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The London
London
boroughs are 32 of the 33 local authority districts of the Greater London
Greater London
administrative area (the 33rd is the City of London) and are each governed by a London
London
borough council. The London
London
boroughs were all created at the same time as Greater London
Greater London
on 1 April 1965 by the London Government Act 1963
London Government Act 1963
and are a type of local government district. Twelve were designated as Inner London
Inner London
boroughs and twenty as Outer London boroughs. The London
London
boroughs have populations of around 150,000 to 300,000. Inner London
Inner London
boroughs tend to be smaller, in both population and area, and more densely populated than Outer London boroughs. The London boroughs were created by combining groups of former local government units. A review undertaken between 1987 and 1992 led to a number of relatively small alterations in borough boundaries. London
London
borough councils provide the majority of local government services, in contrast to the strategic Greater London
Greater London
Authority, which has limited authority over all of Greater London. The councils were first elected in 1964 and acted as shadow authorities until 1 April 1965. Each borough is divided into electoral wards, subject to periodic review, for the purpose of electing councillors. Council elections take place every four years, with the most recent elections in 2014 and the next elections due in 2018. The political make-up of London
London
borough councils is dominated by the Conservative, Labour, and Liberal Democrat parties. Twenty-eight councils follow the leader and cabinet model of executive governance, with directly elected mayors in Hackney, Lewisham, Newham, and Tower Hamlets. The City of London
City of London
is instead governed by the City of London Corporation and the Inner and Middle Temples.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Creation 1.2 Former authorities 1.3 Greater London
Greater London
Council 1.4 Name and boundary changes 1.5 Greater London
Greater London
Authority

2 London
London
borough councils

2.1 Shared services

2.1.1 Critics of shared services

3 List of boroughs 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Creation[edit] From the mid-1930s, the Greater London
Greater London
area comprised four types of local government authorities. There were county boroughs, municipal boroughs, urban districts and metropolitan boroughs. The large county boroughs provided all local government services and held the powers usually invested in county councils. The municipal borough and urban district authorities had fewer powers. The situation was made more complex because county councils could delegate functions such as elementary education and library provision to the municipal borough and district councils, and this was implemented piecemeal. Reform of London
London
local government sought to regularise this arrangement. The Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London
Greater London
was established in 1957 and the report was published on 19 October 1960. It proposed 52 " Greater London
Greater London
Boroughs" with a population range of 100,000 to 250,000.[1] This was made up of a mixture of whole existing units, mergers of two or three areas, and two boroughs formed as the result of a split. In December 1961 the government proposed that there would be 34 boroughs rather than 52, and detailed their boundaries. The proposed number was further reduced to 32 in 1962. On 1 April 1965, the 32 London
London
boroughs and Greater London
Greater London
were created by the London
London
Government Act 1963. Twelve boroughs in the former County of London
London
area were designated Inner London
Inner London
boroughs and the twenty others were designated Outer London boroughs. Outer London borough councils were local education authorities, but Inner London borough councils were so designated primarily to continue the existence of an Inner London
Inner London
Education Authority, praised by official Opposition and government who further noted that unusually the former County of London's many small local authorities had no history of providing education. The City of London
City of London
continued to be administered by the City of London
City of London
Corporation and the Inner and Middle Temples.[notes 1] Elections were held on 7 May 1964, with the new councils acting as shadow authorities before coming into their powers the following year. Former authorities[edit] The boroughs were created as follows. Some relatively minor changes have been made to the boundaries of boroughs since 1965, and two have changed their names.

Former local authorities in the Greater London
Greater London
area

London
London
borough Designation Former areas

Camden Inner Hampstead (11a) St Pancras (11b) Holborn (11c)

Greenwich Inner Greenwich (22a) Woolwich (part) (22b)

Hackney Inner Hackney (9a) Shoreditch (9b) Stoke Newington (9c)

Hammersmith[notes 2] Inner Hammersmith (4a) Fulham (4b)

Islington Inner Islington (10a) Finsbury (10b)

Kensington and Chelsea Inner Kensington (3a) Chelsea (3b)

Lambeth Inner Lambeth (6a) Wandsworth (part) (6b)

Lewisham Inner Lewisham (21a) Deptford (21b)

Southwark Inner Bermondsey (7b) Camberwell (7c) Southwark (7a)

Tower Hamlets Inner Bethnal Green (8a) Poplar (8c) Stepney (8b)

Wandsworth Inner Battersea (5b) Wandsworth (part) (5a)

Westminster Inner Paddington (2c) St Marylebone (2b) Westminster (2a)

Barking[notes 3] Outer Barking (part) (25a) Dagenham (part) (25b)

Barnet Outer Barnet (31a) East Barnet (31b) Finchley (31d) Hendon (31c) Friern Barnet (31e)

Bexley Outer Bexley (23b) Erith (23a) Crayford (23c) Chislehurst and Sidcup (part) (23d)

Brent Outer Wembley (12a) Willesden (12b)

Bromley Outer Bromley (20c) Beckenham (20b) Orpington (20e) Penge (20a) Chislehurst and Sidcup (part) (20d)

Croydon Outer Croydon (19a) Coulsdon and Purley (19b)

Ealing Outer Acton (13b) Ealing (13a) Southall (13c)

Enfield Outer Edmonton (30c) Enfield (30a) Southgate (30b)

Haringey Outer Hornsey (29b) Tottenham (29c) Wood Green (29a)

Harrow Outer Harrow (32)

Havering Outer Romford (24a) Hornchurch (24b)

Hillingdon Outer Hayes and Harlington (33c) Ruislip Northwood (33b) Uxbridge (33a) Yiewsley and West Drayton (33d)

Hounslow Outer Brentford and Chiswick (14c) Feltham (14a) Heston and Isleworth (14b)

Kingston upon Thames Outer Kingston upon Thames (16a) Malden and Coombe (16b) Surbiton (16c)

Merton Outer Mitcham (17c) Merton and Morden (17b) Wimbledon (17a)

Newham Outer West Ham (27a) East Ham (27b) Barking (part) (27c) Woolwich (part) (27d)

Redbridge Outer Ilford (26a) Wanstead and Woodford (26b) Dagenham (part) (26c) Chigwell (part) (26d)

Richmond upon Thames Outer Barnes (15a) Richmond (15b) Twickenham (15c)

Sutton Outer Beddington (18c) Carshalton (18b) Sutton and Cheam (18a)

Waltham Forest Outer Chingford (28a) Leyton (28c) Walthamstow (28b)

Greater London
Greater London
Council[edit] Between 1965 and 1986 the boroughs were part of a two-tier system of government and shared power with the Greater London
Greater London
Council (GLC). The split of powers and functions meant that the Greater London
Greater London
Council was responsible for "wide area" services such as fire, ambulance, flood prevention, and refuse disposal; with the London
London
borough councils responsible for "personal" services such as social care, libraries, cemeteries and refuse collection. Several London
London
borough councils and the GLC were involved in the rate-capping rebellion of 1985. On 1 April 1986 the GLC was abolished and the borough councils gained responsibility for some services that had been provided by the Greater London
Greater London
Council, such as waste disposal. The Inner London Education Authority continued to exist as an ad hoc authority. In 1990 it was abolished and the Inner London
Inner London
borough councils also became local education authorities. Name and boundary changes[edit] The Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
provided a mechanism for the name of a London
London
borough and its council to be changed. This was used by the London
London
Borough of Hammersmith (changed to Hammersmith and Fulham) on 1 April 1979 and the London
London
Borough of Barking (changed to Barking and Dagenham) on 1 January 1980. Borough names formed by combining two locality names had been discouraged when the boroughs were created. The London
London
boroughs were created by combining whole existing units of local government and it was realised that this might provide arbitrary boundaries in some places. The London Government Act 1963
London Government Act 1963
provided a mechanism for communities on the edge of Greater London
Greater London
to petition for transfer from London
London
boroughs to a neighbouring county district.[2] This was used in 1969 in the transfers of Knockholt
Knockholt
in Bromley to Kent, and of Farleigh and Hooley
Hooley
in Croydon to Surrey. The Act also provided for transfers between London
London
boroughs and neighbouring counties where there was consensus for the change between all the relevant local authorities. This provision was used to exchange two islands on the River Thames
River Thames
between Richmond upon Thames and Surrey. (See List of Greater London
Greater London
boundary changes.) The Local Government Boundary Commission for England
England
was established by the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
to review periodically the boundaries of Greater London
Greater London
and the London
London
boroughs. The first review of boundaries commenced on 1 April 1987 and reported in 1992.[3] Following the review a series of relatively minor adjustments were made to borough boundaries, for example uniting the whole of the Becontree
Becontree
estate in Barking and Dagenham. The commission noted that many of its recommendations were strongly opposed and were not implemented. The boundary of the City of London
City of London
with adjacent boroughs was adjusted to remove some anomalies.[4] In the London
London
boroughs the legal entity is not the council as elsewhere in the country, but the inhabitants incorporated as a legal entity by royal charter (a process abolished elsewhere in England
England
and Wales under the Local Government Act 1972). Thus, a London
London
authority's official legal title is "The Mayor and Burgesses of the London
London
Borough of X" (or "The Lord Mayor and Citizens of the City of Westminster"). Greater London
Greater London
Authority[edit] In 2000 the Greater London
Greater London
Authority was created, comprising the Mayor of London
London
and the London
London
Assembly. As a strategic authority, it absorbed only limited powers, such as major highways and planning strategy, from the borough councils. London
London
borough councils[edit] The London
London
boroughs are administered by London
London
borough councils (sometimes abbreviated LBCs) which are elected every four years. They are the principal local authorities in London
London
and are responsible for running most local services, such as schools, social services, waste collection and roads. Some London-wide services are run by the Greater London
London
Authority, and some services and lobbying of government are pooled within London
London
Councils. Some councils group together for services such as waste collection and disposal (e.g., the West London Waste Authority). The boroughs are local government districts and have similar functions to metropolitan boroughs. Each borough council is a local education authority.

Service Greater London
Greater London
Authority London
London
borough councils

Education

Y

Housing Y Y

Planning applications

Y

Strategic planning Y Y

Transport planning Y Y

Passenger transport Y

Highways Y Y

Police Y

Fire Y

Social services

Y

Libraries

Y

Leisure and recreation

Y

Waste collection

Y

Waste disposal

Y

Environmental health

Y

Revenue collection

Y

Shared services[edit] Shared services are borough council services shared between two or more boroughs. Shared services were previously resisted due to councils guarding their authority. However, as the need for budget cuts in the late 2000s became apparent some councils have sought service mergers.[5] Westminster and Hammersmith & Fulham were due to merge their education services, including school admissions and transport, by 2011.[6] In October 2010, Hammersmith & Fulham, Kensington & Chelsea and Westminster announced plans to merge all their services to create a "super-council". Each would retain its own political identity, leadership and councillors but staff and budgets would be combined for cost savings.[7] Lambeth and Southwark likewise expressed an interest in sharing services.[8] Critics of shared services[edit] The management thinker and inventor of the Vanguard Method, Professor John Seddon, claims that shared service projects based on attempts to achieve economies of scale are a mix of a) the plausibly obvious and b) a little hard data[clarification needed], brought together to produce two broad assertions, for which there is little hard factual evidence.[9] He argues that shared service projects fail (and often end up costing more than they hoped to save) because they cause a disruption to the service flow by moving the work to a central location, creating waste in handoffs, rework and duplication, lengthening the time it takes to deliver a service and consequently creating failure demand (demand caused by a failure to do something or do something right for a customer).[10] Seddon referred directly to the so-called tri-borough shared services in an article in 2012.[11] List of boroughs[edit] Main article: List of London
London
boroughs

City of London
City of London
(not a London
London
borough) City of Westminster Kensington and Chelsea Hammersmith and Fulham Wandsworth Lambeth Southwark Tower Hamlets Hackney Islington Camden Brent Ealing Hounslow Richmond upon Thames Kingston upon Thames Merton

Sutton Croydon Bromley Lewisham Greenwich Bexley Havering Barking and Dagenham Redbridge Newham Waltham Forest Haringey Enfield Barnet Harrow Hillingdon

There are four boroughs that do not have " London
London
Borough" in their names: the City of Westminster, and the Royal Boroughs of Kingston upon Thames, Kensington and Chelsea, and Greenwich. See also[edit]

London
London
portal

Borough ISO 3166-2:GB, subdivision codes for the United Kingdom Political make-up of local councils in the United Kingdom

Notes[edit]

^ Local government legislation makes special provision for the City of London
London
Corporation, Inner Temple
Inner Temple
and Middle Temple
Middle Temple
to perform the functions of London
London
borough councils in their areas ^ Later renamed Hammersmith and Fulham ^ Later renamed Barking and Dagenham

References[edit]

^ Sharpe, LJ (1961). The Report of The Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London.  ^ London Government Act 1963
London Government Act 1963
Section 6 (4) ^ "The Local Government Boundary Commission for England, The Boundaries of Greater London
Greater London
and The London
London
Borough, Report 627" (PDF). Lgbce.org.uk. 1992. Retrieved 21 December 2017.  ^ "The City and London
London
Borough Boundaries Order 1993". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  ^ Jane Dudman (20 October 2010) Public sector cuts will not hit 'back office' hardest, The Guardian ^ Jaimie Kaffash (7 July 2010) London
London
boroughs to share education services, Public Finance ^ Pickles backs plan to merge Tory councils, BBC News, 22 October 2010 ^ "Lambeth and Southwark councils to merge some services under Labour plan". London-se1.co.uk. Retrieved 22 December 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2010.  ^ Systems Thinking in the Public Sector, John Seddon, Page 57 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 

External links[edit]

London
London
Boroughs Map London
London
borough comparison tool

v t e

Governance of Greater London

City of London London

Regional

Greater London
Greater London
Authority London
London
Assembly Mayor of London London
London
Councils

Boroughs

Barking and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Ceremonial

Lord Mayor of the City of London Lord Lieutenant of Greater London High Sheriff of Greater London

Historical

Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Board of Works
(MBW) 1855–1889 London
London
County Council (LCC) 1889–1965 Greater London
Greater London
Council (GLC) 1965–1986 Leaders Sheriffs of the City of London

v t e

Subdivisions of England

Region

Regions NUTS 1 statistical regions of England

Ceremonial County

Ceremonial County

Administrative County

Metropolitan County Non-Metropolitan County Greater London

District

Metropolitan Borough Non-Metropolitan District London
London
Borough

Unitary Authority

Unitary Authority

Sui-Generis

City of London Isles of Scilly

Civil Parish

Civil Parish

v t e

Borough status in the United Kingdom

Contemporary

London
London
borough Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan borough
(England)

Municipal borough

Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
(1835–1882 incorporations) Municipal Corporations Act 1882
Municipal Corporations Act 1882
(1882–1974 incorporations) County borough Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan borough
(London) Local Government Act 1933 Rural borough

Ancient borough

Unreformed boroughs 1835–1886 S

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