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The Info List - Long-term Effects Of Cannabis


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The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate. Because cannabis is illegal in most countries, research presents a challenge; as such, there remains much to be concluded.[1]

Contents

1 Memory and intelligence 2 Dependency 3 Mental health

3.1 Acute psychosis 3.2 Anxiety 3.3 Depersonalization/derealization symptoms 3.4 Chronic psychosis

3.4.1 Schizophrenia

3.5 Depressive disorder 3.6 Mania symptoms 3.7 Suicidal behaviour

4 Gateway drug hypothesis 5 Physical health

5.1 Brain 5.2 Heart and circulation 5.3 Cancer

5.3.1 Testicular 5.3.2 Lung 5.3.3 Head and neck

5.4 Respiratory effects 5.5 Reproductive and endocrine effects 5.6 Mortality

6 See also 7 References

Memory and intelligence[edit] Acute cannabis intoxication has been shown to negatively affect attention, psychomotor task ability, and short-term memory.[2][3] A 2016 review found that chronic use of cannabis during adolescence, a time when the brain is still developing, was correlated in the long term with lower IQ and chronic cognitive deficits, but it was not clear if chronic use caused the problems or if "persons who have poorer cognitive functioning may be more vulnerable to cannabis use and abuse."[2] A 2013 review had similar findings.[3] A recent large longitudinal twin study found little evidence that adolescent cannabis use causes IQ decline. Previous findings of a detrimental effect were likely due to confounding factors that influence both substance initiation and IQ.[4][5] Dependency[edit] Main article: Cannabis
Cannabis
use disorder Cannabis
Cannabis
is the most widely used illicit drug in the Western world,[6] and although in the United States 10 to 20% of consumers who use cannabis daily become dependent, it is different from addiction.[7] Cannabis
Cannabis
use disorder is defined in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a condition requiring treatment.[6] A 2012 review of cannabis use and dependency in the United States by Danovitch et al said that "42% of persons over age 12 have used cannabis at least once in their lifetime, 11.5% have used within the past year, and 1.8% have met diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence within the past year. Among individuals who have ever used cannabis, conditional dependence (the proportion who go on to develop dependence) is 9%." Although no medication is known to be effective in combating dependency, combinations of psychotherapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy and motivational enhancement therapy have achieved some success.[8] Cannabis
Cannabis
dependence develops in 9% users, significantly less than that of heroin, cocaine, alcohol, and prescribed anxiolytics,[9] but slightly higher than that for psilocybin, mescaline, or LSD. Dependence on cannabis tends to be less severe than that observed with cocaine, opiates, and alcohol.[10] Mental health[edit] Historically, the possible connection between psychosis and cannabis has been long-debated.[11] Recent medical evidence strongly suggests that the long-term use of cannabis by people who begin use at an early age display a higher tendency towards mental health problems and other physical and development disorders, although the causal link is not yet definitively established.[12] These risks appear to be most acute in adolescent users.[12] Cannabis
Cannabis
alone is not believed to cause psychosis, although it may be a contributory factor, particularly when combined with an existing susceptibility.[11] Acute psychosis[edit] Although there has been an association noted between cases of acute psychosis and long-term cannabis use, the precise nature of the relationship is controversial; evidence suggests that cannabis use may worsen psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of relapse.[13] Anxiety[edit] A 2014 meta-analysis found an association between cannabis use and anxiety.[14] Depersonalization/derealization symptoms[edit] Cannabis
Cannabis
use may precipitate new-onset panic attacks and depersonalization/derealization symptoms simultaneously.[15] Chronic psychosis[edit] According to one 2013 review, long term cannabis use "increases the risk of psychosis in people with certain genetic or environmental vulnerabilities", but does not cause psychosis. Important predisposing factors include genetic liability, childhood trauma and urban upbringing.[11] Another 2013 review concluded that cannabis use may cause permanent psychological disorders in some users such as cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia, and increased risks of psychosis. Key predisposing variables include age of first exposure, frequency of use, the potency of the cannabis used, and individual susceptibility.[16] A 2013 review stated that there exists "a strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use...". The authors found that cannabis use alone does not predict the transition to subsequent psychiatric illness. Many factors are involved, including genetics, environment, time period of initiation and duration of cannabis use, underlying psychiatric pathology that preceded drug use, and combined use of other psychoactive drugs.[17] A 2014 review said that "[b]ecause longitudinal work indicates that cannabis use precedes psychotic symptoms, it seems reasonable to assume a causal relationship" between cannabis and psychosis, but that "more work is needed to address the possibility of gene-environment correlation."[18] In the same year, a review examined psychological therapy as add-on for people with schizophrenia who are using cannabis:

Cannabis
Cannabis
reduction: adjunct psychological therapy versus treatment as usual[19]

Summary

Results are limited and inconclusive because of the small number and size of randomized controlled trials available and quality of data reporting within these trials. More research is needed to explore the effects of adjunct psychological therapy that is specifically about cannabis and psychosis as currently there is no evidence for any novel intervention being better than standard treatment, for those that both use cannabis and have schizophrenia.[19]

Outcome Findings in words Findings in numbers Quality of evidence

Behavior

Frequency of cannabis use (group-based therapy) Follow up: 1 year People in the intervention groups scored a little lower compared to people receiving treatment as usual but there was no clear difference between the therapy groups and standard care. This finding is based on data of moderate quality. MD 0.1 lower (2.44 lower to 2.24 higher)* Moderate

Mental state

Average score (PANSS) - positive symptoms Follow up: 12 months On average, people receiving cannabis reduction therapy scored lower than people treated with treatment as usual but there was no clear difference between groups. This finding is based on data of moderate quality. MD 0.3 lower (2.55 lower to 1.95 higher)* Moderate

Quality of life

Average score (WHO QOL questionnaire) Follow up: 1 years On average, people receiving cannabis reduction therapy scored higher compared to people in the control group receiving treatment as usual. There was, however, no clear difference between the groups and these findings are based on data of moderate quality. MD 0.9 higher (1.15 lower to 2.95 higher)* Moderate

No study reported any data on outcomes such as relapse, adverse effects, leaving the study early and information relating to satisfaction with treatment

* At present the meaning of these scores in day-to-day care is unclear.

A 2016 meta-analysis found that cannabis use increases the risk of psychosis, and that a dose-response relationship exists between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis. The analysis was not able to establish a causal link.[20] Another 2016 meta-analysis found that cannabis use only predicted transition to psychosis among those who met the criteria for abuse of or dependence on the drug.[21] A 2016 review found that the epidemiologic evidence regarding cannabis use and psychosis was strong enough "to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders," but also cautioned that additional studies are needed to determine the size of the effect.[22] A 2016 review said that the existing evidence did not show that cannabis caused psychosis, but rather that early or heavy cannabis use were among many factors more likely to be found in those at risk of developing psychosis.[23] Schizophrenia[edit] There is substantial evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and the development of schizophrenia or other psychoses, with the highest risk among the most frequent users.[24] Use of cannabis in adolescence or earlier is correlated with developing schizoaffective disorders in adult life, although the proportion of these cases is small. Susceptibility is most often found in users with at least one copy of the polymorphic COMT gene.[25] Cannabis
Cannabis
with a high THC
THC
to CBD ratio produces a higher incidence of psychological effects. CBD may show antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties, acting as an antagonist to some of the effects of THC. Studies examining this effect have used high ratios of CBD to THC, and it is unclear to what extent these laboratory studies translate to the types of cannabis used by real life users.[16][26] Research has shown that CBD can safely prevent psychosis in general.[27] Depressive disorder[edit] Less attention has been given to the association between cannabis use and depression, though according to the Australian National Drug & Alcohol Research Center, it is possible this is because cannabis users who have depression are less likely to access treatment than those with psychosis.[28] Teenage cannabis users show no difference from the general population in incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD), but an association exists between early exposure coupled with continued use into adult life and increased incidence of MDD in adulthood.[25] Among cannabis users of all ages, there may be an increased risk of developing depression, with heavy users seemingly having a higher risk.[29] Mania symptoms[edit] Among those who have been previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder, cannabis may worsen the occurrence of manic symptoms.[30] Suicidal behaviour[edit] Adolescent cannabis users show no difference from their peers in suicidal ideation or rate of suicide attempts, but those who continue to use cannabis into adult life exhibit an increased incidence of both, although multiple other contributory factors are also implicated.[25] In the general population a weak (indirect) association appears to exist between suicidal behaviour and cannabis consumption in both psychotic and non-psychotic users,[31] although it remains unclear whether regular cannabis use increases the risk of suicide.[32] Cannabis
Cannabis
use is a risk factor in suicidality, but suicide attempts are characterized by many additional risk factors including mood disorders, stress, personal problems and poor support.[31] Gateway drug hypothesis[edit] Main article: Gateway drug theory § Cannabis The gateway drug hypothesis asserts that the use of soft drugs such as cannabis, tobacco or alcohol may ultimately lead to the use of harder drugs. Physical health[edit] A 2013 literature review said that exposure to marijuana was "associated with diseases of the liver (particularly with co-existing hepatitis C), lungs, heart, and vasculature". The authors cautioned that "evidence is needed, and further research should be considered, to prove causal associations of marijuana with many physical health conditions".[6] Brain[edit] Imaging studies suggest that long-term exposure does not lead to decreases in white matter or grey matter volume, but may lead to reductions in hippocampal volume. Variations in the methodologies used lend some uncertainty to this conclusion.[33] Heart and circulation[edit] The acute effects of marijuana use in humans include a dose-dependent increase in heart rate, typically accompanied by a mild increase in blood pressure while lying down and postural hypotension - a drop in blood pressure when standing up. These effects may vary depending on the relative concentration of the many different cannabinoids that can affect the cardiovascular function, such as cannabigerol. Smoking marijuana decreases exercise tolerance.[34] Cardiovascular effects may not lead to serious health issues for the majority of young, healthy users; on the contrary, heart attack, that is myocardial infarction, stroke, and other adverse cardiovascular events, have occurred in association with its use. Cannabis
Cannabis
use by people with cardiovascular disease poses a health risk because it can lead to increased cardiac work, increased catecholamine levels, and impaired blood oxygen carrying capacity due to the production of carboxyhemoglobin.[35] Cancer[edit] A 2012 review examining the relation of cancer and cannabis found little direct evidence that cannabinoids found in cannabis, including THC, are carcinogenic. Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids
are not mutagenic according to the Ames test. However, cannabis smoke has been found to be carcinogenic in rodents and mutagenic in the Ames test. Correlating cannabis use with the development of human cancers has been problematic due to difficulties in quantifying cannabis use, unmeasured confounders, and that cannabinoids may have anti-cancer effects.[36] According to a 2013 literature review, marijuana could be carcinogenic, but there are methodological limitations in studies making it difficult to establish a link between marijuana use and cancer risk.[6] The authors say that bladder cancer does seem to be linked to habitual marijuana use, and that there may be a risk for cancers of the head and neck among long-term (more than 20 years) users.[6] Gordon and colleagues said, "there does appear to be an increased risk of cancer (particularly head and neck, lung, and bladder cancer) for those who use marijuana over a period of time, although what length of time that this risk increases is uncertain."[6] Testicular[edit] In 2012 WebMD
WebMD
said that a number of studies had suggested a link between cannabis use and an increased risk of testicular cancer, but that the overall risk remained small and that more research is needed to confirm the findings.[37] According to Gordon and colleagues, "several recent studies suggest an association between marijuana use and testicular germ cell tumors".[6] Lung[edit] There have been a limited number of studies that have looked at the effects of smoking cannabis on the respiratory system.[38] Chronic heavy marijuana smoking is associated with coughing, production of sputum, wheezing, and other symptoms of chronic bronchitis.[39] Regular cannabis use has not been shown to cause significant abnormalities in lung function.[40] Regular cannabis smokers show pathological changes in lung cells similar to those that precede the development of lung cancer in tobacco smokers.[41] Gordon and colleagues in a 2013 literature review said: "Unfortunately, methodological limitations in many of the reviewed studies, including selection bias, small sample size, limited generalizability, and lack of adjustment for tobacco smoking, may limit the ability to attribute cancer risk solely to marijuana use."[6] Reviewing studies adjusted for age and tobacco use, they said there was a risk of lung cancer even after adjusting for tobacco use, but that the period of time over which the risk increases is uncertain.[6] A 2013 review which specifically examined the effects of cannabis on the lung concluded "[f]indings from a limited number of well-designed epidemiological studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use, although evidence is mixed concerning possible carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term use."[40] In 2013 the International Lung Cancer Consortium found no significant additional lung cancer risk in tobacco users who also smoked cannabis. Nor did they find an increased risk in cannabis smokers who did not use tobacco. They concluded that "[o]ur pooled results showed no significant association between the intensity, duration, or cumulative consumption of cannabis smoke and the risk of lung cancer overall or in never smokers." They cautioned that "[o]ur results cannot preclude the possibility that cannabis may exhibit an association with lung cancer risk at extremely high dosage."[42] Cannabis
Cannabis
smoke contains thousands of organic and inorganic chemicals, including many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke.[43] A 2012 special report by the British Lung Foundation
British Lung Foundation
concluded that cannabis smoking was linked to many adverse effects, including bronchitis and lung cancer.[44] They identified cannabis smoke as a carcinogen and also said awareness of the danger was low compared with the high awareness of the dangers of smoking tobacco particularly among younger users. They said there was an increased risk from each cannabis cigarette due to drawing in large puffs of smoke and holding them.[44] Marijuana
Marijuana
smoke has been listed on the California Proposition 65 warning list as a carcinogen since 2009, but leaves and pure THC
THC
are not.[45] Head and neck[edit] A 2011 review of studies in the United States found that although some supported the hypothesis that cannabis use increased the risk of getting head and neck cancer, when other factors are accounted for the majority did not.[36] Gordon and colleagues (2013) said there was a risk of these cancers associated with marijuana use over a long period of time.[6] A 2015 review found no association with lifetime cannabis use and the development of head and neck cancer.[46] Respiratory effects[edit]

Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, 512 AD

A 2013 literature review by Gordon and colleagues concluded that inhaled marijuana is associated with lung disease,[6] although Tashkin's 2013 review has found "no clear link to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease".[40] Of the various methods of cannabis consumption, smoking is considered the most harmful; the inhalation of smoke from organic materials can cause various health problems (e.g., coughing and sputum). Isoprenes help to modulate and slow down reaction rates, contributing to the significantly differing qualities of partial combustion products from various sources.[47][48] Smoking cannabis has been linked to adverse respiratory effects including: chronic coughing, wheezing, sputum production, and acute bronchitis.[44] It has been suggested that the common practice of inhaling cannabis smoke deeply and holding breath could lead to pneumothorax. In a few case reports involving immunocompromised patients, pulmonary infections such as aspergillosis have been attributed to smoking cannabis contaminated with fungi. The transmission of tuberculosis has been linked to cannabis inhalation techniques, such as sharing water pipes and 'Hotboxing'.[49] Reproductive and endocrine effects[edit] Main article: Cannabis
Cannabis
in pregnancy A study released by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine cited significant evidence for a statistical link between mothers who smoke marijuana during pregnancy and lower birth weights of their babies.[24] Cannabis
Cannabis
consumption in pregnancy is associated with restrictions in growth of the fetus, miscarriage, and cognitive deficits in offspring.[50] Although the majority of research has concentrated on the adverse effects of alcohol, there is now evidence that prenatal exposure to cannabis has serious effects on the developing brain and is associated with "deficits in language, attention, areas of cognitive performance, and delinquent behavior in adolescence".[51] A report prepared for the Australian National Council on Drugs concluded cannabis and other cannabinoids are contraindicated in pregnancy as it may interact with the endocannabinoid system.[28] Mortality[edit] No fatal overdoses associated with cannabis use have been reported.[32] Due to the small number of studies that have been conducted, the evidence is insufficient to show a long-term elevated risk of mortality from any cause. Motor vehicle accidents, suicide, and possible respiratory and brain cancers are all of interest to many researchers, but no studies have been able to show a consistent increase in mortality from these causes.[32] See also[edit]

Medical cannabis Effects of cannabis Cannabinoid
Cannabinoid
hyperemesis syndrome

References[edit]

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v t e

Cannabis
Cannabis
plant

Recreational and medical applications

rights

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General

Autoflowering cannabis Cannabis

indica ruderalis sativa Difference between C. indica and C. sativa

Consumption Cultivation Etymology (cannabis, marijuana) Glossary Cannabis
Cannabis
strains Synthetic cannabis

Usage

General

Medical cannabis

History

Timeline Religious and spiritual use

Chalice

Hemp

Hanfparade List of hemp diseases List of hemp products
List of hemp products
( Hempcrete
Hempcrete
 • Jewelry  • Milk  • Oil  • Paper) Hemp
Hemp
for Victory Hemp
Hemp
Industries Association The Emperor Wears No Clothes

Variants

Cannabis
Cannabis
edible

Bhang Cannabis
Cannabis
tea

Cannabis
Cannabis
smoking Vaporizing

Preparations

Kief Charas Essential oil Tincture

Extracts by potency

Hash oil Hashish

Phytocannabinoids

Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(CBD) Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC)

Effects

Cannabis
Cannabis
in pregnancy Effects of cannabis

Long-term

Endocannabinoid system Dependence

Culture

420 Cannabis
Cannabis
Culture Competitions Films High Times Music Religion Head shop

Pro-Cannabis organizations

ACT AMMA Aotearoa (ALCP) ASA Buyers Club CCRMG CLEAR CRC DPA FCA GMM LEAP MAPS MPP NCIA NORML SAFER Social Club SSDP SCC

Use demographics

Adult lifetime use by country Annual use by country

Politics

General

Bootleggers and Baptists Drug testing Global Marijuana
Marijuana
March Legality

Legality by country Legal and medical status Legal history in the United States

Marijuana Anonymous (MA) Marijuana
Marijuana
Control, Regulation, and Education Act Marihuana Tax Act of 1937

Major legal reforms

UK: Return to class B Uruguay: Law No. 19172 US:

Decriminalization of non-medical use Rescheduling per the Controlled Substances Act

Politicians and parties

Cannabis
Cannabis
political parties List of British politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use List of US politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use

Legal cases

ADPF 187 Gonzales v. Raich Ker v. California Kyllo v. United States
Kyllo v. United States
(thermal imaging) Leary v. United States

Category Portal

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Cannabinoids

Phytocannabinoids

Alkylamides Caryophyllene CBC CBCV CBD CBDV CBG CBGM CBGV CBL CBDL CBN CBV Epigallocatechin gallate Gallocatechol Perrottetinene Serinolamide A THC THC-C4 THCA THCV Yangonin

Active metabolites: 8,11-DiOH-THC 11-COOH-THC 11-OH-THC

Endocannabinoids

Arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA; anandamide) 2-Arachidonoylglycerol
2-Arachidonoylglycerol
(2-AG) 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether
2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether
(2-AGE; noladin ether) 2-Oleoylglycerol
2-Oleoylglycerol
(2-OG) N-Arachidonoyl dopamine
N-Arachidonoyl dopamine
(NADA) N-Arachidonylglycine
N-Arachidonylglycine
(NAGly) 2-Arachidonoyl lysophosphatidylinositol (2-ALPI) N- Arachidonoyl serotonin
Arachidonoyl serotonin
(AA-5-HT) Docosatetraenoylethanolamide
Docosatetraenoylethanolamide
(DEA) Lysophosphatidylinositol
Lysophosphatidylinositol
(LPI) Oleamide Oleoylethanolamide
Oleoylethanolamide
(OEA) Palmitoylethanolamide
Palmitoylethanolamide
(PEA) RVD-Hpα Stearoylethanolamide (SEA) O-Arachidonoyl ethanolamine (O-AEA; virodhamine)

Synthetic cannabinoids

Classical cannabinoids (dibenzopyrans)

A-40174 A-41988 A-42574 Ajulemic acid AM-087 AM-411 AM-855 AM-905 AM-906 AM-919 AM-926 AM-938 AM-2389 AM-4030 AMG-1 AMG-3 AMG-36 AMG-41 Dexanabinol
Dexanabinol
(HU-211) DMHP Dronabinol HHC HU-210 HU-243 JWH-051 JWH-133 JWH-139 JWH-161 JWH-229 JWH-359 KM-233 L-759,633 L-759,656 Levonantradol
Levonantradol
(CP 50,5561) Menabitan Nabazenil Nabidrox (Canbisol) Nabilone Nabitan Naboctate O-224 O-581 O-774 O-806 O-823 O-1057 O-1125 O-1191 O-1238 O-2048 O-2113 O-2365 O-2372 O-2373 O-2383 O-2426 O-2484 O-2545 O-2694 O-2715 O-2716 O-3223 O-3226 Parahexyl Pirnabine THC-O-acetate THC-O-phosphate

Non-classical cannabinoids

Cannabicyclohexanol CBD-DMH CP 47,497 (C6)-CP 47,497 (C9)-CP 47,497 CP 55,244 CP 55,940 HU-308 HU-320 HU-331 HU-336 HU-345 HU-446 HU-465 HU-910 HUF-101 Nonabine O-1376 O-1422 O-1601 O-1656 O-1657 O-1660 O-1663 O-1871 SPA-229 Tinabinol

Benzoylindoles

1-Butyl-3-(2-methoxybenzoyl)indole 1-Butyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)indole 1-Pentyl-3-(2-methoxybenzoyl)indole AM-630 AM-679 AM-694 AM-1241 AM-2233 GW-405,833
GW-405,833
(L-768,242) Pravadoline RCS-4 WIN 54,461

Naphthoylindoles

AM-1220 AM-1221 AM-1235 AM-2201 AM-2232 CHM-081 EAM-2201 FUB-JWH-018 JWH-007 JWH-015 JWH-018 JWH-019 JWH-073 JWH-081 JWH-098 JWH-116 JWH-122 JWH-149 JWH-164 JWH-182 JWH-193 JWH-198 JWH-200 JWH-210 JWH-398 JWH-424 MAM-1220 MAM-2201 NE-CHMIMO

Naphthoylindazoles

THJ-018 THJ-2201

Pyrrolobenzoxazines

WIN 55,212-2

Naphthylmethylindoles

JWH-175 JWH-176 JWH-184 JWH-185 JWH-192 JWH-194 JWH-195 JWH-196 JWH-197 JWH-199

Phenylacetylindoles

Cannabipiperidiethanone JWH-167 JWH-203 JWH-249 JWH-250 JWH-251 JWH-302 RCS-8

Indole-3-carboxamides

5F-ADBICA 5F-NNE1 5F-PCN 5F-SDB-006 AB-FUBICA AB-PICA ADBICA ADB-FUBICA APICA CUMYL-BICA CUMYL-PICA CUMYL-5F-PICA FDU-NNE1 MDMB-CHMICA MMB-2201 MN-25
MN-25
(UR-12) NNE1 PX-1 Org 28312 Org 28611 SDB-006 STS-135

Indole-3-carboxylates

5F-PB-22 FDU-PB-22 FUB-PB-22 QUCHIC
QUCHIC
(BB-22) QUPIC
QUPIC
(PB-22) NM-2201

Tetramethylcyclo- propanoylindoles

5Br-UR-144 5Cl-UR-144 A-796,260 A-834,735 FUB-144 UR-144 XLR-11 XLR-12

Indazole-3- carboxamides

5Cl-APINACA 5F-ADB 5F-ADB-PINACA 5F-AMB 5F-APINACA 5F-CUMYL-PINACA 5F-EMB-PINACA AB-CHMINACA AB-FUBINACA AB-FUBINACA
AB-FUBINACA
2-fluorobenzyl isomer AB-PINACA ADB-CHMINACA ADB-FUBINACA ADB-PINACA ADAMANTYL-THPINACA ADSB-FUB-187 AMB-CHMINACA AMB-FUBINACA APINACA
APINACA
(AKB48) APP-FUBINACA CUMYL-4CN-BINACA CUMYL-PINACA CUMYL-THPINACA EMB-FUBINACA FUB-APINACA MDMB-FUBINACA MDMB-CHMINACA MN-18 PX-2 PX-3

Tetramethylcyclo- propanoylindazoles

FAB-144

Naphthoylpyrroles

JWH-030 JWH-147 JWH-307 JWH-369 JWH-370

Eicosanoids

AM-883 AM-1346 ACEA ACPA Methanandamide
Methanandamide
(AM-356) O-585 O-689 O-1812 O-1860 O-1861

Pyrazolecarboxamides

5F-AB-FUPPYCA AB-CHFUPYCA AB-CHMFUPPYCA

Others

4-HTMPIPO 5F-PY-PICA 5F-PY-PINACA 5F-3-pyridinoylindole A-836,339 A-955,840 Abnormal cannabidiol AB-001 BzODZ-EPyr AM-1248 AM-1714 AZ-11713908 BAY 38-7271 BAY 59-3074 BIM-018 CB-13 CB-86 CBS-0550 CUMYL-4CN-B7AICA CUMYL-5F-P7AICA CUMYL-PEGACLONE FUBIMINA GSK-554,418A GW-842,166X JTE 7-31 LASSBio-881 LBP-1 Leelamine MDA-7 MDA-19 MEPIRAPIM NESS-040C5 NMP-7 O-889 O-1269 O-1270 O-1399 O-1602 O-2220 PF-03550096 PSB-SB-1202 PTI-1 PTI-2 QMPSB S-444,823 SER-601 Tedalinab URB-447 VSN-16 WIN 56,098

Allosteric CBR ligands

Org 27569 Org 27759 Org 29647 RTI-371 Pregnenolone

Endocannabinoid enhancers (inactivation inhibitors)

4-Nonylphenylboronic acid AM-404 Arachidonoyl serotonin Arvanil BIA 10-2474 Biochanin A CAY-10401 CAY-10429 Genistein Guineesine IDFP JNJ 1661010 JNJ-42165279 JZL184 JZL195 Kaempferol LY-2183240 MK-4409 O-1624 O-2093 Oleoylethanolamide
Oleoylethanolamide
(OEA) Olvanil Palmitoylethanolamide
Palmitoylethanolamide
(PEA) PF-04457845 PF-622 PF-750 PF-3845 PHOP URB-447 URB-597 URB-602 URB-754 VDM-11

Anticannabinoids (antagonists/inverse agonists/antibodies)

AM-251 AM-281 AM-630 AM-1387 AM-4113 AM-6527 AM-6545 BML-190 Brizantin (Бризантин) CAY-10508 CB-25 CB-52 CB-86 Dietressa (Диетресса) Drinabant
Drinabant
(AVE1625) Hemopressin Ibipinabant
Ibipinabant
(SLV319) JTE-907 LH-21 LY-320,135 MDA-77 MJ-15 MK-9470 NESS-0327 NIDA-41020 O-606 O-1184 O-1248 O-1918 O-2050 O-2654 Otenabant
Otenabant
(CP-945,598) PF-514273 PipISB PSB-SB-487 Rimonabant
Rimonabant
(SR141716) Rosonabant
Rosonabant
(E-6776) SR-144,528 Surinabant
Surinabant
(SR147778) Taranabant
Taranabant
(MK-0364) TM-38837 VCHSR

See also: Cannabinoid receptor
Cannabinoid receptor
modulators (cannabinoids by pharmacology) List of: AM cannabinoids JWH cannabinoids Designer drugs § Synthetic cannabimimetics

v t e

Recreational drug use

Major recreational drugs

Depressants

Barbiturates Benzodiazepines Carbamates Ethanol (alcohol)

Alcoholic drinks Beer Wine

Gabapentinoids GHB Inhalants

Medical

Nitrous oxide

Hazardous solvents

contact adhesives Gasoline nail polish remover Paint thinner

Other

Freon

Kava Nonbenzodiazepines Quinazolinones

Opioids

Buprenorphine

Suboxone Subutex

Codeine Desomorphine

Krokodil

Dextropropoxyphene

Darvocet Darvon

Fentanyl Diamorphine

Heroin

Hydrocodone Hydromorphone

Dilaudid

Methadone Mitragyna speciosa

Kratom

Morphine

Opium

Oxycodone

/paracetamol

Tramadol

Stimulants

Amphetamine Arecoline

Areca

Betel Caffeine

Coffee Energy drinks Tea

Cathinone

Khat

Cocaine

Coca Crack

Ephedrine

Ephedra

MDPV Mephedrone Methamphetamine Methylone Methylphenidate Modafinil Nicotine

Tobacco

Theobromine

Cocoa Chocolate

Entactogens

2C series 6-APB

Benzofury

AMT MDA MDMA

Ecstasy

Hallucinogens

Psychedelics

Bufotenin

Psychoactive toads Vilca Yopo

DMT

Ayahuasca

LSA LSD-25 Mescaline

Peruvian torch Peyote San Pedro

Psilocybin
Psilocybin
/ Psilocin

Psilocybin
Psilocybin
mushrooms

Dissociatives

DXM Glaucine Inhalants

Nitrous oxide alkyl nitrites poppers amyl nitrite

Ketamine MXE Muscimol

Amanita muscaria

PCP Salvinorin A

Salvia divinorum

Deliriants

Atropine
Atropine
and Scopolamine

Atropa belladonna Datura Hyoscyamus niger Mandragora officinarum

Dimenhydrinate Diphenhydramine

Cannabinoids

JWH-018 THC

Cannabis Hashish Hash oil Marijuana

Oneirogens

Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis

Club drugs

Cocaine Quaaludes MDMA
MDMA
(Ecstasy) Nitrous oxide Poppers

Drug culture

Cannabis
Cannabis
culture

420 Cannabis
Cannabis
cultivation Cannabis
Cannabis
smoking Head shop Legal history of cannabis in the United States Legality of cannabis Marijuana
Marijuana
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Coffee
Coffee
culture

Coffee
Coffee
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Tea
house

Drinking culture

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Beer
culture Beer
Beer
festival Binge drinking Diethyl ether Drinking games Drinking song Happy hour Hip flask Nightclub Pub Pub
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Wine
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Wine
tasting

Psychedelia

Psychonautics Art Drug Era Experience Literature Music Microdosing Therapy

Smoking culture

Cigarette card Fashion cigarettes Cloud-chasing Loosie Smokeasy Smoking fetishism Tobacco
Tobacco
smoking

Other

Club drug Counterculture of the 1960s Dance party Drug paraphernalia Drug tourism Entheogen Hippie Nootropic Party and play Poly drug use Rave Religion and drugs Self-medication Sex and drugs Whoonga

Drug production and trade

Drug production

Coca
Coca
production in Colombia Drug precursors Opium
Opium
production in Afghanistan Rolling meth lab

Drug trade

Illegal drug trade

Colombia

Darknet market Drug distribution

Beer
Beer
shop Cannabis
Cannabis
shop Liquor store Liquor license

Issues with drug use

Abuse Date rape drug Impaired driving Drug harmfulness

Effects of cannabis

Addiction Dependence

Prevention Opioid
Opioid
replacement therapy Rehabilitation Responsible use

Drug-related crime Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Long-term effects of cannabis Neurotoxicity Overdose Passive smoking

of tobacco or other substances

Legality of drug use

International

1961 Narcotic Drugs 1971 Psychotropic Substances 1988 Drug Trafficking Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs

State level

Drug policy

Decriminalization Prohibition Supply reduction

Policy reform

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Latin America

Students for Sensible Drug Policy Transform Drug Policy Foundation

Drug policy by country

Australia Canada Germany India Netherlands Portugal Slovakia Soviet Union Sweden Switzerland United States

Just Say No Office of National Drug Control Policy School district drug policies California Colorado Maryland Virginia

Other

Arguments for and against drug prohibition Capital punishment for drug trafficking Cognitive liberty Designer drug Drug court Drug possession Drug test Narc Politics of drug abuse War on Drugs

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Zero tolerance

Lists of countries by...

Alcohol legality

Alcohol consumption

Anabolic steroid legality Cannabis
Cannabis
legality

Annual use Lifetime use

Cigarette consumption Cocaine
Cocaine
legality

Cocaine
Cocaine
use

Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
legality Opiates use Psilocybin
Psilocybin
mushrooms legali

.