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The Info List - Long-term Effects Of Cannabis



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The LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF CANNABIS have been the subject of ongoing debate. Because cannabis is illegal in most countries , research presents a challenge; as such, there remains much to be concluded.

CONTENTS

* 1 Memory and intelligence * 2 Dependency

* 3 Mental health

* 3.1 Acute psychosis * 3.2 Anxiety * 3.3 Depersonalization/derealization symptoms

* 3.4 Chronic psychosis

* 3.4.1 Schizophrenia

* 3.5 Depressive disorder * 3.6 Mania symptoms * 3.7 Suicidal behaviour

* 4 Gateway drug hypothesis

* 5 Physical health

* 5.1 Brain * 5.2 Heart and circulation

* 5.3 Cancer

* 5.3.1 Testicular * 5.3.2 Lung * 5.3.3 Head and neck

* 5.4 Respiratory effects * 5.5 Reproductive and endocrine effects * 5.6 Mortality

* 6 See also * 7 References

MEMORY AND INTELLIGENCE

Acute cannabis intoxication has been shown to negatively affect attention, psychomotor task ability, and short-term memory. A 2016 review found that chronic use of cannabis during adolescence, a time when the brain is still developing, was correlated in the long term with lower IQ and chronic cognitive deficits, but it was not clear if chronic use caused the problems or if "persons who have poorer cognitive functioning may be more vulnerable to cannabis use and abuse." A 2013 review had similar findings.

Use of cannabis negatively impacts driving skills and leads to an increased risk of crashing.

DEPENDENCY

Main article: Cannabis
Cannabis
use disorder

Cannabis
Cannabis
is the most widely used illicit drug in the Western world, and in the US 10 to 20% of consumers who use cannabis daily become dependent. Cannabis
Cannabis
use disorder is defined in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-5 ) as a condition requiring treatment. A 2012 review of cannabis use and dependency in the US by Danovitch et al said that in the US, "42% of persons over age 12 have used cannabis at least once in their lifetime, 11.5% have used within the past year, and 1.8% have met diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence within the past year. Among individuals who have ever used cannabis, conditional dependence (the proportion who go on to develop dependence) is 9%." Although no medication is known to be effective in combating dependency, combinations of psychotherapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy and motivational enhancement therapy have achieved some success.

Cannabis
Cannabis
dependence develops in 9% users, significantly less than that of heroin, cocaine, alcohol, and prescribed anxiolytics , but slightly higher than that for psilocybin , mescaline , or LSD
LSD
. Dependence on cannabis tends to be less severe than that observed with cocaine, opiates, and alcohol.

MENTAL HEALTH

Historically, the possible connection between psychosis and cannabis has been long-debated. Recent medical evidence strongly suggests that the long-term use of cannabis by people who begin use at an early age display a higher tendency towards mental health problems and other physical and development disorders, although the causal link is not yet definitively established. These risks appear to be most acute in adolescent users.

Cannabis
Cannabis
alone is not believed to cause psychosis , although it may be a contributory factor, particularly when combined with an existing susceptibility.

ACUTE PSYCHOSIS

Although there has been an association noted between cases of acute psychosis and long-term cannabis use, the precise nature of the relationship is controversial; evidence suggests that cannabis use may worsen psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of relapse.

ANXIETY

A 2014 meta-analysis found an association between cannabis use and anxiety .

DEPERSONALIZATION/DEREALIZATION SYMPTOMS

Cannabis
Cannabis
use may precipitate new-onset panic attacks and depersonalization/derealization symptoms simultaneously.

CHRONIC PSYCHOSIS

According to one 2013 review, long term cannabis use "increases the risk of psychosis in people with certain genetic or environmental vulnerabilities", but does not cause psychosis. Important predisposing factors include genetic liability, childhood trauma and urban upbringing. Another 2013 review concluded that cannabis use may cause permanent psychological disorders in some users such as cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia, and increased risks of psychosis. Key predisposing variables include age of first exposure, frequency of use, the potency of the cannabis used, and individual susceptibility. A 2013 review stated that there exists "a strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use...". The authors found that cannabis use alone does not predict the transition to subsequent psychiatric illness. Many factors are involved, including genetics, environment, time period of initiation and duration of cannabis use, underlying psychiatric pathology that preceded drug use, and combined use of other psychoactive drugs.

A 2014 review said that "Because longitudinal work indicates that cannabis use precedes psychotic symptoms, it seems reasonable to assume a causal relationship" between cannabis and psychosis, but that "more work is needed to address the possibility of gene-environment correlation." In the same year, a review examined psychological therapy as add-on for people with schizophrenia who are using cannabis:

Cannabis
Cannabis
reduction: adjunct psychological therapy versus treatment as usual SUMMARY

Results are limited and inconclusive because of the small number and size of randomized controlled trials available and quality of data reporting within these trials. More research is needed to explore the effects of adjunct psychological therapy that is specifically about cannabis and psychosis as currently there is no evidence for any novel intervention being better than standard treatment, for those that both use cannabis and have schizophrenia

OUTCOME FINDINGS IN WORDS FINDINGS IN NUMBERS QUALITY OF EVIDENCE

BEHAVIOR

Frequency of cannabis use (group-based therapy) Follow up: 1 year People in the intervention groups scored a little lower compared to people receiving treatment as usual but there was no clear difference between the therapy groups and standard care. This finding is based on data of moderate quality. MD 0.1 lower (2.44 lower to 2.24 higher)* Moderate

MENTAL STATE

Average score (PANSS ) - positive symptoms Follow up: 12 months On average, people receiving cannabis reduction therapy scored lower than people treated with treatment as usual but there was no clear difference between groups. This finding is based on data of moderate quality. MD 0.3 lower (2.55 lower to 1.95 higher)* Moderate

QUALITY OF LIFE

Average score (WHO QOL questionnaire) Follow up: 1 years On average, people receiving cannabis reduction therapy scored higher compared to people in the control group receiving treatment as usual. There was, however, no clear difference between the groups and these findings are based on data of moderate quality. MD 0.9 higher (1.15 lower to 2.95 higher)* Moderate

No study reported any data on outcomes such as relapse, adverse effects , leaving the study early and information relating to satisfaction with treatment

* At present the meaning of these scores in day-to-day care is unclear.

A 2016 meta-analysis found that cannabis use increases the risk of psychosis, and that a dose-response relationship exists between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis. The analysis was not able to establish a causal link. Another 2016 meta-analysis found that cannabis use only predicted transition to psychosis among those who met the criteria for abuse of or dependence on the drug.

A 2016 review found that the epidemiologic evidence regarding cannabis use and psychosis was strong enough "to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders," but also cautioned that additional studies are needed to determine the size of the effect. A 2016 review said that the existing evidence did not show that cannabis caused psychosis, but rather that early or heavy cannabis use were among many factors more likely to be found in those at risk of developing psychosis.

Schizophrenia

There is substantial evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and the development of schizophrenia or other psychoses, with the highest risk among the most frequent users.

Use of cannabis in adolescence or earlier is correlated with developing schizoaffective disorders in adult life, although the proportion of these cases is small. Susceptibility is most often found in users with at least one copy of the polymorphic COMT gene .

Cannabis
Cannabis
with a high THC
THC
to CBD ratio produces a higher incidence of psychological effects. CBD may show antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties, acting as an antagonist to some of the effects of THC. Studies examining this effect have used high ratios of CBD to THC, and it is unclear to what extent these laboratory studies translate to the types of cannabis used by real life users. Research has shown that CBD can safely prevent psychosis in general.

DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

Less attention has been given to the association between cannabis use and depression , though according to the Australian National Drug on the contrary, heart attack, that is myocardial infarction , stroke , and other adverse cardiovascular events have occurred in association with its use. Using Marijuana
Marijuana
for people with cardiovascular disease constitutes a health risk because it can lead to increased cardiac work, increased catecholamine levels, impaired blood oxygen carrying capacity due to the production of carboxyhemoglobin .

CANCER

A 2012 review examining the relation of cancer and cannabis found little direct evidence that cannabinoids found in cannabis, including THC
THC
, are carcinogenic. Cannabinoids are not mutagenic according to the Ames test
Ames test
. However, cannabis smoke has been found to be carcinogenic in rodents and mutagenic in the Ames test. Correlating cannabis use with the development of human cancers has been problematic due to difficulties in quantifying cannabis use, unmeasured confounders , and that cannabinoids may have anti-cancer effects.

According to a 2013 literature review, marijuana could be carcinogenic, but there are methodological limitations in studies making it difficult to establish a link between marijuana use and cancer risk. The authors say that bladder cancer does seem to be linked to habitual marijuana use, and that there may be a risk for cancers of the head and neck among long-term (more than 20 years) users. Gordon and colleagues said, "there does appear to be an increased risk of cancer (particularly head and neck, lung, and bladder cancer) for those who use marijuana over a period of time, although what length of time that this risk increases is uncertain."

Testicular

In 2012 WebMD said that a number of studies had suggested a link between cannabis use and an increased risk of testicular cancer , but that the overall risk remained small and that more research is needed to confirm the findings. According to Gordon and colleagues, "several recent studies suggest an association between marijuana use and testicular germ cell tumors".

Lung

There have been a limited number of studies that have looked at the effects of smoking cannabis on the respiratory system. Chronic heavy marijuana smoking is associated with coughing, production of sputum, wheezing, and other symptoms of chronic bronchitis. Regular cannabis use has not been shown to cause significant abnormalities in lung function.

Regular cannabis smokers show pathological changes in lung cells similar to those that precede the development of lung cancer in tobacco smokers. Gordon and colleagues in a 2013 literature review said: "Unfortunately, methodological limitations in many of the reviewed studies, including selection bias, small sample size, limited generalizability, and lack of adjustment for tobacco smoking, may limit the ability to attribute cancer risk solely to marijuana use." Reviewing studies adjusted for age and tobacco use, they said there was a risk of lung cancer even after adjusting for tobacco use, but that the period of time over which the risk increases is uncertain.

A 2013 review which specifically examined the effects of cannabis on the lung concluded "Findings from a limited number of well-designed epidemiological studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use, although evidence is mixed concerning possible carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term use."

In 2013 the International Lung Cancer Consortium found no significant additional lung cancer risk in tobacco users who also smoked cannabis. Nor did they find an increased risk in cannabis smokers who did not use tobacco. They concluded that "Our pooled results showed no significant association between the intensity, duration, or cumulative consumption of cannabis smoke and the risk of lung cancer overall or in never smokers." They cautioned that "Our results cannot preclude the possibility that cannabis may exhibit an association with lung cancer risk at extremely high dosage."

Cannabis
Cannabis
smoke contains thousands of organic and inorganic chemicals, including many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke. A 2012 special report by the British Lung Foundation concluded that cannabis smoking was linked to many adverse effects, including bronchitis and lung cancer. They identified cannabis smoke as a carcinogen and also said awareness of the danger was low compared with the high awareness of the dangers of smoking tobacco particularly among younger users. They said there was an increased risk from each cannabis cigarette due to drawing in large puffs of smoke and holding them. Marijuana
Marijuana
smoke has been listed on the California Proposition 65 warning list as a carcinogen since 2009, but leaves and pure THC
THC
are not.

Head And Neck

A 2011 review of studies in the US found that although some supported the hypothesis that cannabis use increased the risk of getting head and neck cancer, when other factors are accounted for the majority did not. Gordon and colleagues (2013) said there was a risk of these cancers associated with marijuana use over a long period of time. A 2015 review found no association with lifetime cannabis use and the development of head and neck cancer.

RESPIRATORY EFFECTS

Cannabis
Cannabis
sativa from Vienna Dioscurides , 512 AD

A 2013 literature review by Gordon and colleagues concluded that inhaled marijuana is associated with lung disease, although Tashkin's 2013 review has found "no clear link to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ".

Of the various methods of cannabis consumption, smoking is considered the most harmful; the inhalation of smoke from organic materials can cause various health problems (e.g., coughing and sputum ). Isoprenes help to modulate and slow down reaction rates, contributing to the significantly differing qualities of partial combustion products from various sources.

Smoking cannabis has been linked to adverse respiratory effects including: chronic coughing, wheezing, sputum production, and acute bronchitis. It has been suggested that the common practice of inhaling cannabis smoke deeply and holding breath could lead to pneumothorax . In a few case reports involving immunocompromised patients, pulmonary infections such as aspergillosis have been attributed to smoking cannabis contaminated with fungi. The transmission of tuberculosis has been linked to cannabis inhalation techniques, such as sharing water pipes and 'Hotboxing '.

REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDOCRINE EFFECTS

Main article: Cannabis
Cannabis
in pregnancy

A study released by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine cited significant evidence for a statistical link between mothers who smoke marijuana during pregnancy and lower birth weights of their babies. Cannabis
Cannabis
consumption in pregnancy is associated with restrictions in growth of the fetus, miscarriage, and cognitive deficits in offspring. Although the majority of research has concentrated on the adverse effects of alcohol, there is now evidence that prenatal exposure to cannabis has serious effects on the developing brain and is associated with "deficits in language, attention, areas of cognitive performance, and delinquent behavior in adolescence". A report prepared for the Australian National Council on Drugs concluded cannabis and other cannabinoids are contraindicated in pregnancy as it may interact with the endocannabinoid system .

MORTALITY

No fatal overdoses associated with cannabis use have been reported. Due to the small number of studies that have been conducted, the evidence is insufficient to show a long-term elevated risk of mortality from any cause. Motor vehicle accidents, suicide, and possible respiratory and brain cancers are all of interest to many researchers, but no studies have been able to show a consistent increase in mortality from these causes.

SEE ALSO

* Medical cannabis * Effects of cannabis * Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome

REFERENCES

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Cannabidiol
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Therapeutics. 1 (3–4): 133–152. doi :10.1300/J175v01n03_09 . * ^ Tashkin DP (June 2005). "Smoked marijuana as a cause of lung injury". Monaldi Arch Chest Dis (Review). 63 (2): 93–100. PMID 16128224 . * ^ Lutchmansingh, D; Pawar, L; Savici, D (2014). "Legalizing Cannabis: A physician\'s primer on the pulmonary effects of marijuana." . Current respiratory care reports. 3 (4): 200–205. PMC 4226845  . PMID 25401045 . doi :10.1007/s13665-014-0093-1 . * ^ Fonseca BM, Correia-da-Silva G, Almada M, Costa MA, Teixeira NA (2013). "The Endocannabinoid System in the Postimplantation Period: A Role during Decidualization and Placentation" . Int J Endocrinol (Review). 2013: 510540. PMC 3818851  . PMID 24228028 . doi :10.1155/2013/510540 . In fact, maternal marijuana use has been associated with foetal growth restrictions, spontaneous miscarriage, and cognitive deficits in infancy and adolescence. * ^ Irner TB (2012). "Substance exposure in utero and developmental consequences in adolescence: a systematic review". Child Neuropsychol (Review). 18 (6): 521–49. PMID 22114955 . doi :10.1080/09297049.2011.628309 .

* v * t * e

Cannabis
Cannabis
plant

* Recreational and Medical applications * Industrial applications

GENERAL

* Autoflowering cannabis
Autoflowering cannabis

* Cannabis
Cannabis

* indica * ruderalis * sativa * Difference between C. indica and C. sativa

* Cannabis
Cannabis
flower essential oil * Consumption * Cultivation * Etymology (cannabis, marijuana) * Glossary * Cannabis
Cannabis
strains * Synthetic cannabis
Synthetic cannabis

USAGE

GENERAL

* Medical cannabis

* History

* Timeline

* Religious and spiritual use

* Chalice

HEMP

* Hanfparade * List of hemp diseases
List of hemp diseases
* List of hemp products ( Hempcrete • Jewelry • Milk • Oil ) * Hemp
Hemp
for Victory * Hemp
Hemp
Industries Association * The Emperor Wears No Clothes
The Emperor Wears No Clothes

VARIANTS

* Bhang
Bhang
* Cannabis
Cannabis
edibles * Cannabis
Cannabis
smoking * Cannabis
Cannabis
tea * Vaporizing

* PREPARATIONS

* Kief
Kief
* Charas * Tincture

* EXTRACTS BY POTENCY

* Hash oil
Hash oil
* Hashish
Hashish

* PHYTOCANNABINOIDS

* Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(CBD) * Tetrahydrocannabinol
Tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC)

EFFECTS

* Cannabis
Cannabis
in pregnancy

* Effects of cannabis

* Long-term

* Endocannabinoid system * Dependence

CULTURE

* 420 * Cannabis
Cannabis
Culture * Competitions * Films * High Times * Music * Religion * Head shop

Pro-Cannabis organizations

* ACT * AMMA * Aotearoa (ALCP) * ASA * Buyers Club * CCRMG * CLEAR * CRC * DPA * FCA * GMM * LEAP * MAPS * MPP * NCIA * NORML * SAFER * Social Club * SSDP * SCC

USE DEMOGRAPHICS

* Adult lifetime use by country * Annual use by country

POLITICS

GENERAL

* Bootleggers and Baptists * Drug testing * Global Marijuana March

* Legality

* Legality by country * Legal and medical status * Legal history in the United States

* Marijuana Anonymous (MA) * Marijuana Control, Regulation, and Education Act
Marijuana Control, Regulation, and Education Act
* Marihuana Tax Act of 1937

Major legal reforms

* UK: Return to class B * Uruguay: Law No. 19172

* USA: Decriminalization of non-medical use

* Places that have decriminalized non-medical use * Removal from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act

Politicians and parties

* Cannabis
Cannabis
political parties * List of British politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use * List of U.S. politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use

LEGAL CASES

* ADPF 187 * Gonzales v. Raich
Gonzales v. Raich
* Kyllo v. United States
Kyllo v. United States
(thermal imaging)

* CATEGORY * PORTAL

* v * t * e

Cannabinoids

PHYTOCANNABINOIDS

* Alkylamides * Caryophyllene * CBC * CBCV * CBD * CBDV * CBG * CBGM * CBGV * CBL * CBDL * CBN * CBV * Epigallocatechin gallate
Epigallocatechin gallate
* Gallocatechol * Perrottetinene * Serinolamide A * THC
THC
* THC-C4 * THCA * THCV * Yangonin

* Active metabolites: 8,11-DiOH- THC
THC
* 11-COOH- THC
THC
* 11-OH- THC
THC

ENDOCANNABINOIDS

* Arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA; anandamide) * 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) * 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (2-AGE; noladin ether) * 2-Oleoylglycerol (2-OG) * N-Arachidonoyl dopamine
N-Arachidonoyl dopamine
(NADA) * N-Arachidonylglycine (NAGly) * 2-Arachidonoyl lysophosphatidylinositol (2-ALPI) * N- Arachidonoyl serotonin
Arachidonoyl serotonin
(AA-5-HT) * Docosatetraenoylethanolamide
Docosatetraenoylethanolamide
(DEA) * Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) * Oleamide * Oleoylethanolamide
Oleoylethanolamide
(OEA) * Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) * RVD-Hpα * Stearoylethanolamide (SEA) * O-Arachidonoyl ethanolamine (O-AEA; virodhamine)

Synthetic cannabinoids

Classical cannabinoids (dibenzopyrans)

* A-40174
A-40174
* A-41988
A-41988
* A-42574 * Ajulemic acid
Ajulemic acid
* AM-087 * AM-411 * AM-855
AM-855
* AM-905
AM-905
* AM-906
AM-906
* AM-919
AM-919
* AM-926 * AM-938
AM-938
* AM-2389 * AM-4030
AM-4030
* AMG-1
AMG-1
* AMG-3
AMG-3
* AMG-36
AMG-36
* AMG-41
AMG-41
* Dexanabinol (HU-211) * DMHP * Dronabinol * HHC * HU-210 * HU-243
HU-243
* JWH-051
JWH-051
* JWH-133
JWH-133
* JWH-139 * JWH-161
JWH-161
* JWH-229 * JWH-359 * KM-233
KM-233
* L-759,633 * L-759,656 * Levonantradol (CP 50,5561) * Menabitan
Menabitan
* Nabazenil
Nabazenil
* Nabidrox (Canbisol) * Nabilone * Nabitan * Naboctate * O-224 * O-581 * O-774 * O-806 * O-823 * O-1057 * O-1125 * O-1191 * O-1238 * O-2048 * O-2113
O-2113
* O-2365 * O-2372 * O-2373 * O-2383 * O-2426 * O-2484 * O-2545 * O-2694 * O-2715 * O-2716 * O-3223 * O-3226 * Parahexyl
Parahexyl
* Pirnabine * THC-O-acetate
THC-O-acetate
* THC-O-phosphate

Non-classical cannabinoids

* Cannabicyclohexanol
Cannabicyclohexanol
* CBD-DMH * CP 47,497 * (C6)- CP 47,497 * (C9)- CP 47,497 * CP 55,244 * CP 55,940 * HU-308 * HU-320 * HU-331
HU-331
* HU-336
HU-336
* HU-345 * HU-446 * HU-465 * HU-910 * HUF-101 * Nonabine * O-1376 * O-1422 * O-1601 * O-1656 * O-1657 * O-1660 * O-1663 * O-1871 * SPA-229 * Tinabinol

BENZOYLINDOLES

* 1-Butyl-3-(2-methoxybenzoyl)indole * 1-Butyl-3-(4-methoxybenzoyl)indole * 1-Pentyl-3-(2-methoxybenzoyl)indole * AM-630 * AM-679 * AM-694 * AM-1241 * AM-2233 * GW-405,833 (L-768,242) * Pravadoline
Pravadoline
* RCS-4 * WIN 54,461

NAPHTHOYLINDOLES

* AM-1220 * AM-1221 * AM-1235
AM-1235
* AM-2201
AM-2201
* AM-2232
AM-2232
* CHM-081 * E AM-2201
AM-2201
* FUB- JWH-018 * JWH-007 * JWH-015 * JWH-018 * JWH-019
JWH-019
* JWH-073 * JWH-081
JWH-081
* JWH-098 * JWH-116 * JWH-122
JWH-122
* JWH-149 * JWH-164 * JWH-182 * JWH-193
JWH-193
* JWH-198 * JWH-200
JWH-200
* JWH-210
JWH-210
* JWH-398 * JWH-424 * M AM-1220 * M AM-2201
AM-2201
* NE-CHMIMO

NAPHTHOYLINDAZOLES

* THJ-018
THJ-018
* THJ-2201

PYRROLOBENZOXAZINES

* WIN 55,212-2
WIN 55,212-2

NAPHTHYLMETHYLINDOLES

* JWH-175
JWH-175
* JWH-176
JWH-176
* JWH-184 * JWH-185 * JWH-192 * JWH-194 * JWH-195 * JWH-196
JWH-196
* JWH-197 * JWH-199

PHENYLACETYLINDOLES

* Cannabipiperidiethanone * JWH-167 * JWH-203 * JWH-249
JWH-249
* JWH-250 * JWH-251 * JWH-302 * RCS-8

INDOLE-3-CARBOXAMIDES

* 5F-ADBICA * 5F-NNE1 * 5F-PCN * 5F-SDB-006
5F-SDB-006
* AB-FUBICA * AB-PICA
AB-PICA
* ADBICA
ADBICA
* ADB-FUBICA * APICA * CUMYL-BICA * CUMYL-PICA * CUMYL-5F-PICA * FDU-NNE1
FDU-NNE1
* MDMB-CHMICA * MMB-2201 * MN-25 (UR-12) * NNE1 * PX-1 * Org 28312 * Org 28611
Org 28611
* SDB-006
SDB-006
* STS-135

INDOLE-3-CARBOXYLATES

* 5F-PB-22 * FDU-PB-22 * FUB-PB-22
FUB-PB-22
* QUCHIC
QUCHIC
(BB-22) * QUPIC (PB-22) * NM-2201
NM-2201

Tetramethylcyclo- propanoylindoles

* 5Br- UR-144 * 5Cl- UR-144 * A-796,260 * A-834,735
A-834,735
* FUB-144 * UR-144 * XLR-11 * XLR-12

Indazole-3- carboxamides

* 5Cl- APINACA * 5F-ADB * 5F-ADB-PINACA * 5F-AMB
5F-AMB
* 5F-APINACA * 5F-CUMYL-PINACA
5F-CUMYL-PINACA
* 5F-EMB-PINACA * AB-CHMINACA * AB-FUBINACA * AB-FUBINACA 2-fluorobenzyl isomer * AB-PINACA * ADB-CHMINACA * ADB-FUBINACA
ADB-FUBINACA
* ADB-PINACA * ADAMANTYL-THPINACA * ADSB-FUB-187
ADSB-FUB-187
* AMB-CHMINACA
AMB-CHMINACA
* AMB-FUBINACA * APINACA (AKB48) * APP-FUBINACA
APP-FUBINACA
* CUMYL-4CN-BINACA * CUMYL-PINACA * CUMYL-THPINACA * EMB-FUBINACA * FUB- APINACA * MDMB-FUBINACA * MDMB-CHMINACA
MDMB-CHMINACA
* MN-18
MN-18
* PX-2 * PX-3

Tetramethylcyclo- propanoylindazoles

* FAB-144
FAB-144

NAPHTHOYLPYRROLES

* JWH-030 * JWH-147 * JWH-307 * JWH-369 * JWH-370

EICOSANOIDS

* AM-883 * AM-1346 * ACEA * ACPA * Methanandamide (AM-356) * O-585 * O-689 * O-1812
O-1812
* O-1860 * O-1861

PYRAZOLECARBOXAMIDES

* 5F-AB-FUPPYCA * AB-CHFUPYCA
AB-CHFUPYCA
* AB-CHMFUPPYCA

OTHERS

* 4-HTMPIPO * 5F-PY-PICA * 5F-PY-PINACA * 5F-3-pyridinoylindole * A-836,339 * A-955,840 * Abnormal cannabidiol * AB-001 * BzODZ-EPyr * AM-1248 * AM-1714
AM-1714
* AZ-11713908 * BAY 38-7271 * BAY 59-3074 * BIM-018
BIM-018
* CB-13
CB-13
* CB-86 * CBS-0550
CBS-0550
* CUMYL-5F-P7AICA * CUMYL-PEGACLONE * FUBIMINA * GSK-554,418A * GW-842,166X
GW-842,166X
* JTE 7-31 * LASSBio-881
LASSBio-881
* LBP-1 * Leelamine
Leelamine
* MDA-7 * MDA-19 * MEPIRAPIM * NESS-040C5
NESS-040C5
* NMP-7
NMP-7
* O-889 * O-1269 * O-1270 * O-1399 * O-1602 * O-2220 * PF-03550096
PF-03550096
* PSB-SB-1202 * PTI-1
PTI-1
* PTI-2 * QMPSB * S-444,823 * SER-601 * Tedalinab * URB-447 * VSN-16 * WIN 56,098

ALLOSTERIC CBR LIGANDS

* Org 27569
Org 27569
* Org 27759 * Org 29647 * RTI-371 * Pregnenolone
Pregnenolone

Endocannabinoid enhancers (inactivation inhibitors)

* 4-Nonylphenylboronic acid * AM-404 * Arachidonoyl serotonin
Arachidonoyl serotonin
* Arvanil * BIA 10-2474 * Biochanin A
Biochanin A
* CAY-10401 * CAY-10429 * Genistein
Genistein
* Guineesine * IDFP * JNJ 1661010 * JNJ-42165279 * JZL184
JZL184
* JZL195
JZL195
* Kaempferol * LY-2183240 * MK-4409 * O-1624 * O-2093 * Oleoylethanolamide
Oleoylethanolamide
(OEA) * Olvanil * Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) * PF-04457845 * PF-622 * PF-750 * PF-3845 * PHOP * URB-447 * URB-597 * URB-602 * URB-754 * VDM-11

Anticannabinoids (antagonists/inverse agonists/antibodies)

* AM-251 * AM-281 * AM-630 * AM-1387 * AM-4113 * AM-6527 * AM-6545
AM-6545
* BML-190 * Brizantin (Бризантин) * CAY-10508 * CB-25 * CB-52 * CB-86 * Dietressa (Диетресса) * Drinabant (AVE1625) * Hemopressin * Ibipinabant (SLV319) * JTE-907
JTE-907
* LH-21 * LY-320,135
LY-320,135
* MDA-77 * MJ-15 * MK-9470 * NESS-0327 * NIDA-41020 * O-606 * O-1184 * O-1248 * O-1918
O-1918
* O-2050
O-2050
* O-2654 * Otenabant (CP-945,598) * PF-514273
PF-514273
* PipISB * PSB-SB-487 * Rimonabant (SR141716) * Rosonabant (E-6776) * SR-144,528
SR-144,528
* Surinabant (SR147778) * Taranabant
Taranabant
(MK-0364) * TM-38837 * VCHSR

* SEE ALSO: Cannabinoid receptor modulators (cannabinoids by pharmacology) * List of: AM cannabinoids * JWH cannabinoids * Designer drugs § Synthetic cannabimimetics

* v * t * e

Recreational drug use

Major recreational drugs

DEPRESSANTS

* Barbiturates * Benzodiazepines * Carbamates

* Ethanol (alcohol)

* Alcoholic drinks * Beer
Beer
* Wine
Wine

* Gabapentinoids * GHB

* Inhalants

* Medical

* Nitrous oxide

* Hazardous solvents

* contact adhesives * Gasoline
Gasoline
* nail polish remover * Paint thinner

* Other

* Freon

* Kava
Kava
* Nonbenzodiazepines * Quinazolinones

OPIOIDS

* Buprenorphine

* Suboxone * Subutex

* Codeine
Codeine

* Desomorphine

* Krokodil

* Dextropropoxyphene

* Darvocet * Darvon

* Fentanyl

* Diamorphine

* Heroin

* Hydrocodone
Hydrocodone

* Hydromorphone

* Dilaudid

* Methadone
Methadone

* Mitragyna speciosa

* Kratom

* Morphine
Morphine

* Opium

* Oxycodone
Oxycodone

* /paracetamol

* Tramadol

STIMULANTS

* Amphetamine
Amphetamine

* Arecoline

* Areca

* Betel

* Caffeine
Caffeine

* Coffee
Coffee
* Energy drinks * Tea

* Cathinone

* Khat

* Cocaine

* Coca
Coca
* Crack

* Ephedrine

* Ephedra
Ephedra

* MDPV * Mephedrone
Mephedrone
* Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
* Methylone
Methylone
* Methylphenidate
Methylphenidate
* Modafinil

* Nicotine
Nicotine

* Tobacco

* Theobromine
Theobromine

* Cocoa * Chocolate
Chocolate

ENTACTOGENS

* MDA

* MDMA
MDMA

* Ecstasy

* 2C-* series * alpha-Methyltryptamine

* 6-APB

* Benzofury

HALLUCINOGENS

PSYCHEDELICS

* Bufotenin
Bufotenin

* Psychoactive toads * Vilca * Yopo

* DMT

* Ayahuasca

* LSA * LSD-25

* Mescaline
Mescaline

* Peruvian torch * Peyote
Peyote
* San Pedro

* Psilocybin / Psilocin
Psilocin

* Psilocybin mushrooms

DISSOCIATIVES

* DXM * Glaucine

* Inhalants

* Nitrous oxide * alkyl nitrites * poppers * amyl nitrite

* Ketamine
Ketamine
* MXE

* Muscimol

* Amanita muscaria

* PCP

* Salvinorin A

* Salvia divinorum

DELIRIANTS

* Atropine
Atropine
and Scopolamine
Scopolamine

* Atropa belladonna
Atropa belladonna
* Datura * Hyoscyamus niger
Hyoscyamus niger
* Mandragora officinarum

* Dimenhydrinate
Dimenhydrinate
* Diphenhydramine

CANNABINOIDS

* JWH-018

* THC
THC

* Cannabis
Cannabis
* Hashish
Hashish
* Hash oil
Hash oil
* Marijuana
Marijuana

ONEIROGENS

* Calea zacatechichi * Silene capensis

CLUB DRUGS

* Cocaine * Quaaludes * MDMA
MDMA
(Ecstasy) * Nitrous oxide * Poppers

DRUG CULTURE

CANNABIS CULTURE

* 420 * Cannabis
Cannabis
cultivation * Cannabis
Cannabis
smoking * Head shop * Legal history of cannabis in the United States * Legality of cannabis * Marijuana Policy Project * Medical cannabis * NORML * Cannabis
Cannabis
and religion * Stoner film

COFFEE CULTURE

* Coffee
Coffee
break * Coffeehouse
Coffeehouse
* Latte art
Latte art
* Tea house

DRINKING CULTURE

* Bartending * Beer
Beer
culture * Beer
Beer
festival * Binge drinking * Diethyl ether * Drinking games * Drinking song * Happy hour
Happy hour
* Hip flask * Nightclub * Pub
Pub
* Pub
Pub
crawl * Sommelier * Sports bar * Tailgate party * Wine
Wine
bar * Wine
Wine
tasting

PSYCHEDELIA

* Psychonautics * Art * Drug * Era * Experience * Literature * Music * Therapy

SMOKING CULTURE

* Cigarette card * Fashion cigarettes * Cloud-chasing * Loosie
Loosie
* Smokeasy * Smoking fetishism
Smoking fetishism
* Tobacco smoking

OTHER

* Club drug
Club drug
* Counterculture of the 1960s * Dance party * Drug paraphernalia * Drug tourism * Entheogen * Hippie * Nootropic * Party and play * Poly drug use
Poly drug use
* Rave
Rave
* Religion and drugs * Self-medication * Sex and drugs * Whoonga

Drug production and trade

Drug production

* Coca
Coca
production in Colombia * Drug precursors * Opium production in Afghanistan * Rolling meth lab

DRUG TRADE

* Illegal drug trade
Illegal drug trade

* Colombia

* Darknet market

* Drug distribution

* Beer
Beer
shop * Cannabis
Cannabis
shop * Liquor store * Liquor license

Issues with drug use

* Abuse * Date rape drug * Impaired driving

* Drug harmfulness
Drug harmfulness

* Effects of cannabis

* Addiction

* Dependence

* Prevention * Opioid replacement therapy * Rehabilitation * Responsible use

* Drug-related crime
Drug-related crime
* Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
* Long-term effects of cannabis * Neurotoxicity * Overdose

* Passive smoking

* of tobacco or other substances

Legality of drug use

INTERNATIONAL

* 1961 Narcotic Drugs * 1971 Psychotropic Substances * 1988 Drug Trafficking * Council of the European Union decisions on designer drugs

STATE LEVEL

* Drug policy
Drug policy

* Decriminalization * Prohibition * Supply reduction

* Policy reform

* Demand reduction * Drug Policy Alliance
Drug Policy Alliance
* Harm reduction
Harm reduction
* Law Enforcement Action Partnership

* Liberalization

* Latin America

* Students for Sensible Drug Policy
Students for Sensible Drug