The Info List - Long-term Memory

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LONG-TERM MEMORY (LTM) is the stage of the dual memory model proposed by the Atkinson and Shiffrin (from Stanford University
Stanford University
), and informative knowledge can be stored for long periods of time .

Long-term memory is defined in contrast to short-term and working memory that persist for only about 18 to 30 seconds, while informative knowledge can remain as long-term memory indefinitely.

Long-term memory is commonly labelled as explicit memory (declarative ), as well as episodic memory , semantic memory , autobiographical memory , and implicit memory (procedural memory ).


* 1 Dual-store memory model

* 1.1 Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model * 1.2 Baddeley\'s model of working memory

* 2 Encoding of information

* 2.1 Sleep

* 3 Divisions

* 3.1 Explicit memory

* 3.1.1 Episodic memory * 3.1.2 Semantic memory * 3.1.3 Autobiographical memory

* 3.2 Implicit memory

* 4 Disorders of memory

* 4.1 Traumatic brain injury
Traumatic brain injury
* 4.2 Neurodegenerative diseases

* 5 Biological underpinnings at the cellular level * 6 Contradictory evidence * 7 Single-store memory model * 8 See also * 9 Footnotes * 10 References * 11 Further reading


According to Miller , whose paper in 1956 popularized the theory of the "magic number seven" , short-term memory is limited to a certain number of chunks of information, while long-term memory has a limitless store.


Main article: Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model

According to the dual store memory model proposed by Richard C. Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin in 1968, memories can reside in the short-term "buffer" for a limited time while they are simultaneously strengthening their associations in long-term memory. When items are first presented, they enter short-term memory, but due to its limited space, as new items enter, older ones are pushed out. However, each time an item in short-term memory is rehearsed, it is strengthened in long-term memory. Similarly, the longer an item stays in short-term memory, the stronger its association becomes in long-term memory.


Main article: Baddeley\'s model of working memory

In 1974 Baddeley and Hitch proposed an alternative theory of short-term memory: Baddeley\'s model of working memory . According to this theory, short-term memory is divided into different slave systems for different types of input items, and there is an executive control supervising what items enter and exit those systems. The slave systems include the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, and the episodic buffer (later added by Baddeley).


Long-term memory encodes information semantically for storage, as researched by Baddeley . In vision, the information needs to enter working memory before it can be stored into long-term memory. This is evidenced by the fact that the speed with which information is stored into long-term memory is determined by the amount of information that can be fit, at each step, into visual working memory. In other words, the larger the capacity of working memory for certain stimuli, the faster will these materials be learned.

Synaptic Consolidation is the process by which items are transferred from short-term to long-term memory. Within the first minutes or hours after acquisition, the engram (memory trace) is encoded within synapses, becoming resistant (though not immune) to interference from outside sources.

As long-term memory is subject to fading in the natural forgetting process, maintenance rehearsal (several recalls/retrievals of memory) may be needed to preserve long term memories. Individual retrievals can take place in increasing intervals in accordance with the principle of spaced repetition . This can happen quite naturally through reflection or deliberate recall (also known as recapitulation), often dependent on the perceived importance of the material. Using testing methods as a form of recall can lead to the testing effect , which aids long term memory through information retrieval and feedback.


Some theories consider sleep to be an important factor in establishing well-organized long-term memories. (See also sleep and learning .) Sleep
plays a key function in the consolidation of new memories.

According to Tarnow's theory, long-term memories are stored in dream format (reminiscent of the Penfield instead, memory loss is often a casualty of generalized neuronal deterioration. Currently, these illnesses are irreversible, but research into stem cells, psychopharmacology, and genetic engineering holds much promise.

Those with Alzheimer's disease generally display symptoms such as getting momentarily lost on familiar routes, placing possessions in inappropriate locations and distortions of existing memories or completely forgetting memories. Researchers have often used the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm (DRM) to study the effects of Alzheimer's disease on memory. The DRM paradigm presents a list of words such as doze, pillow, bed, dream, nap, etc., with a theme word that is not presented. In this case the theme word would have been sleep. Alzheimer's disease patients are more likely to recall the theme word as being part of the original list than healthy adults. There is a possible link between longer encoding time and increased false memory in LTM. The patients end up relying on the gist of information instead of the specific words themselves. Alzheimer's leads to an uncontrolled inflammatory response brought on by extensive amyloid depostion in the brain, which leads to cell death in the brain. This gets worse over time and eventually leads to cognitive decline, after the loss of memory. Pioglitazone may improve cognitive impairments, including memory loss and may help protect long-term and visiospatial memory from neurodegenerative disease.

Parkinson\'s disease patients have problems with cognitive performance; these issues resemble what is seen in frontal lobe patients and can often lead to dementia. It is thought that Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease
is caused by degradation of the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic projection originating from the ventral tegmental area. It has also been indicated that the hippocampus plays an important role in episodic and spatial (parts of LTM) memory and Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease
patients have abnormal hippocampuses resulting in abnormal functioning of LTM. L-dopa injections are often used to try to relieve Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease
symptoms as well as behavioral therapy.

patients have trouble with attention and executive functions which in turn affects long-term memory consolidation and retrieval. They cannot encode or retrieve temporal information properly, which causes them to select inappropriate social behaviors. They cannot effectively use the information they possess. The prefrontal cortex, where schizophrenia patients have structural abnormalities, is involved with the temporal lobe and also affects the hippocampus, which causes their difficulty in encoding and retrieving temporal information (including long-term memory).


Long-term memory, unlike short-term memory, is dependent upon the synthesis of new proteins. This occurs within the cellular body, and concerns the particular transmitters, receptors, and new synapse pathways that reinforce the communicative strength between neurons. The production of new proteins devoted to synapse reinforcement is triggered after the release of certain signaling substances (such as calcium within hippocampal neurons) in the cell. In the case of hippocampal cells, this release is dependent upon the expulsion of magnesium (a binding molecule) that is expelled after significant and repetitive synaptic signaling. The temporary expulsion of magnesium frees NMDA receptors to release calcium in the cell, a signal that leads to gene transcription and the construction of reinforcing proteins. For more information, see long-term potentiation (LTP).

One of the newly synthesized proteins in LTP is also critical for maintaining long-term memory. This protein is an autonomously active form of the enzyme protein kinase C (PKC), known as PKMζ . PKMζ maintains the activity-dependent enhancement of synaptic strength and inhibiting PKMζ erases established long-term memories, without affecting short-term memory or, once the inhibitor is eliminated, the ability to encode and store new long-term memories is restored.

Also, BDNF is important for the persistence of long-term memories.

The long-term stabilization of synaptic changes is also determined by a parallel increase of pre- and postsynaptic structures such as axonal bouton , dendritic spine and postsynaptic density . On the molecular level, an increase of the postsynaptic scaffolding proteins PSD-95 and Homer1c has been shown to correlate with the stabilization of synaptic enlargement.

The cAMP response element-binding protein ( CREB
) is a transcription factor which is believed to be important in consolidating short-term to long-term memories, and which is believed to be downregulated in Alzheimer\'s disease .


A couple of studies have had results that contradict the dual-store memory model. Studies showed that in spite of using distractors, there was still both a recency effect for a list of items and a contiguity effect.

Another study revealed that how long an item spends in short-term memory is not the key determinant in its strength in long-term memory. Instead, whether the participant actively tries to remember the item while elaborating on its meaning determines the strength of its store in long-term memory.


An alternative theory is that there is only one memory store with associations among items and their contexts. In this model, the context serves as a cue for retrieval, and the recency effect is greatly caused by the factor of context. Immediate and delayed free-recall will have the same recency effect because the relative similarity of the contexts still exist. Also, the contiguity effect still occurs because contiguity also exists between similar contexts.


* Emotion and memory * Intermediate-term memory * Memory and aging * Neurogenesis


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* The role of testing-effect in a long-term memory

* v * t * e

Human memory


* Encoding * Storage * Recall

* Attention
* Consolidation * Neuroanatomy



* Echoic * Eidetic * Eyewitness * Iconic * Motor learning * Visual


* " The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two " * Working memory




* Active recall * Autobiographical

* Explicit

* Declarative * Episodic * Semantic

* Flashbulb * Hyperthymesia * Implicit * Meaningful learning * Personal-event * Procedural * Rote learning * Selective retention * Tip of the tongue


* Amnesia

* anterograde * childhood * post-traumatic * psychogenic * retrograde * transient global

* Decay theory * Forgetting
curve * Interference theory * Memory
inhibition * Motivated forgetting
Motivated forgetting
* Repressed memory * Retrieval-induced forgetting * Selective amnesia * Weapon focus


* Confabulation * False memory * Hindsight bias * Imagination inflation * List of memory biases * Memory
conformity * Misattribution of memory
Misattribution of memory
* Misinformation effect
Misinformation effect
* Source-monitoring error * Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome


* Art of memory * Memory and aging * Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm * Exceptional memory * Indirect tests of memory
Indirect tests of memory
* Lost in the mall technique * Memory disorder * Memory
implantation * Methods used to study memory
Methods used to study memory
* The Seven Sins of Memory
* Effects of exercise on memory


* Collective memory * Cultural memory * False memory syndrome * Memory
and social interactions * Memory
sport * Politics of memory * Shas Pollak
Shas Pollak
* World Memory


* Absent-mindedness * Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model * Context-dependent memory * Childhood memory * Cryptomnesia * Effects of alcohol * Emotion and memory * Exosomatic memory * Flashbacks * Free recall * Involuntary memory * Levels-of-processing effect * Memory
and trauma * Memory
improvement * Metamemory * Mnemonic
* Muscle memory
Muscle memory

* Priming

* Intertrial

* Prospective memory * Recovered-memory therapy * Retrospective memory * Sleep
and memory * State-dependent memory * Transactive memory


* Robert A. Bjork * Stephen J. Ceci * Susan Clancy * Hermann Ebbinghaus * Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
* Patricia Goldman-Rakic
Patricia Goldman-Rakic
* Jonathan Hancock * Judith Lewis Herman * HM (patient) *