (−15 °C) or rise above 95 °F (35 °C). Long Island temperatures vary from west to east, with the western part (Nassau County, Queens, and Brooklyn) generally warmer than the east (Suffolk County). This is due to several factors: the western part is closer to the mainland and more densely developed, causing the "urban heat island " effect, and Long Island's land mass veers northward as one travels east. Also, daytime high temperatures on the eastern part of Long Island
Long Island
are cooler on most occasions due to moderation of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and Long Island
Long Island
Sound. On dry nights with no clouds or wind, the Pine
Pine
Barrens forest of eastern Suffolk County can be almost 20 degrees Fahrenheit (11 degrees Celsius) cooler than the rest of the island due to radiational cooling . Average dew points , a measure of atmospheric moisture, typically lie in the 60–70 °F (16–21 °C) range during July and August. Stripped boardwalk in Rockaway Beach after Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
in 2012

Precipitation
Precipitation
is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the year, with approximately 3–4 inches (76–102 mm) on average during each month. Average yearly snowfall totals range from approximately 20 to 35 inches (51 to 89 cm), with the north shore and western parts averaging more than the south shore and the east end. In any given winter, however, some parts of the island could see up to 75 inches (190 cm) of snow or more. There are also some very quiet winters, in which most parts of the island could see less than 10 inches (25 cm) of snow.

On 13 August 2014, flash flooding occurred in western-central Suffolk County after a record-setting rainfall deposited more than three months' worth of precipitation on the area within a few hours.

Long Island
Long Island
is somewhat vulnerable to hurricanes . Its northern location (and the relatively cool waters around it) tend to weaken tropical cyclones before they reach its shores; nonetheless, several have stricken the Island as full hurricanes, including a devastating Category 3, the 1938 New England
England
Hurricane
Hurricane
(also known as the "Long Island Express"), and another Category 3, Hurricane
Hurricane
Carol in 1954. Other 20th-century storms that made landfall on Long Island
Long Island
at hurricane intensity include the Great Atlantic Hurricane
Hurricane
of 1944, Hurricane
Hurricane
Donna in 1960, Hurricane
Hurricane
Belle in 1976, and Hurricane
Hurricane
Gloria in 1985. Also, the eyewall of Hurricane
Hurricane
Bob in 1991 brushed the eastern tip. In August 2011, portions of Long Island
Long Island
were evacuated in preparation for Hurricane
Hurricane
Irene , a Category 1 hurricane which weakened to a tropical storm before it reached Long Island.

On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
caused extensive damage to low-lying coastal areas of Brooklyn, Queens, Nassau and Suffolk counties, destroying or severely damaging thousands of area homes and other structures by ocean and bay storm surges. Hundreds of thousands of residents were left without electric power for periods of time ranging up to several weeks while the damage was being repaired. The slow-moving "Superstorm Sandy" (so-nicknamed because its winds weakened below hurricane intensity as it made landfall) caused 90% of Long Island
Long Island
households to lose power and an estimated $18 billion in damages in Nassau color:#000000;">69 (21) 67 (19) 82 (28) 94 (34) 98 (37) 96 (36) 102 (39) 100 (38) 93 (34) 88 (31) 78 (26) 77 (25) 102 (39)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 38.0 (3.3) 40.3 (4.6) 47.3 (8.5) 57.6 (14.2) 67.5 (19.7) 76.6 (24.8) 81.7 (27.6) 80.4 (26.9) 73.8 (23.2) 63.0 (17.2) 53.2 (11.8) 43.0 (6.1) 60.3 (15.7)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 23.3 (−4.8) 25.2 (−3.8) 31.3 (−0.4) 40.6 (4.8) 49.8 (9.9) 60.2 (15.7) 66.0 (18.9) 65.3 (18.5) 57.5 (14.2) 45.5 (7.5) 37.1 (2.8) 28.2 (−2.1) 44.3 (6.8)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) −7 (−22) 0 (−18) 5 (−15) 23 (−5) 32 (0) 42 (6) 50 (10) 45 (7) 38 (3) 28 (−2) 11 (−12) 5 (−15) −7 (−22)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 3.64 (92.5) 3.26 (82.8) 4.44 (112.8) 4.34 (110.2) 3.78 (96) 4.27 (108.5) 3.43 (87.1) 3.98 (101.1) 3.58 (90.9) 3.79 (96.3) 3.67 (93.2) 4.06 (103.1) 46.24 (1,174.5)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 6.7 (17) 7.1 (18) 4.5 (11.4) 0.6 (1.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.5 (1.3) 5.4 (13.7) 24.8 (62.9)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 IN) 11.0 9.1 10.5 11.3 11.1 10.1 9.1 8.5 8.6 8.5 10.3 10.8 118.9

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 IN) 3.7 3.4 2.3 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.4 12.3

Source: NOAA

CLIMATE DATA FOR LAGUARDIA AIRPORT , NEW YORK (1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1940–PRESENT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 72 (22) 74 (23) 86 (30) 94 (34) 97 (36) 101 (38) 107 (42) 104 (40) 102 (39) 93 (34) 83 (28) 75 (24) 107 (42)

MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 58.6 (14.8) 60.1 (15.6) 70.5 (21.4) 81.2 (27.3) 88.5 (31.4) 93.4 (34.1) 96.6 (35.9) 94.4 (34.7) 88.8 (31.6) 79.7 (26.5) 71.1 (21.7) 62.1 (16.7) 98.1 (36.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 39.3 (4.1) 42.2 (5.7) 49.8 (9.9) 60.9 (16.1) 71.2 (21.8) 80.5 (26.9) 85.3 (29.6) 83.7 (28.7) 76.3 (24.6) 65.2 (18.4) 54.7 (12.6) 44.3 (6.8) 62.9 (17.2)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 26.6 (−3) 28.5 (−1.9) 34.6 (1.4) 44.4 (6.9) 53.9 (12.2) 63.8 (17.7) 69.5 (20.8) 68.9 (20.5) 61.9 (16.6) 51.0 (10.6) 41.8 (5.4) 32.1 (0.1) 48.2 (9)

MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 10.0 (−12.2) 13.5 (−10.3) 19.7 (−6.8) 33.8 (1) 45.2 (7.3) 54.1 (12.3) 62.0 (16.7) 60.4 (15.8) 50.9 (10.5) 39.9 (4.4) 29.3 (−1.5) 16.6 (−8.6) 7.5 (−13.6)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) −3 (−19) −7 (−22) 7 (−14) 22 (−6) 37 (3) 46 (8) 56 (13) 51 (11) 41 (5) 30 (−1) 17 (−8) −2 (−19) −7 (−22)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 3.17 (80.5) 2.76 (70.1) 3.97 (100.8) 4.00 (101.6) 3.79 (96.3) 3.94 (100.1) 4.50 (114.3) 4.12 (104.6) 3.73 (94.7) 3.78 (96) 3.41 (86.6) 3.56 (90.4) 44.73 (1,136.1)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 7.4 (18.8) 9.1 (23.1) 4.4 (11.2) 0.5 (1.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.3 (0.8) 5.2 (13.2) 26.9 (68.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 INCH) 10.3 9.6 10.7 10.9 11.1 10.5 9.9 8.7 8.1 8.5 9.2 10.5 118.0

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 INCH) 4.6 3.4 2.1 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.6 13.1

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 61.0 60.2 59.5 59.3 63.8 64.6 64.7 67.0 67.2 65.2 64.2 63.5 63.4

Source: NOAA (relative humidity 1961–1990)

CLIMATE DATA FOR JFK AIRPORT , NEW YORK (1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1948–PRESENT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °F (°C) 71 (22) 71 (22) 85 (29) 90 (32) 99 (37) 99 (37) 104 (40) 101 (38) 98 (37) 90 (32) 77 (25) 75 (24) 104 (40)

MEAN MAXIMUM °F (°C) 56.8 (13.8) 57.9 (14.4) 68.5 (20.3) 78.1 (25.6) 84.9 (29.4) 92.1 (33.4) 94.5 (34.7) 92.7 (33.7) 87.4 (30.8) 78.0 (25.6) 69.1 (20.6) 60.1 (15.6) 96.6 (35.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °F (°C) 39.1 (3.9) 41.8 (5.4) 49.0 (9.4) 59.0 (15) 68.5 (20.3) 78.0 (25.6) 83.2 (28.4) 81.9 (27.7) 75.3 (24.1) 64.5 (18.1) 54.3 (12.4) 44.0 (6.7) 61.6 (16.4)

AVERAGE LOW °F (°C) 26.3 (−3.2) 28.1 (−2.2) 34.2 (1.2) 43.5 (6.4) 52.8 (11.6) 62.8 (17.1) 68.5 (20.3) 67.8 (19.9) 60.8 (16) 49.6 (9.8) 40.7 (4.8) 31.5 (−0.3) 47.3 (8.5)

MEAN MINIMUM °F (°C) 9.8 (−12.3) 13.4 (−10.3) 19.1 (−7.2) 32.6 (0.3) 42.6 (5.9) 52.7 (11.5) 60.7 (15.9) 58.6 (14.8) 49.2 (9.6) 37.6 (3.1) 27.4 (−2.6) 16.3 (−8.7) 7.5 (−13.6)

RECORD LOW °F (°C) −2 (−19) −2 (−19) 4 (−16) 20 (−7) 34 (1) 45 (7) 55 (13) 46 (8) 40 (4) 30 (−1) 19 (−7) 2 (−17) −2 (−19)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION INCHES (MM) 3.16 (80.3) 2.59 (65.8) 3.78 (96) 3.87 (98.3) 3.94 (100.1) 3.86 (98) 4.08 (103.6) 3.68 (93.5) 3.50 (88.9) 3.62 (91.9) 3.30 (83.8) 3.39 (86.1) 42.77 (1,086.4)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL INCHES (CM) 6.3 (16) 8.3 (21.1) 3.5 (8.9) 0.8 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.2 (0.5) 4.7 (11.9) 23.8 (60.5)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.01 INCH) 10.5 9.6 11.0 11.4 11.5 10.7 9.4 8.7 8.1 8.5 9.4 10.6 119.4

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.1 INCH) 4.6 3.4 2.3 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.8 13.6

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 64.9 64.4 63.4 64.1 69.5 71.5 71.4 71.7 71.9 69.1 67.9 66.3 68.0

Source: NOAA (relative humidity 1961–1990)

ADDITIONAL ISLANDS

Main article: Outer barrier
Outer barrier

Several smaller islands, though geographically distinct, are in proximity to Long Island
Long Island
and are often grouped with it. These islands include Fire Island
Fire Island
, the largest of the outer barrier islands that parallels the southern shore of Long Island
Long Island
for approximately 31 miles (50 km); Plum Island , which is home to the Plum Island Animal Disease Center , a biological weapons research facility ; as well as Robins Island , Gardiners Island , Fishers Island
Fishers Island
, Long Beach Barrier Island , Jones Beach Island , and Shelter Island .

DEMOGRAPHICS

One of several Chinatowns in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
(布魯克林華埠) (above) and Chinatowns in Queens
Queens
(在皇后區唐人街) (below). Chinese Americans constitute the fastest-growing nationality on Long Island (enumerating half million ), and in New York State, with large-scale Chinese immigration continuing into Long Island
Long Island
and the New York City
New York City
region, home to the largest metropolitan Chinese population outside of Asia
Asia
. The Long Island
Long Island
Koreatown (롱 아일랜드 코리아타운) sprawls eastward of the Flushing Chinatown (法拉盛華埠) in Queens
Queens
and into Nassau County.

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1790 37,108

1800 42,907

15.6%

1810 48,752

13.6%

1820 56,978

16.9%

1830 69,775

22.5%

1840 110,406

58.2%

1850 212,637

92.6%

1860 379,788

78.6%

1870 540,648

42.4%

1880 743,957

37.6%

1890 1,029,097

38.3%

1900 1,452,611

41.2%

1910 2,098,460

44.5%

1920 2,723,764

29.8%

1930 4,103,638

50.7%

1940 4,600,022

12.1%

1950 5,237,918

13.9%

1960 6,403,852

22.3%

1970 7,141,515

11.5%

1980 6,728,074

−5.8%

1990 6,861,474

2.0%

2000 7,448,618

8.6%

2010 7,568,304

1.6%

EST. 2015 7,838,722

3.6%

A mansion on Long Island's wealthy Gold Coast , which along with The Hamptons
The Hamptons
and Brooklyn's western waterfront (facing Manhattan
Manhattan
) provides Long Island
Long Island
with some of the most expensive residential real estate in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
.

Long Island
Long Island
is one of the most densely populated regions in the United States. As of the United States 2010 Census
United States 2010 Census
, the total population of all four counties of Long Island
Long Island
was 7,568,304, which was 39 percent of the population of the State of New York. As of 2015, the proportion of New York City
New York City
residents living on Long Island
Long Island
had risen to 58%, given the 4,896,398 residents living in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
or Queens. Furthermore, the proportion of New York State's population residing on Long Island
Long Island
has also been increasing, with Long Island's Census-estimated population increasing 3.1% since 2010, to 7,838,722 in 2015, representing 39.6% of New York State's Census-estimated 2015 population of 19,795,791, and with a population density of 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile (2,160.3/km2) on Long Island. Long Island's population is greater than 37 of the 50 U.S. states.

As of the 2010 census, the combined population of Nassau and Suffolk counties was 2,832,882 people; Suffolk County's share being 1,493,350 and Nassau County's 1,339,532. Nassau County had a larger population for decades, but Suffolk County surpassed it in the 1990 census as growth and development continued to spread eastward. As Suffolk County has more than twice the land area of Nassau County, the latter still has a much higher population density. According to the U.S. Census Bureau 's 2008 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
, Nassau and Suffolk counties had the 10th and 26th highest median household incomes in the nation, respectively.

Population figures from the U.S. Census Bureau Census 2010 show that whites are the largest racial group in all four counties, and are in the majority in Nassau and Suffolk counties. In 2002, The New York Times cited a study by the non-profit group ERASE Racism, which determined that Nassau and Suffolk counties constitute the most racially segregated suburbs in the United States.

In contrast, Queens
Queens
is the most ethnically diverse county in the United States and the most diverse urban area in the world.

According to a 2000 report on religion, which asked congregations to respond, Catholics are the largest religious group on Long Island, with non-affiliated in second place. Catholics make up 52% of the population of Nassau and Suffolk, versus 22% for the country as a whole, with Jews
Jews
at 16% and 7%, respectively, versus 1.7% nationwide. Only a small percentage of Protestants responded, 7% and 8% respectively, for Nassau and Suffolk counties. This is in contrast with 23% for the entire country on the same survey, and 50% on self-identification surveys.

A growing population of nearly half million Chinese Americans now live on Long Island. Rapidly expanding Chinatowns have developed in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
(布魯克林) and Queens
Queens
(皇后) , with Chinese immigrants also moving into Nassau County, as did earlier European immigrants, such as the Irish and Italians . More recently, a Little India (लघु भारत) community has emerged in Hicksville , Nassau County, spreading eastward from the more established Little India enclaves in Queens.

Likewise, the Long Island
Long Island
Koreatown (롱 아일랜드 코리아타운) originated in Flushing , Queens. It is expanding eastward along Northern Boulevard
Northern Boulevard
and into Nassau County.

Long Island
Long Island
is home to two Native American reservations , Poospatuck Reservation , and Shinnecock Reservation . Both reservations are in Suffolk County. Numerous island place names are Native American in origin.

A 2010 article in The New York Times
The New York Times
stated that the expansion of the immigrant workforce on Long Island
Long Island
has not displaced any jobs from other Long Island
Long Island
residents. Half of the immigrants on Long Island hold white-collar positions.

The counties of Nassau and Suffolk have been long renowned for their affluence . Long Island
Long Island
is home to some of the wealthiest communities in the United States, including The Hamptons
The Hamptons
, on the East End of the South Shore of Suffolk County; the Gold Coast , in the vicinity of the island's North Shore, along Long Island
Long Island
Sound ; and increasingly, the western shoreline of Brooklyn, facing Manhattan. In 2016, according to Business Insider
Business Insider
, the 11962 zip code encompassing Sagaponack , within Southampton , was listed as the most expensive in the U.S., with a median home sale price of $8.5 million.

Racial groups , ethnicity, and religious groups on Long Island compared to state and nation COUNTY Population 2010 census % white % black or African American % Asian % Other % mixed race % Hispanic/ Latino of any race

% Catholic % not affiliated % Jewish
Jewish
% Protestant
Protestant
Estimate of % not reporting

RACE ETHNICITY

RELIGIOUS GROUPS

Kings 2,504,700 42.8 34.3 10.5 9.3 3.0 17.6

37 4 15 8 33

Queens
Queens
2,230,722 39.7 19.1 22.9 13.7 4.5 27.5

29 37 11 5 15

Nassau 1,339,532 73.0 11.1 7.6 5.9 2.4 14.6

52 9 16 7 15

Suffolk 1,493,350 80.8 7.4 3.4 5.9 2.4 16.5

52 21 7 8 11

LONG ISLAND TOTAL 7,568,304 54.7 20.4 12.3 9.3 3.2 20.5

40 18 12 7 20

NY STATE 19,378,102 65.7 15.9 7.3 8.0 3.0 17.6

42 20 9 10 16

USA 308,745,538 72.4 12.6 4.8 7.3 2.9 16.3

22 37 2 23 12

Source for Race and Ethnicity: 2010 Census American Indian, Native Alaskan, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander make up just 0.5% of the population of Long Island, and have been included with "Other".

Source for religious groups: ARDA2000

Cathedral Basilica of St. James, part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
, one of the largest in North America
North America
. Ultra-Orthodox Jewish
Jewish
(יהודי) residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn
Brooklyn
has the largest Jewish
Jewish
community in the United States and growing from approximately 600,000 individuals, about 23% overall, as of 2010. Buddhist temple (佛教寺廟) in Flushing, Queens
Queens
. Long Island
Long Island
is home to a large and growing Buddhist population. Sri Maha Vallabha Ganapati
Ganapati
Devasthanam (Tamil: ஸ்ரீ மகா வல்லப கணபதி தேவஸ்தானம் ), in Queens, the oldest Hindu temple
Hindu temple
in the United States. Mosque
Mosque
(Arabic: مسجد بالمنيا ) in Queens
Queens
serves Long Island's Muslim population.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Long Island
Long Island
Further information: Biotech and pharmaceutical companies on Long Island
Long Island
and Tech companies on Long Island Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on the North Shore of Nassau County is an internationally renowned biomedical research facility and home to eight scientists awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine .

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Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory
is a major US Department of Energy research institution .

Long Island
Long Island
has played a prominent role in scientific research and in engineering . It is the home of the Brookhaven National Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory
in nuclear physics and Department of Energy research. Long Island
Long Island
is also home to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory , which was directed for 35 years by James D. Watson (who, along with Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and Rosalind Franklin , discovered the double helix structure of DNA
DNA
). Companies such as Sperry Rand
Sperry Rand
, Computer Associates
Computer Associates
(headquartered in Islandia ), Zebra Technologies (now occupying the former headquarters of Symbol Technologies , and a former Grumman
Grumman
plant in Holtsville ), have made Long Island
Long Island
a center for the computer industry . Stony Brook University of the State University of New York
State University of New York
and New York Institute of Technology
Technology
conduct advanced medical and technological research . Viticulture
Viticulture
has become a major industry on the North Fork of Long Island, home to more than 30 vineyards .

Long Island
Long Island
is home to the East Coast 's largest industrial park , the Hauppauge Industrial Park. The park has over 1,300 companies employing more than 71,000 individuals. Companies in the park and abroad are represented by the Hauppauge Industrial Association . As many as 20 percent of Long Islanders commute to jobs in Manhattan. The eastern end of the island is still partly agricultural. Development of vineyards on the North Fork has spawned a major viticultural industry, replacing potato fields. Pumpkin
Pumpkin
farms have been added to traditional truck farming . Farms allow fresh fruit picking by Long Islanders for much of the year. Fishing
Fishing
continues to be an important industry, especially at Huntington , Northport , Montauk , and other coastal communities of the East End and South Shore.

From about 1930 to about 1990, Long Island
Long Island
was considered one of the aerospace manufacturing centers of the United States, with companies such as Grumman
Grumman
Aircraft , Republic , Fairchild , and Curtiss having had their headquarters and factories on Long Island. These operations have largely been phased out or significantly diminished.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Long Island
Long Island
A commemorative half-dollar coin issued in 1936 for Long Island's tercentenary

Nassau County and Suffolk County each have their own governments, with a County Executive leading each. Each has a county legislature and countywide-elected officials, including district attorney , county clerk, and county comptroller . The towns in both counties have their own governments as well, with town supervisors and a town council . Nassau County is divided into three towns and two small incorporated cities (Glen Cove and Long Beach ). Suffolk County is divided into ten towns.

Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens
Queens
, on the other hand, do not have county governments. As boroughs of New York City, both have borough presidents , which have been largely ceremonial offices since the shutdown of the New York City
New York City
Board of Estimate . The respective Borough Presidents are responsible for appointing individuals to the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Community Boards and Queens
Queens
Community Boards , each of which serves an advisory function on local issues. Brooklyn's sixteen members and Queens' fourteen members represent the first and second largest borough contingents of the New York City
New York City
Council .

LAW ENFORCEMENT

See also: List of Long Island
Long Island
law enforcement agencies

Queens
Queens
and Brooklyn
Brooklyn
are patrolled by the New York City
New York City
Police Department . Nassau and Suffolk counties are served by the Nassau County Police Department and Suffolk County Police Department , respectively, although several dozen villages and the two cities in Nassau County have their own police departments. The Nassau County Sheriff\'s Department and Suffolk County Sheriff\'s Office handle civil procedure , evictions, warrant service and enforcement, prisoner transport and detention, and operation of the county jail. New York State Police patrol state parks and parkways .

SECESSION PROPOSALS

Main articles: Long Island
Long Island
(proposed state) and Partition and secession in New York

The secession of Nassau and Suffolk counties on Long Island
Long Island
from New York was proposed as early as 1896, but talk was revived towards the latter part of the twentieth century. On March 28, 2008, Suffolk County Comptroller Joseph Sawicki proposed a plan that would make Nassau and Suffolk counties on Long Island
Long Island
the 51st state of the United States of America. Sawicki claimed that all of the Nassau and Suffolk taxpayers' money would remain locally, rather than the funds being dispersed all over the entire state of New York, with these counties sending to Albany over three billion dollars more than they receive back. The state of Long Island
Long Island
would have included nearly 3 million people (a larger population than that of fifteen other states). Nassau County executive Ed Mangano
Ed Mangano
came out in support of such a proposal in April 2010 and commissioned a study on it.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation on Long Island
Long Island
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens
Queens
is the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States.

Every major form of transportation serves Long Island, including aviation from John F. Kennedy International Airport
John F. Kennedy International Airport
, LaGuardia Airport , and Long Island
Long Island
MacArthur Airport , and multiple smaller airports; rail transportation on the Long Island
Long Island
Rail Road and the New York City Subway ; bus routes from MTA Regional Bus Operations
MTA Regional Bus Operations
, Nassau Inter-County Express , and Suffolk County Transit
Suffolk County Transit
; ferry service from NYC Ferry
NYC Ferry
and multiple smaller ferry companies; and several major highways. There are historic and modern bridges, and recreational and commuter trails , serving various parts of Long Island.

There are currently ten road crossings out of Long Island, all within New York City
New York City
limits at the extreme western end of the island. Plans for a Long Island
Long Island
Crossing at various locations in Nassau and Suffolk Counties (a proposed bridge or tunnel that would link Long Island
Long Island
to the south with New York or Connecticut
Connecticut
to the north across Long Island Sound) have been discussed for decades, but there are currently no firm plans to construct such a crossing.

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

A 7 train in Queens
Queens

The MTA implements mass transportation for the New York metropolitan area including all five boroughs of New York City, the suburban counties of Dutchess , Nassau , Orange , Putnam , Rockland , Suffolk and Westchester , all of which together are the "Metropolitan Commuter Transportation District (MCTD)".

The MTA is the largest public transportation provider in the Western Hemisphere . Its agencies serve 14.6 million people spread over 5,000 square miles (13,000 km²) from New York City
New York City
through the southeastern section of the state (including Long Island
Long Island
and the lower Hudson Valley ), and Connecticut
Connecticut
. Combined the MTA agencies now move more than 2.6 billion rail and bus customers a year while employing some 70,000 workers.

Rail

Schematic map of LIRR system Main article: Long Island
Long Island
Rail Road

The Long Island
Long Island
Rail Road (LIRR) is the busiest commuter railroad system in North America, carrying an average of 282,400 passengers each weekday on 728 daily trains. Chartered on April 24, 1834, and operating continuously since, it is also the oldest railroad in the U.S. that is still operating under its original charter and name. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority has operated the LIRR as one of its two commuter railroads since 1966, and the LIRR is one of the few railroads worldwide that provides service all the time , year round. In July 2017, the approval was granted by state legislators to the plan proposed by New York Governor Andrew Cuomo
Andrew Cuomo
to add a third railroad track to the Long Island
Long Island
Rail Road corridor between the communities of Floral Park and Hicksville in Nassau County. The nearly US$2 billion transportation infrastructure enhancement project was expected to accommodate anticipated growth in rail ridership and to facilitate commutes between New York City
New York City
and Nassau and Suffolk counties on Long Island.

Bus

A Nassau Inter-County Express bus

Nassau Inter-County Express (NICE) provides bus service in Nassau County, while Suffolk County Transit
Suffolk County Transit
, an agency of the Suffolk County government, provides bus service in Suffolk County. In 2012, NICE replaced the former Long Island
Long Island
Bus in transporting Long Islanders across Nassau County while still allowing them to use MTA MetroCards as payment.

ROADS

Long Island
Long Island
Expressway in Nassau County

The Long Island
Long Island
Expressway , Northern State Parkway , and Southern State Parkway , all products of the automobile-centered planning of Robert Moses
Robert Moses
, are the island's primary east-west high-speed controlled-access highways .

MAJOR ROADS OF LONG ISLAND DIRECTION Route shield NAME

WEST-EAST

NASSAU EXPRESSWAY NORTHERN SECTION

Montauk Highway

SUNRISE HIGHWAY *

BELT PARKWAY / SOUTHERN STATE PARKWAY

Hempstead Turnpike

Babylon–Farmingdale Turnpike

GRAND CENTRAL PARKWAY / NORTHERN STATE PARKWAY

LONG ISLAND EXPRESSWAY

Jericho Turnpike/Middle Country Road

Northern Boulevard
Northern Boulevard

SOUTH-NORTH

BROOKLYN-QUEENS EXPRESSWAY

VAN WYCK EXPRESSWAY

Nassau Expressway southern section

CLEARVIEW EXPRESSWAY

CROSS ISLAND PARKWAY

MEADOWBROOK STATE PARKWAY

WANTAGH STATE PARKWAY

Newbridge Road

Cedar Swamp Road/Broadway/Hicksville Road

SEAFORD-OYSTER BAY EXPRESSWAY

Broad Hollow Road

Deer Park Avenue

ROBERT MOSES CAUSEWAY

SAGTIKOS STATE PARKWAY

SUNKEN MEADOW STATE PARKWAY

Islip Avenue

Nicolls Road

WILLIAM FLOYD PARKWAY

Roads in BOLDFACE are limited access roads. Sunrise Highway is only limited-access from western Suffolk county eastwards.

Ground Transportation

Being such a large, populous island with several airports connecting the island to the rest of the world, there are several hundred transportation companies that service the Long Island/New York City area. Winston airport shuttle, the oldest of these companies in business since 1973, was the first to introduce door-to-door shared-ride service to and from the major airports, which almost all transportation companies now utilize.

EDUCATION

The academic mall across Stony Brook University 's main campus

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION

Many public and private high schools on Long Island
Long Island
are ranked among the best in the United States. Nassau and Suffolk counties are the home of 125 public school districts containing a total of 656 public schools . It also hosts a number of private schools such as Friends Academy , Chaminade High School , Kellenberg Memorial High School
Kellenberg Memorial High School
, St. Anthony\'s High School , and North Shore Hebrew Academy , as well as parochial schools , many of which are operated by the Catholic Diocese of Rockville Centre .

In contrast, all of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens
Queens
are served by the New York City Department of Education , the largest school district in the United States. Three of the nine specialized high schools in New York City are located in the two Long Island
Long Island
boroughs, those being Brooklyn Latin School , Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Technical High School (one of the original three specialized schools), and Queens
Queens
High School for the Sciences . Like Nassau and Suffolk Counties, they, too, are home to numerous private schools, such as Poly Prep Country Day School
Poly Prep Country Day School
, Packer Collegiate Institute , and Saint Ann\'s School , and Berkeley Carroll School , and parochial schools operated by the Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
.

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

See also: List of colleges and universities on Long Island
Long Island
and List of colleges and universities in New York City
New York City

Long Island
Long Island
is home to a range of higher-education institutions, both public and private. Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens
Queens
contain five of eleven senior colleges within CUNY , the public university system of New York City and one of the largest in the country. Among these are the notable institutions of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
College and Queens
Queens
College . Brooklyn
Brooklyn
also contains private colleges such as Pratt Institute
Pratt Institute
and the New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering
Engineering
, an engineering college that merged with New York University
New York University
in 2014.

Several colleges and universities within the State University of New York system are located on Long Island, such as Stony Brook (which noted its health sciences research and medical center), as well as Nassau Community College and Suffolk County Community College that serve their respective counties. Private institutions include the New York Institute of Technology
Technology
, Hofstra University
Hofstra University
and Adelphi University (both located in the Town of Hempstead ), as well as Long Island University (with its C.W. Post campus , located on a former Gold Coast estate in Brookville , and a satellite campus in downtown Brooklyn). Long Island
Long Island
also contains the Webb Institute
Webb Institute
, a small naval architecture college in Glen Cove . In addition, the island is home to the United States Merchant Marine Academy
United States Merchant Marine Academy
, a Federal Service Academy located in Kings Point , on the North Shore.

CULTURE

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Long Island
Long Island
See also: Long Island
Long Island
Music Hall of Fame , List of Long Islanders , and List of people from New York City Nikon at Jones Beach Theater
Nikon at Jones Beach Theater

Music on Long Island
Long Island
(Nassau and Suffolk) is strongly influenced by the proximity to New York City
New York City
and by the youth culture of the suburbs . Psychedelic rock
Psychedelic rock
was widely popular in the 1960s as flocks of disaffected youth travelled to NYC to participate in protest and the culture of the time. R "> The Big Duck, Flanders, New York
Flanders, New York

Long Island
Long Island
has historically been a center for fishing and seafood . This legacy continues in the Blue Point oyster , a now ubiquitous variety that was originally harvested on the Great South Bay
Great South Bay
and was the favorite oyster of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
. Clams are also a popular food and clam digging a popular recreational pursuit, with Manhattan
Manhattan
clam chowder reputed to have Long Island
Long Island
origins. A winery and tasting room in a 1690 farmhouse near Stony Brook, New York
Stony Brook, New York

Of land-based produce, Long Island
Long Island
duck has a history of national recognition since the 19th century, with four duck farms continuing to produce 2 million ducks a year as of 2013 . Two symbols of Long Island's duck farming heritage are the Long Island
Long Island
Ducks minor-league baseball team and the Big Duck
Duck
, a 1931 duck-shaped building that is a historic landmark and tourist attraction. In addition to Long Island's duck industry, Riverhead contains one of the largest buffalo farms on the East coast.

Long Island
Long Island
is well known for its production of alcoholic beverages. Eastern Long Island
Long Island
is a significant producer of wines. Vineyards are most heavily concentrated on Long Island's North Fork , which contains 38 wineries. Most of these contain tasting rooms, which serve as popular tourist attractions for visitors from across the New York metropolitan area. Long Island
Long Island
has also become a producer of diverse craft beers , with 15 microbreweries existing across Nassau and Suffolk counties as of 2013 . The largest of these is Blue Point Brewing Company , best known for its toasted lager. Long Island
Long Island
is also globally known for its signature cocktail, the Long Island
Long Island
Iced Tea , which purportedly was invented at the popular Babylon, Oak Beach Inn nightclub in the 1970s.

The eateries on Long Island
Long Island
are largely a product of the region's local ethnic populations. Asian cuisines , Italian cuisine
Italian cuisine
, Jewish cuisine , and Latin American cuisines were the most popular categories of ethnic cuisine on Long Island
Long Island
as of the second decade of the 2000s. Asian cuisines are predominantly represented by East Asian , South Asian , and Middle Eastern cuisines. Italian cuisine
Italian cuisine
is found in ubiquitous pizzerias spread throughout the island, with the region hosting an annual competition, the Long Island
Long Island
Pizza Festival "> Citi Field
Citi Field
, home of the New York Mets
New York Mets
in Queens
Queens

The New York Mets
New York Mets
baseball team plays at Citi Field
Citi Field
in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park , Queens. Their former stadium, Shea Stadium
Shea Stadium
was also home for the New York Jets
New York Jets
football team from 1964 until 1983. The new stadium is designed with an exterior façade and main entry rotunda inspired by Brooklyn's famous Ebbets Field
Ebbets Field
(see below). The New York Mets
New York Mets
had planned to move their Double-A farm team to Long Island, as part of the ambitious but now-defunct plan for Nassau County called The Lighthouse Project
The Lighthouse Project
. The Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Cyclones are a minor league baseball team, affiliated with the New York Mets. The Cyclones play at MCU Park
MCU Park
just off the boardwalk on Coney Island
Coney Island
in Brooklyn. An artificial turf baseball complex named Baseball Heaven is located in Yaphank . Barclays Center
Barclays Center
, home of the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Nets and New York Islanders
New York Islanders
in Brooklyn
Brooklyn

The Barclays Center
Barclays Center
, a sports arena , business, and residential complex built partly on a platform over the Atlantic Yards
Atlantic Yards
at Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn, is the current home of the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Nets basketball team and the New York Islanders
New York Islanders
hockey team. The move from New Jersey
New Jersey
in the summer of 2012 marked the return to Long Island
Long Island
for the Nets franchise, which played at Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale from 1972 to 1977. The Islanders played at Nassau Coliseum from their 1972 inception through 2015.

Ebbets Field, which stood in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
from 1913 until its demolition in 1960, was the home of the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Dodgers baseball team, who moved to California
California
after the 1957 Major League Baseball season to become the Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers
. The Dodgers won several National League pennants in the 1940s and 1950s, losing several times in the World Series —often called Subway Series —to their Bronx rivals, the New York Yankees . The Dodgers won their lone championship in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
in the 1955 World Series
World Series
versus the Yankees.

Despite this success during the latter part of the team's stay in Brooklyn, they were a second-division team with an unspectacular winning record for much of their history there – but nonetheless became legendary for the almost-fanatical devotion of the Brooklynites who packed the relatively small ballpark to vigorously root for the team they affectionately called, "Dem Bums". Loss of the Dodgers to California
California
was locally considered a civic tragedy that negatively affected the community far more than did the similar moves of other established teams to new cities in the 1950s, including the Dodgers' long-time arch-rival New York Giants
New York Giants
, who also left for California after 1957.

Minor League And College Sports

The Stony Brook Seawolves during their 2012 homecoming game Bethpage Ballpark , home of the Long Island
Long Island
Ducks minor league baseball team

Long Island
Long Island
is also home to the Long Island
Long Island
Ducks minor league baseball team of the Atlantic League . Their stadium, Bethpage Ballpark , is located in Central Islip . The two main rugby union teams are the Long Island
Long Island
RFC in East Meadow and the Suffolk Bull Moose in Stony Brook .

The New York Dragons of the Arena
Arena
Football League also played their home games at Nassau Coliseum
Nassau Coliseum
.

Long Island
Long Island
has a professional soccer club, the New York Cosmos , who play in the Division 2 North American Soccer League
North American Soccer League
at James M. Shuart Stadium in Hempstead .

Long Island
Long Island
has historically been a hotbed of lacrosse at the youth and college level, which made way for a Major League Lacrosse
Lacrosse
team in 2001, the Long Island
Long Island
Lizards . The Lizards play at Mitchel Athletic Complex in Uniondale .

Other Sports

Long Island
Long Island
has a wide variety of golf courses found all over the island. One of the most famous is the public Bethpage Black Course that has hosted multiple U.S. Open tournaments as well as The Barclays , most recently in 2012. Queens
Queens
also hosts one of the four tennis grand slams, the US Open . Every August (September, in Olympic years) the best tennis players in the world travel to Long Island
Long Island
to play the championships, which is held in the USTA National Tennis
Tennis
Center , located adjacent to Citi Field
Citi Field
in Flushing Meadows Park . The complex also contains the biggest tennis stadium in the world, the Arthur Ashe Stadium . Preparing for a horse race at Belmont Park , home of the Belmont Stakes , the final leg of the Triple Crown

Long Island
Long Island
also has two horse racing tracks, Aqueduct Racetrack
Aqueduct Racetrack
in Ozone Park
Ozone Park
, Queens
Queens
and Belmont Park on the Queens/Nassau border in Elmont , home of the Belmont Stakes . The longest dirt thoroughbred racecourse in the world is also located at Belmont Park. Another category of sporting events popular in this region involves firematic racing events, involving many local volunteer fire departments .

Notable Sportspeople And Teams

Long Island
Long Island
is home to numerous famous athletes, including Hall of Famers Jim Brown
Jim Brown
, Julius Erving
Julius Erving
, John Mackey , Whitey Ford
Whitey Ford
, Nick Drahos , and Carl Yastrzemski
Carl Yastrzemski
. Others include Gold Medalists Sue Bird , Sarah Hughes
Sarah Hughes
and Derrick Adkins
Derrick Adkins
, D\'Brickashaw Ferguson , Billy Donovan , Larry Brown , Rick Pitino , John McEnroe , Jumbo Elliott , Mick Foley
Mick Foley
, Zack Ryder
Zack Ryder
, Matt Serra , Boomer Esiason
Boomer Esiason
, Vinny Testaverde , Craig Biggio , Frank Catalanotto , Greg Sacks , Rob Burnett , Steve Park , Frank Viola , Chris Weidman
Chris Weidman
, Marques Colston and Speedy Claxton .

Several current NHL players were born and/or raised on Long Island, such as Vancouver Canucks Christopher Higgins and Matt Gilroy , Nashville Predators Eric Nystrom , Toronto Maple Leaf Mike Komisarek , Pittsburgh Penguin Rob Scuderi , and New Jersey
New Jersey
Devil Keith Kinkaid . Both Komisarek and Higgins played on the same Suffolk County Hockey League team at an early age, and later played on the Montreal Canadiens together. Nick Drahos was an All Scholastic and All Long Island honoree at Lawrence High School, Nassau Co. in 1936 and 1937, and a two-time Unanimous National College All-American in the years of 1939 and 1940 at Cornell University.

CLUB CITY SPORT FOUNDED LEAGUE VENUE(S)

Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Nets Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Basketball
Basketball
1967 National Basketball
Basketball
Association Barclays Center
Barclays Center

New York Islanders
New York Islanders
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Ice hockey
Ice hockey
1972 National Hockey League
National Hockey League
Barclays Center
Barclays Center

New York Mets
New York Mets
Queens
Queens
Baseball
Baseball
1962 Major League Baseball
Baseball
Citi Field
Citi Field

Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Cyclones Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Baseball
Baseball
2001 New York–Penn League
New York–Penn League
MCU Park
MCU Park

Long Island
Long Island
Nets Uniondale Basketball
Basketball
2015 NBA G League
NBA G League
Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum
Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum

Long Island
Long Island
Ducks Central Islip Baseball
Baseball
2000 Atlantic League Bethpage Ballpark

New York Cosmos Hempstead Soccer
Soccer
2010 North American Soccer League
North American Soccer League
James M. Shuart Stadium

New York Lizards
New York Lizards
Hempstead Lacrosse
Lacrosse
2001 Major League Lacrosse
Lacrosse
Shuart Stadium and Icahn Stadium
Icahn Stadium

SEE ALSO

* Geography of New York City
New York City
* List of films shot on Long Island
Long Island
* List of Long Island
Long Island
recreational facilities * List of Long Islanders , famous residents of Nassau and Suffolk * List of people from New York City
New York City
, including famous residents of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and Queens * List of references to Long Island
Long Island
places in popular culture * Long Island
Long Island
(proposed state) * New Netherland
New Netherland
* Timeline of town creation in Downstate New York
Downstate New York

NOTES

* ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010. * ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.

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EXTERNAL LINKS

* Media related to Long Island
Long Island
at Wikimedia Commons * Long Island
Long Island
travel guide from Wikivoyage * Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Long Island". The American Cyclopædia .

PLACES ADJACENT TO LONG ISLAND

Westchester County Long Island
Long Island
Sound Connecticut
Connecticut
, Long Island
Long Island
Sound Rhode Island
Rhode Island
, Long Island
Long Island
Sound

The Bronx
The Bronx
Manhattan
Manhattan
, East River
East River
, New York Bay LONG ISLAND Block