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The London
London
Wall was the defensive wall first built by the Romans around Londinium, their strategically important port town on the River Thames in what is now London, England, and subsequently maintained until the 18th century. It is now the name of a road in the City of London
London
running along part of the course of the old wall between Wormwood Street
Wormwood Street
and the Rotunda junction where St. Martin's Le Grand
St. Martin's Le Grand
meets Aldersgate
Aldersgate
Street. Until the later Middle Ages the wall defined the boundaries of the City of London.

Contents

1 Roman wall 2 Post-Roman use 3 Medieval
Medieval
period 4 Demise 5 Modern course 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Roman wall[edit]

A surviving fragment of the original 3rd-century Roman Wall near Tower Hill tube station.

Although the exact reason for the wall's construction is unknown, the wall appears to have been built in the late 2nd or early 3rd century.[1] This was around 80 years after the construction in 120 AD of the city's fort, whose north and west walls were thickened and doubled in height to form part of the new city wall. It continued to be developed until at least the end of the 4th century, making it among the last major building projects undertaken by the Romans before the Roman departure from Britain in 410. Reasons for its construction may have been connected to the invasion of northern Britain by Picts who overran Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
in the 180s.[2] It may be linked to the political crisis that emerged in late 2nd century when the governor of Britain Clodius Albinus
Clodius Albinus
was consolidating his power after claiming the right of succession as Roman emperor. After a struggle with his rival, Septimius Severus, Albinus was defeated in 197 AD at the Battle of Lugdunum (near Lyon, France). The economic stimulus provided by the wall and Septimius's subsequent campaigns in Scotland
Scotland
improved Londinium's financial prosperity in the early 3rd century. The wall's gateways coincided with their alignment to the British network of Roman roads. The original gates, clockwise from Ludgate
Ludgate
in the west to Aldgate, in the east were: Ludgate, Newgate, Cripplegate, Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
and Aldgate. Aldersgate, between Newgate
Newgate
and Cripplegate, was added around 350 AD.[3] (Moorgate, between Cripplegate
Cripplegate
and Bishopsgate, was built later still, in the medieval period). The length and size of the wall made it one of the biggest construction projects in Roman Britain. The completed wall, which had gateways, towers and defensive ditches, was built from Kentish ragstone, which was brought by barge from quarries near Maidstone. It was 2 mi (3.2 km) long enclosing an area of about 330 acres (130 ha). It 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) to 3 m (9.8 ft) wide and up to 6 m (20 ft)) high.[4] The ditch or fossa in front of the outer wall was 2 m (6 ft 7 in) deep and up to 5 m (16 ft) wide. There were at least 22 towers spaced about 64 m (210 ft) apart on the eastern section of the wall.[5] After Londinium
Londinium
was raided on several occasions by Saxon
Saxon
pirates in the late 3rd century, construction of an additional riverside wall began in 280 AD.[3] Post-Roman use[edit]

Bastion, which is near the Barbican Estate, stands on Roman foundations with an upper structure of 13th-century masonry.

With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Londinium
Londinium
ceased to be the capital of Britannia although Romano-British culture continued in the St Martin-in-the-Fields
St Martin-in-the-Fields
area until around 450.[6] However, the defences must have retained some of their former formidable strength because the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
mentions that the Romano-British retreated back to London
London
after their bloody defeat at the battle of Crecganford (Crayford, Kent) at the hands of Hengist and Horsa, leaders of the Saxon
Saxon
invaders.[7] From around 500, an Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
settlement known as Lundenwic developed in the same area slightly to the west of the old abandoned Roman city.[8] But by about 680, London
London
had revived sufficiently to become a major Saxon
Saxon
port. However, the upkeep of the wall was not maintained and London
London
fell victim to two successful Viking assaults in 851 and 886 AD.[9] In 886 AD the west- Saxon
Saxon
king, Alfred the Great, formally agreed to the terms of the Danish warlord, Guthrum, concerning the area of political and geographical control that had been acquired by the incursion of the Vikings. Within the eastern and northern part of England
England
with its boundary roughly stretching from London
London
to Chester, the Scandinavians would establish Danelaw. In the same year, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
recorded that London
London
was "refounded" by Alfred. Archaeological research shows that this involved abandonment of Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls. This was part Alfred's policy of building an in-depth defence of the Kingdom of Wessex
Kingdom of Wessex
against the Vikings as well as creating an offensive strategy against the Vikings who controlled Mercia. The Burghal Hidage of Southwark
Southwark
was also was created on the southbank of the River Thames during this time. The city walls of London
London
were repaired as the city slowly grew until about 950 when urban activity increased dramatically.[10] A large Viking army that attacked the London
London
burgh was defeated in 994.[9] Medieval
Medieval
period[edit]

Yorkist forces attack the Lancastrians during the siege of London, 12–15 May 1471.

By the 11th century, London
London
was beyond all comparison the largest town in England. Westminster Abbey, rebuilt in the Romanesque style by King Edward the Confessor, was one of the grandest churches in Europe. Winchester
Winchester
had previously been the capital of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England, but from this time on, London
London
became the main forum for foreign traders and the base for defence in time of war. In the view of Frank Stenton: "It had the resources, and it was rapidly developing the dignity and the political self-consciousness appropriate to a national capital."[11][12] The size and importance of London
London
led to the redevelopment of the city's defences. During the early medieval period – following the Norman Conquest of England
England
– the walls underwent substantial work that included crenellations, additional gates and further towers and bastions. Aside from the seven City Wall gates and the four bars, there are the 13 water-gates on the Thames where goods were unloaded from ships. These include Billingsgate
Billingsgate
and Bridge Gate. Additionally there were pedestrian-only gates such as Tower Gate and the postern gate at the Tower of London.[13] As London
London
continued to grow throughout the medieval period, urban development grew beyond the city walls. This expansion led to the suffix words "Without" and "Within" denote whether an area of the City – and usually applied to the wards – fell outside or within the London
London
Wall, though only Farringdon and (formerly) Bridge have been split into separate wards this way (Bridge Without falling beyond the gates on London
London
Bridge). Some wards – Aldersgate, Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
and Cripplegate – cover an area that was both within and outside the wall and, although not split into separate wards, often the part (or "division") within the Wall is denoted (on maps, in documents, etc.) as being "within" and the part outside the Wall as being "without". Archaically "Infra" (within) and "Extra" (without) were also used[14] and the terms "intramural" and "extramural"[15] are also used to describe being within or outside the walled part of the city. The suffix is applied to some churches and parishes near the city gateways such as St Audoen within Newgate
Newgate
or St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate. Demise[edit]

Pink area shows the extent of the 1666 Great Fire of London. Most of the city within the walls was destroyed.

The boundaries of the City of London
London
ceased to coincide with the old city wall as the city expanded its jurisdiction during the medieval period. The city's jurisdiction expanded westwards, crossing the historic western border of the original settlement – the River Fleet – along Fleet Street
Fleet Street
to Temple Bar. The city also took in the other "city bars", toll gates which were situated just beyond the old walled area: Holborn Bar, Smithfield Bar, and Whitechapel Bar. These were the important entrances to the city and their control was vital in maintaining the city's special privileges over certain trades. During the Great Fire of London
London
in September 1666, almost all of the medieval City of London
London
inside the wall was destroyed. The seven gates to the City of London, with many repairs and rebuilding over the years, stood until they were all demolished between 1760 and 1767.[16] Work to demolish the walls continued into the 19th century; however, large sections of the wall were incorporated into other structures. Some of the noticeable ruins in the bomb-damaged City during the Blitz in the Second World War
Second World War
were remnants of London's city wall. All that remains of the wall are a few (albeit substantial) sections, some of which can be seen in the grounds of the Museum of London, in the Barbican Estate
Barbican Estate
and around Tower Hill. A section near the Museum of London
London
was revealed at Noble Street, after the devastation of an air raid on 29 December 1940 at the height of the Blitz. Another visible section is at St Alphage Gardens, and other sections form part of the walls or foundations of modern buildings and are only visible from inside those buildings. One of the largest and most readily accessed fragments of the wall stands just outside Tower Hill tube station, with a replica statue of the Emperor Trajan
Trajan
standing in front of it. In 1984 the Museum of London
London
set up a Wall Walk from the Tower of London
London
to the museum, using 23 tiled panels.[17] A number of these have been destroyed in subsequent years.[18] At Noble Street, the panels were replaced by etched glass panels. These were intended as a prototype for new panels along the entire walk, but no further replacements have been made. Modern course[edit]

The modern (post-1976) road named London
London
Wall

Part of the route originally taken by the northern wall is commemorated, although now only loosely followed,[19] by the road also named London
London
Wall, on which the Museum of London
London
is located. The modern road starts in the west with the Rotunda junction at Aldersgate, then runs east past Moorgate, from which point it runs parallel to the line of the City Wall, and eventually becomes Wormwood Street before it reaches Bishopsgate. This alignment, however, is the result of rebuilding between 1957 and 1976.[20] Before this, London Wall was narrower, and ran behind the line of the City Wall for its entire length, from Wormwood Street
Wormwood Street
to Wood Street.[21] The western section is now St Alphage Garden. The wall's moat forms the street of Houndsditch. This was once London's main rubbish disposal site and was notorious for its appalling odour; its name, according to the 16th-century historian John Stow, was derived "from that in old time, when the same lay open, much filth (conveyed forth of the City) especially dead dogges were there laid or cast". The moat was finally covered over and filled in at the end of the 16th century becoming the line of the aforementioned street.

Bastion 14 along the Wall

Location Coordinates

Museum of London 51°31′03″N 0°05′49″W / 51.51750°N 0.09694°W / 51.51750; -0.09694

Barbican 51°31′08″N 0°05′35″W / 51.51889°N 0.09306°W / 51.51889; -0.09306

London
London
Wall 51°31′04″N 0°05′43″W / 51.51778°N 0.09528°W / 51.51778; -0.09528

St Alphage Garden 51°31′05″N 0°05′33″W / 51.51806°N 0.09250°W / 51.51806; -0.09250

Cooper's Row 51°30′38″N 0°04′34″W / 51.51056°N 0.07611°W / 51.51056; -0.07611

Tower Hill 51°30′36″N 0°04′33″W / 51.51000°N 0.07583°W / 51.51000; -0.07583

See also[edit]

Roman London Fortifications of London List of cities with defensive walls List of town walls in England
England
and Wales York city walls Chester
Chester
city walls

References[edit]

Citations

^ Ross & Clark 2008, p. 47. ^ Channel4.com Timeline of Romans in Britain ^ a b Ross & Clark 2008, p.47. ^ London
London
Wall Museum of London, Retrieved 30 May 2010. ^ Towers on the western section, such as the well-preserved example that can be seen at the Barbican Estate, next to the church of St Giles-without-Cripplegate, were added in the 13th century (Chapman, Hall & Marsh 1986, nos. 15–17). ^ "The last days of Londinium". Museum of London. Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2013.  ^ " Saxon
Saxon
London
London
in a tale of two cities". British Archeology]]. May 1999. Retrieved 2 September 2016.  ^ "The early years of Lundenwic". The Museum of London. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008.  ^ a b Wheeler, Kip. "Viking Attacks". Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Vince, Alan (2001). "London". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Stenton, Frank (1971). Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England
England
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 538–539. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5.  ^ Blair, John (2001). "Westminster". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
England. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ "Once Upon a What". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.  ^ British History Online & HRI Online (examples of infra and extra being used) ^ Mapping London: Making Sense of the City, Simon Foxell, p 17 ^ The gates to the City of London ^ London
London
Wall Walk Museum of London, Retrieved 21 May 2010. ^ Shows status of the panels in January 2006 Retrieved 21 May 2010. ^ Smith 1970. ^ Roman House[permanent dead link] Retrieved 30 May 2010. ^ Z-maps Retrieved 30 May 2010.

Bibliography

Chapman, Hugh, Hall, Jenny, and Marsh, Geoffrey (1986), The London Wall Walk London: Museum of London. Ross, Cathy, & Clark, John, eds. (2008), London: The Illustrated History. London: Allen Lane. Smith, A. (1970), Dictionary of City of London
London
Street Names. London: David & Charles.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to London
London
Wall and its gates.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Walk the London
London
Wall.

Map of present day street named ' London
London
Wall' Museum of London
London
website PhotoEssay on London
London
Walls with markers Map of London
London
Wall Walk and Photos

v t e

Museums and galleries in London

List of museums in London

National museums

British Library British Museum Geffrye Museum Horniman Museum National Army Museum National Gallery National Portrait Gallery Natural History Museum Royal Air Force Museum Sir John Soane's Museum Wallace Collection

Imperial War Museums

Churchill War Rooms HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
London

Royal Museums Greenwich

Cutty Sark National Maritime Museum Queen's House Royal Observatory

Science Museum Group

Science Museum

Tate

Tate
Tate
Britain Tate
Tate
Modern

Victoria and Albert Museum

V&A Museum of Childhood

Designated collections

Courtauld Gallery Dulwich Picture Gallery Firepower – The Royal Artillery Museum Hunterian Museum Jewish Museum Library and Museum of Freemasonry London
London
Transport Museum Museum of Domestic Design and Architecture Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology Royal Academy of Arts

Museum of London

Museum of London
London
Docklands

Royal Collection Trust

Queen's Gallery Royal Mews

Historic Royal Palaces

Banqueting House, Whitehall Hampton Court Palace Kensington Palace Kew Palace Tower of London

National Trust

2 Willow Road 575 Wandsworth Road Blewcoat School Carlyle's House Eastbury Manor House Fenton House George Inn Lindsey House

restricted

Morden Hall Park Osterley Park Rainham Hall Red House Roman Baths Sutton House

English Heritage

Apsley House Chiswick House Down House Eltham Palace Jewel Tower Kenwood House
Kenwood House
(Iveagh Bequest) London
London
Wall Marble Hill House Ranger's House
Ranger's House
(Wernher Collection) Winchester
Winchester
Palace

The London
London
Museums of Health & Medicine (selected)

Florence Nightingale Museum Foundling Museum Freud Museum Museum of the Order of St John Old Operating Theatre Museum and Herb Garret Wellcome Collection

Other

Arsenal Football Club Museum Bank of England
England
Museum Barbican Art Gallery Benjamin Franklin House Bruce Castle Charles Dickens Museum David Zwirner Gallery Dennis Severs' House Design Museum Dr Johnson's House Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art Fashion and Textile Museum Flowers Gallery Garden Museum Guildhall Art Gallery Handel & Hendrix in London Hayward Gallery Hogarth's House Institute of Contemporary Arts Leighton House Museum London
London
Museum of Water & Steam Marlborough Gallery Museum of Brands, Packaging and Advertising Museum of Croydon Museum of Immigration and Diversity Museum of Richmond Orleans House
Orleans House
Gallery The Redfern Gallery Royal Academy of Music Museum Saatchi Gallery Serpentine Galleries Sherlock Holmes Museum Two Temple Place Twickenham Museum Whitechapel Gallery White Cube William Morris Gallery Victoria Miro Gallery

Category

v t e

Gates and bars of the City of London

Former gates of London
London
Wall and City bars Listed clockwise from the West

Temple Bar Ludgate† Holborn Bar Newgate† Aldersgate† Cripplegate† Moorgate Bishopsgate† Bars Aldgate† (Tower) Posterngate

Water-gates: Billingsgate
Billingsgate
and Dowgate

Bridge-gates: Great Stone Gateway and New Stone Gate

†The six Roman gates

v t e

London
London
landmarks

Buildings and structures

Bridges

Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London
London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark
Southwark
Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster Bridge

Entertainment venues

Cinemas

Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London
London
Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
(Tottenham Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England
England
Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium
(rugby)

Theatres

Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville

Other

Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena

Government

10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland
Scotland
Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate
Tate
Britain Tate
Tate
Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark
Southwark
Cathedral Westminster Abbey Westminster Cathedral

Retailing

Shops

Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace

Unoccupied

Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace

Skyscrapers

Broadgate Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower 42

Structures

Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
London
Eye London
London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch

Transport

City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London
London
Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car

Other

Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London
London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House

Parks

Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park

Other

Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square

Streets

Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham Court Road Victoria Embankme

.