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The London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London, England. As of December 2014[update], the Exchange had a market capitalisation of US$6.06 trillion (short scale), making it the third-largest stock exchange in the world[2] by this measurement (the largest in Europe ahead of Euronext). The Exchange was founded in 1801 and its current premises are situated in Paternoster Square
Paternoster Square
close to St Paul's Cathedral
St Paul's Cathedral
in the City of London. The Exchange is part of the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange Group. London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange is one of the world’s oldest stock exchanges and can trace its history back more than 300 years. The London
London
Stock Exchange Group was created in October 2007 when London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange merged with Milan Stock
Stock
Exchange, Borsa Italiana.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Coffee House 1.2 Royal Exchange 1.3 First Rule Book 1.4 Foreign and regional exchanges 1.5 The Exchange before the World Wars 1.6 First World War 1.7 Second World War 1.8 Post-war 1.9 IRA bombing 1.10 "Big Bang" 1.11 Occupy London

2 Activities

2.1 Primary markets 2.2 Secondary markets

2.2.1 Main Market 2.2.2 Alternative Investment Market

2.3 Electronic platforms

2.3.1 Fixed Income

3 Statistics 4 Information services 5 Post trade 6 Technology 7 Mergers and acquisitions

7.1 Deutsche Börse 7.2 Borsa Italiana 7.3 MTS 7.4 Turquoise 7.5 NASDAQ
NASDAQ
bids 7.6 Proposed merger with TMX Group

8 Opening times 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit]

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Coffee House[edit] The Royal Exchange had been founded by English financier Thomas Gresham on the model of the Antwerp Bourse, as a stock exchange. It was opened by Elizabeth I of England
England
in 1571.[4][5] During the 17th century, stockbrokers were not allowed in the Royal Exchange due to their rude manners. They had to operate from other establishments in the vicinity, notably Jonathan's Coffee-House. At that coffee house, a broker named John Casting started listing the prices of a few commodities, such as salt, coal, and paper, and exchange rates in 1698. Originally, this was not a daily list and was only published a few days of the week.[6] This list and activity was later moved to Garraway's coffee house. Public auctions during this period were conducted for the duration that a length of tallow candle could burn; these were known as "by inch of candle" auctions. As stocks grew, with new companies joining to raise capital, the royal court also raised some monies. These are the earliest evidence of organised trading in marketable securities in London. Royal Exchange[edit] After Gresham's Royal Exchange building was destroyed in the Great Fire of London, it was rebuilt and re-established in 1669. This was a move away from coffee houses and a step towards the modern model of stock exchange.[7] The Royal Exchange housed not only brokers but also merchants and merchandise. This was the birth of a regulated stock market, which had teething problems in the shape of unlicensed brokers. In order to regulate these, Parliament brought out an Act in 1697 that levied heavy penalties, both financial and physical, on those brokering without a licence. It also set a fixed number of brokers (at 100), but this was later increased as the size of the trade grew. This limit led to several problems, one of which was that traders began leaving the Royal Exchange, either by their own decision or through expulsion, and started dealing in the streets of London. The street in which they were now dealing was known as 'Exchange Alley', or 'Change Alley'; it was suitably placed close to the Bank of England. Parliament tried to regulate this and ban the unofficial traders from the Change streets. Traders became weary of "bubbles" when companies rose quickly and fell, so they persuaded Parliament to pass a clause preventing "unchartered" companies from forming. After the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
(1756–1763), trade at Jonathan's Coffee House boomed again. In 1773, Jonathan, together with 150 other brokers, formed a club and opened a new and more formal "Stock Exchange" in Sweeting's Alley. This now had a set entrance fee, by which traders could enter the stock room and trade securities. It was, however, not an exclusive location for trading, as trading also occurred in the Rotunda of the Bank of England. Fraud was also rife during these times and in order to deter such dealings, it was suggested that users of the stock room pay an increased fee. This was not met well and ultimately, the solution came in the form of annual fees and turning the Exchange into a Subscription room. The Subscription room created in 1801 was the first regulated exchange in London, but the transformation was not welcomed by all parties. On the first day of trading, non-members had to be expelled by a constable. In spite of the disorder, a new and bigger building was planned, at Capel Court. William Hammond laid the first foundation stone for the new building on 18 May. It was finished on 30 December when "The Stock
Stock
Exchange" was incised on the entrance. First Rule Book[edit]

London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange in 1810

In the Exchange's first operating years, on several occasions there was no clear set of regulations or fundamental laws for the Capel Court trading. In February 1812, the General Purpose Committee confirmed a set of recommendations, which later became the foundation of the first codified rule book of the Exchange. Even though the document was not a complex one, topics such as settlement and default were, in fact, quite comprehensive. With its new governmental commandments[clarification needed] and increasing trading volume, the Exchange was progressively becoming an accepted part of the financial life in the City. In spite of continuous criticism from newspapers and the public, the government used the Exchange's organised market (and would most likely not have managed without it) to raise the enormous amount of money required for the wars against Napoleon. Foreign and regional exchanges[edit] After the war and facing a booming world economy, foreign lending to countries such as Brazil, Peru and Chile was a growing market. Notably, the Foreign Market at the Exchange allowed for merchants and traders to participate, and the Royal Exchange hosted all transactions where foreign parties were involved. The constant increase in overseas business eventually meant that dealing in foreign securities had to be allowed within all of the Exchange's premises. Just as London
London
enjoyed growth through international trade, the rest of Great Britain
Great Britain
also benefited from the economic boom. Two other cities, in particular, showed great business development: Liverpool and Manchester. Consequently, in 1836 both the Manchester and Liverpool stock exchanges were opened. Some stock prices sometimes rose by 10%, 20% or even 30% in a week. These were times when stockbroking was considered a real business profession, and such attracted many entrepreneurs. Nevertheless, with booms came busts, and in 1835 the "Spanish panic" hit the markets, followed by a second one two years later. The Exchange before the World Wars[edit] By June 1853, both participating members and brokers were taking up so much space that the Exchange was now uncomfortably crowded, and continual expansion plans were taking place. Having already been extended west, east and northwards, it was then decided the Exchange needed an entire new establishment. Thomas Allason was appointed as the main architect, and in March 1854 the new brick building inspired from the Great Exhibition stood ready. This was a huge improvement in both surroundings and space, with twice the floor space available. By the late 1800s, the telephone, ticker tape and the telegraph had been invented. Those new technologies led to a revolution in the work of the Exchange. First World War[edit] As the financial centre of the world, both the City and the Stock Exchange were hit hard by the outbreak of World War I
World War I
in 1914. Due to fears that borrowed money was to be called in and that foreign banks would demand their loans or raise interest, prices surged at first. The decision to close the Exchange for improved breathing space and to extend the August Bank Holiday to prohibit a run on banks, was hurried through by the committee and Parliament, respectively. The Stock Exchange ended up being closed from the end of July until the New Year, causing street business to be introduced again as well as the "challenge system". The Exchange was set to open again on 4 January 1915 under tedious restrictions: transactions were to be in cash only. Due to the limitations and challenges on trading brought by the war, almost 1000 members quit the Exchange between 1914 and 1918. When peace returned in November 1918, the mood on the trading floor was generally cowed. In 1923 the Exchange received its own coat of arms, with the motto Dictum Meum Pactum, My Word is My Bond. Second World War[edit] In 1937 officials at the Exchange used their experiences from World War I to draw up plans for how to handle a new war. The main concerns included air raids and the subsequent bombing of the Exchange's perimeters, and one suggestion was a move to Denham, Buckinghamshire. This however never took place. On the first day of September 1939, the Exchange closed its doors "until further notice" and two days later World War II
World War II
was declared. Unlike in the prior war, the Exchange opened its doors again six days later, on 7 September. As the war escalated into its second year, the concerns for air raids were greater than ever. Eventually, on the night of 29 December 1940 one of the greatest fires in London’s history took place. The Exchange's floor was hit by a clutch of incendiary bombs, which fortunately were extinguished quickly. Trading on the floor was now drastically low and most was done over the phone to reduce the possibility of injuries. The Exchange was only closed for one more day during wartime, in 1945 due to damage from a V-2 rocket. Nonetheless trading continued in the house’s basement. Post-war[edit]

The Stock Exchange Tower
Stock Exchange Tower
pictured from atop the National Westminster Tower in 1983.

After decades of uncertain if not turbulent times, stock market business boomed in the late 1950s. This spurred officials to find new, more suitable accommodation. The work on the new Stock
Stock
Exchange Tower began in 1967. The Exchange's new 321 feet (96 metre) high building had 26 storeys with council and administration at the top, and middle floors let out to affiliate companies. Queen Elizabeth II
Queen Elizabeth II
opened the building on 8 November 1972; it was a new City landmark, with its 23,000 sq ft (2,100 m2) trading floor. 1973 marked a year of changes for the Stock
Stock
Exchange. First, two trading prohibitions were abolished. A report from the Monopolies and Mergers Commission recommended the admittance of both women and foreign-born members on the floor. Second, in March the London
London
Stock Exchange formally merged with the eleven British and Irish regional exchanges, including the Scottish Stock
Stock
Exchange.[8] This expansion led to the creation of a new position of Chief Executive Officer; after an extensive search this post was given to Robert Fell. There were more governance changes in 1991, when the governing Council of the Exchange was replaced by a Board of Directors
Board of Directors
drawn from the Exchange's executive, customer and user base; and the trading name became "The London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange". FTSE 100 Index
FTSE 100 Index
(pronounced "Footsie 100") was launched by a partership of the Financial Times
Financial Times
and the Stock
Stock
Exchange on 3 January 1984. This turned out to be one of the most useful indices of all, and tracked the movements of the 100 leading companies listed on the Exchange. IRA bombing[edit] On 20 July 1990 a bomb planted by the IRA exploded in the men's toilets behind the visitors' gallery. The area had already been evacuated and nobody was injured.[9] About 30 minutes before the blast at 8:49 a.m., a man who said he was a member of the IRA told Reuters that a bomb had been placed at the exchange and was about to explode. Police officials said that if there had been no warning, the human toll would have been very high.[10] The explosion ripped a hole in the 23-storey building in Threadneedle Street
Threadneedle Street
and sent a shower of glass and concrete onto the street.[11] The long-term trend towards electronic trading reduced the Exchange's attraction to visitors, and although the gallery reopened, it was closed permanently in 1992. "Big Bang"[edit] The biggest event of the 1980s was the sudden deregulation of the financial markets in the UK in 1986. The phrase "Big Bang" was coined to describe measures, including abolition of fixed commission charges and of the distinction between stockjobbers and stockbrokers on the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange, as well as the change from an open outcry to electronic, screen-based trading. In 1995 the Exchange launched the Alternative Investment Market, the AIM, to allow growing companies to expand into international markets. Two years later the Electronic Trading Service (SETS) was launched, bringing greater speed and efficiency to the market. Next, the CREST settlement service was launched. In 2000, the Exchange's shareholders voted to become a public limited company, London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange plc. The LSE also transferred its role as UK Listing Authority to the Financial Services Authority
Financial Services Authority
(FSA-UKLA). EDX London, a new international equity derivatives business, was created in 2003 in partnership with OM Group. The Exchange also acquired Proquote Limited, a new generation supplier of real-time market data and trading systems. The old Stock Exchange Tower
Stock Exchange Tower
became largely redundant with Big Bang, which deregulated many of the Stock
Stock
Exchange's activities: computerised systems and dealing rooms replaced face-to-face trading. In 2004 the Stock
Stock
Exchange moved to a brand-new headquarters in Paternoster Square, close to St Paul's Cathedral. In 2007 the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange merged with Borsa Italiana, creating the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange Group (LSEG). The Group operates out of the Stock
Stock
Exchange's headquarters in Paternoster Square. Occupy London[edit] The Stock
Stock
Exchange in Paternoster Square
Paternoster Square
was the initial target for the protesters of Occupy London
London
on 15 October 2011. Attempts to occupy the square were thwarted by police.[12] Police sealed off the entrance to the square as it is private property, a High Court injunction having previously been granted against public access to the square.[13] The protesters moved nearby to occupy the space in front of St Paul's Cathedral.[14] The protests were part of the global "Occupy" protests. Activities[edit]

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Primary markets[edit] Issuer services help companies from around the world to join the London
London
equity market in order to gain access to capital. The LSE allows companies to raise money, increase their profile and obtain a market valuation through a variety of routes, thus following the firms throughout the whole IPO process. The London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange runs several markets for listing, giving an opportunity for different sized companies to list. International companies can list a number of products in London
London
including shares, depositary receipts and debt, offering different and cost-effective ways to raise capital. In 2004 the Exchange opened a Hong Kong
Hong Kong
office and has attracted more than 200 companies from the Asia-Pacific region. For the biggest companies exists the Premium Listed Main Market. This operates a Super Equivalence method where conditions of both the UK Listing Authority as well as London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange’s own criteria have to be met. The largest IPO on the Exchange was completed in May 2011 by Glencore International
Glencore International
plc. The company raised $10 billion at admission, making it one of the largest IPOs ever since foundation. In terms of smaller SME’s the Stock
Stock
Exchange operates the Alternative Investment Market (AIM). For international companies that fall outside of the EU, it operates the Depository Receipt (DR) scheme as a way of listing and raising capital. There are also two specialised markets: Professional Securities Market This market facilitates the raising of capital through the issue of specialist debt securities or depositary receipts (DRs) to professional investors. The market operates under the status as a Recognised Investment Exchange, and by July 2011 it had 32 DRs, 108 Eurobonds and over 350 Medium Term Notes. Specialist Fund Market Is the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange dedicated market, designed to accept more sophisticated fund vehicles, governance models and security. It is suitable only for institutional, professional and highly knowledgeable investors. The Specialist Fund Market is an EU Regulated Market and thus securities admitted to the market are eligible for most investor mandates providing a pool of liquidity for issuers admitted to the market Secondary markets[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2015)

The securities available for trading on the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange:

Bonds, including retail bonds Common stock Covered warrants Exchange-traded funds Exchange-traded products Global depositary receipts (GDRs) Structured products

There are two main markets on which companies trade on the LSE: Main Market[edit] The main market is home to Over 1,300 large companies from 60 different countries. Over the past 10 years[when?] over £366 billion has been raised through new and further issues by Main Market companies. The FTSE 100 Index
FTSE 100 Index
("footsie") is the main share index of the 100 most highly capitalised UK companies listed on the Main Market. Alternative Investment Market[edit] The Alternative Investment Market is LSE's international market for smaller companies. A wide range of businesses including early-stage, venture capital-backed as well as more-established companies join AIM seeking access to growth capital. The AIM is classified as a Multilateral Trading Facility (MTF) under the 2004 MiFID directive, and as such it is a flexible market with a simpler admission process for companies wanting to be publicly listed. Electronic platforms[edit] There are also several electronic platforms on which the different products trade:

SETS ( Stock
Stock
Exchange electronic Trading Service) This is the LSE's flagship electronic order book, trading indexed securities (FTSE100, FTSE250, FTSE Small Cap Index constituents, Exchange Traded Funds, Exchange Trading Products as well as other liquid AIM, Irish, and London
London
Standard listed securities)

SETSqx ( Stock
Stock
Exchange electronic Trading Services – quotes and crosses) This is a trading platform for securities less liquid than those traded on SETS. This platform combines a periodic electronic auction book four times a day with stand-alone non-electronic quote driven market making.

SEAQ. This is the LSE's non-electronically executable quotation service that allows market makers to quote prices in AIM securities and the Fixed Interest market. International Trading Service

IOB: The International Order Book
Book
offers easy and cost-efficient access for traders looking to invest in fast-growing economies (for example, in Central and Eastern Europe, Asia and the Middle East) via depositary receipts (DRs). It is based on an electronic order book similar to SETS. European Quoting Service: this enables clients to meet their pre-trade pan-European transparency obligations. A pan-European trade reporting service that enables clients to meet their post-trade reporting obligations whether trading on or off Exchange.

Derivatives

Trading of derivative products is available on the Turquoise platform (ex EDX London). Products are Norwegian Futures and options on Norwegian single stocks and indices, Russian futures and options on the most liquid IOB Depositary Receipts, Futures, options on the FTSE RIOB index and futures on the FTSE 100. Futures and options on the most liquid European stock underlyings and on European benchmark indices were expected to be launched in Q4 2011 and Q1 2012 subject to Financial Services Authority
Financial Services Authority
approval. Fixed Income[edit]

MTS[clarification needed] is a fixed income trading electronic platform, trading European government bonds, quasi-government bonds, corporate bonds, covered bonds and repo.[15] MTS provides access to both cash and repo markets as well as fixed income market data and fixed income indices. It is majority-owned by the London
London
Stock Exchange Group. Shareholding firms also include large international banks such as J.P. Morgan, Deutsche Bank and BNP Paribas.

The largest products offered are:

MTS BondVision (Dealer-to-client electronic market) MTS Cash MTS Credit (for euro-denominated, non-government bonds) MTS Data MTS Indices[16] MTS Repo

The Order book for Retail Bonds (ORB), launched in February 2010, offers continuous two-way pricing for trading in UK gilts and retail-size corporate bonds on-exchange. ORB acts as an electronic secondary market for retail investors. 2009 saw highest-ever inflow into bond funds, a net total of £10.7bn, driven almost entirely by retail investors (90% of total), with corporate bonds being the bestselling sector. ORB offers an open and transparent market model for trading in retail-size. Currently[when?] there are five dedicated market makers committed to quoting two-way prices in a range of retail bonds throughout the trading day. New market models means private investors will be able to see prices on-screen and trade in bonds in a similar way as they currently do for shares. This creates a greater efficiency of electronic on-book execution and option to use straight-through-processing to settlement system. Retail Bonds are driven by cost-effectiveness, simplicity of transaction charging and standardisation of market structure. The key aim of ORB is to increase distribution for bonds by opening up these markets to private investors who may have previously felt excluded from this market. This is by increasing the availability of publication on offer, detailing the risks and benefits involved in Retail Bonds, such as taxation. New entrants into ORB have been able to raise sufficient funds, such as Places for People who were able to raise capital of £140 million. This portrays the advantage using ORB can have, even for non-bank smaller firms seeking to raise capital. Statistics[edit]

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There are currently 2,600 companies from over 60 countries[17] listed on the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange, of which 1151 are on AIM, 44 on the Professional Securities Market and 10 on the Specialist Funds Market. Pence sterling (GBX) is a subdivision of Pounds sterling (GBP). Pounds sterling are the UK's major currency unit, but pence are often used when quoting prices; e.g. a quoted price of GBX 2,360 is equivalent to £23.60. As of June 2011[update], the AIM had 56 companies as per country of operations from Africa, 41 from China, 26 from Latin America, 23 from Central & Eastern Europe and 29 from India
India
& Bangladesh, making it one of the world's leading growth markets. Since its launch in 1995, more than £67 billion has been raised on AIM. The total market value of these companies was £3.9 trillion. The daily turnover in July 2011 was £4.4 billion (€5.0 billion) and the daily number of trades 611,941. The LSE's share of trading in the UK lit[clarification needed] order book trading was 62.2%. As of 2011[update] the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange offered trading in more emerging market exchange traded funds (ETFs) than any other exchange in the world. There were a total of 158 emerging market ETFs listed on the Exchange in May 2011, compared with 126 on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE Arca) and 93 on Deutsche Börse. Information services[edit]

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The LSE supplies its participants with real time prices and trading data creating the transparency and liquidity through several services. Feeds are also available through providers such as Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters. Some of the products and references provided by the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange are:

UnaVista – LSE’s business solution for Post-Trade Services, Data Solutions and Reconciliations. It offers customers a global hosted platform for integrating matching, validation and reconciliations. RNS – Regulatory News Service is both a regulatory and financial communications channel for companies to communicate with the professional investor. Around 175,000 announcements are processed by RNS each year. Proquote – the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange’s data provider and information display system. It offers both Pre and Post trade Execution Monitoring and Analysis tools.

Post trade[edit] LS[LCH.Clearnet]] & SIX x-clear Ltd.[clarification needed] Through the Exchange's Italian arm, Borsa Italiana, the London
London
Stock Exchange Group as a whole offers clearing and settlement services for trades through CC&G (Cassa di Compensazione e Garanzia) and Monte Titoli.[18][19] is the Groups Central Counterparty (CCP) and covers multiple asset classes throughout the Italian equity, derivatives and bond markets. CC&G also clears Turquoise derivatives. Monte Titoli (MT) is the pre-settlement, settlement, custody and asset services provider of the Group. MT operates both on-exchange and OTC trades with over 400 banks and brokers. Technology[edit] The LSE's current trading platform is its own Linux-based edition named Millennium Exchange.[20] Their old trading platform TradElect was based on Microsoft's .NET Framework, and was developed by Microsoft and Accenture. 00pMicrosoft used the LSE software as an example of the supposed superiority of Windows over Linux
Linux
in the "Get the Facts" campaign,[citation needed] claiming that the LSE system provided "five nines" reliability, and a processing speed of 3–4 milliseconds. For Microsoft, LSE was a good combination of a highly visible exchange and yet a relatively modest IT problem.[21] Despite TradElect only being in use for about two years,[22] after suffering multiple periods of extended downtime and unreliability[23][24] the LSE announced in 2009 that it was planning to switch to Linux
Linux
in 2010.[25][26] LSE main market migration to MillenniumIT
MillenniumIT
technology was successfully completed in February 2011.[27] LSEG now provides high performance technology solutions, including trading, market surveillance and post trade systems for over 40 organisations and exchanges, including the Group’s own markets. Additional services include network connectivity, hosting and quality assurance testing. MillenniumIT, GATElab and Exactpro are among the Group’s technology companies.[28] Mergers and acquisitions[edit] Deutsche Börse[edit] On 3 May 2000, It was announced that the LSE would merge with the Deutsche Börse; however this fell through.[29] Borsa Italiana[edit] On 23 June 2007, the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange announced that it had agreed on the terms of a recommended offer to the shareholders of the Borsa Italiana
Borsa Italiana
S.p.A. The merger of the two companies created a leading diversified exchange group in Europe. The combined group was named the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange Group, but still remained two separate legal and regulatory entities. One of the long-term strategies of the joint company is to expand Borsa Italiana's efficient clearing services to other European markets. MTS[edit] In 2007, after Borsa Italiana
Borsa Italiana
announced that it was exercising its call option to acquire full control of MBE Holdings; thus the combined Group would now control Mercato dei Titoli di Stato, or MTS. This merger of Borsa Italiana
Borsa Italiana
and MTS with LSE's existing bond-listing business enhanced the range of covered European fixed income markets. Turquoise[edit] The London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange acquired Turquoise (TQ), a Pan-European MTF, in 2009 and since coupling[clarification needed] with MillenniumIT's software, it currently offers the fastest latency[clarification needed] of any in Europe. Currently the speed of latency on Turquoise (as measured at the end of August 2011) is 97 microseconds on average for 99.9% of trades.[citation needed] Initially founded by a consortium of nine banks, it is now majority-owned by the London
London
Stock Exchange Group. Currently shareholders include twelve of the leading investment banks. Turquoise operates a maker-taker fee scheme: 0.30 basis points for aggressive traders and 0.20 rebates[clarification needed] for passive traders, providing liquidity. The market share of Turquoise as an MTF has doubled over the past twelve months, from 3% to 6%. There are currently 2,000 securities, across 19 countries that are on Turquoise. Unlike Broker-Dealer Crossing Networks, TQ does not discriminate as to who can trade on their platform. NASDAQ
NASDAQ
bids[edit] In December 2005, the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange rejected a £1.6 billion takeover offer from Macquarie Bank. The London Stock
Stock
Exchange described the offer as "derisory", a sentiment echoed by shareholders in the Exchange. Shortly after Macquarie withdrew its offer, the LSE received an unsolicited approach from NASDAQ
NASDAQ
valuing the company at £2.4 billion. This too it rejected. NASDAQ
NASDAQ
later pulled its bid, and less than two weeks later on 11 April 2006, struck a deal with LSE's largest shareholder, Ameriprise Financial's Threadneedle Asset Management
Threadneedle Asset Management
unit, to acquire all of that firm's stake, consisting of 35.4 million shares, at £11.75 per share.[30] NASDAQ
NASDAQ
also purchased 2.69 million additional shares, resulting in a total stake of 15%. While the seller of those shares was undisclosed, it occurred simultaneously with a sale by Scottish Widows of 2.69 million shares.[31] The move was seen as an effort to force LSE to the negotiating table, as well as to limit the Exchange's strategic flexibility.[32] Subsequent purchases increased NASDAQ's stake to 25.1%, holding off competing bids for several months.[33][34][35] United Kingdom financial rules required that NASDAQ
NASDAQ
wait for a period of time before renewing its effort. On 20 November 2006, within a month or two of the expiration of this period, NASDAQ
NASDAQ
increased its stake to 28.75% and launched a hostile offer at the minimum permitted bid of £12.43 per share, which was the highest NASDAQ
NASDAQ
had paid on the open market for its existing shares.[36] The LSE immediately rejected this bid, stating that it "substantially undervalues" the company.[37] NASDAQ
NASDAQ
revised its offer (characterized as an "unsolicited" bid, rather than a "hostile takeover attempt") on 12 December 2006, indicating that it would be able to complete the deal with 50% (plus one share) of LSE's stock, rather than the 90% it had been seeking. The U.S. exchange did not, however, raise its bid. Many hedge funds had accumulated large positions within the LSE, and many managers of those funds, as well as Furse, indicated that the bid was still not satisfactory. NASDAQ's bid was made more difficult because it had described its offer as "final", which, under British bidding rules, restricted their ability to raise its offer except under certain circumstances. In the end, NASDAQ's offer was roundly rejected by LSE shareholders. Having received acceptances of only 0.41% of rest of the register by the deadline on 10 February 2007, Nasdaq's offer duly lapsed.[38] Responding to the news, Chris Gibson-Smith, the LSE's chairman, said: "The Exchange’s strategy has produced outstanding results for shareholders by facilitating a structural shift in volume growth in an increasingly international market at the centre of the world’s equity flows. The Exchange intends to build on its exceptionally valuable brand by progressing various competitive, collaborative and strategic opportunities, thereby reinforcing its uniquely powerful position in a fast evolving global sector."[39] On 20 August 2007, NASDAQ
NASDAQ
announced that it was abandoning its plan to take over the LSE and subsequently look for options to divest its 31% (61.3 million shares) shareholding in the company in light of its failed takeover attempt.[40] In September 2007, NASDAQ
NASDAQ
agreed to sell the majority of its shares to Borse Dubai, leaving the United Arab Emirates-based exchange with 28% of the LSE.[41] Proposed merger with TMX Group[edit] On 9 February 2011, London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange Group announced it had agreed to merge with the Toronto-based TMX Group, the owners of the Toronto
Toronto
Stock
Stock
Exchange, creating a combined entity with a market capitalization of listed companies equal to £3.7 trillion.[42] Xavier Rolet, CEO of the LSE Group at the time, would have headed the new enlarged company, while TMX Chief Executive Thomas Kloet would have become the new firm president. The London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange however announced it was terminating the merger with TMX on 29 June 2011 citing that "LSEG and TMX Group
TMX Group
believe that the merger is highly unlikely to achieve the required two-thirds majority approval at the TMX Group
TMX Group
shareholder meeting".[43] Even though the LSE obtained the necessary support from its shareholders, it failed to obtain the required support from TMX's shareholders. Opening times[edit] Normal trading sessions on the main orderbook (SETS) are from 08:00 to 16:30 local time every day of the week except Saturdays, Sundays and holidays declared by the exchange in advance. The detailed schedule is as follows:

Trade reporting 07:15–07:50 Opening auction 07:50–08:00 Continuous trading 08:00–16:30 Closing auction 16:30–16:35 Order maintenance 16:35–17:00 Trade reporting only 17:00–17:15

Holidays are currently: New Year's Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, May Bank Holiday, Spring Bank Holiday, Summer Bank Holiday, and Christmas Day. See also[edit]

London
London
portal

List of stock exchanges Mandatory quote period Stock
Stock
Exchange forgery 1872–73 TAURUS (share settlement) Economics List of stock exchanges in the Commonwealth of Nations List of stock exchanges in the United Kingdom, the British Crown Dependencies and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Overseas Territories

References[edit]

^ "Monthly Market Report - London
London
Stock
Stock
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Stock
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Exchange Group".  ^ www.walklondon.com/, Walk London
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-. "Royal Exchange, London". www.walklondon.com. Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ "Heritage The Royal Exchange". www.theroyalexchange.co.uk. Retrieved 14 June 2017.  ^ "St Paul's Institute: A Valuable Exchange at the Royal Exchange". www.stpaulsinstitute.org.uk. Retrieved 14 June 2017.  ^ "Gresham Grasshopper, Royal Exchange, London
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- Insect Sculptures on Waymarking.com". www.waymarking.com. Retrieved 14 June 2017.  ^ "Calls for Scotland
Scotland
to have its own stock exchange". 4 August 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2013.  ^ "On This Day: 20 July 1990: IRA bombs Stock
Stock
Exchange". BBC News. 20 July 1990.  ^ Bomb Blast Rips London's Stock
Stock
Exchange; No Injuries Reported : Terrorism: Apparent IRA warning allows time to evacuate the building and surrounding area. – Los Angeles Times. Articles.latimes.com (21 July 1990). Retrieved on 12 August 2013. ^ " London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange Is Rocked by a Bombing", New York Times (21 July 1990). Retrieved on 12 August 2013. ^ Davies, Caroline (16 October 2011). "Occupy London
London
protest continues into second day". The Guardian. London.  ^ " Stock exchange
Stock exchange
occupation blocked". WalesOnline. Wales. 15 October 2011.  ^ "Occupy London: Protest continues for second day". BBC News Online. London. 16 October 2011.  ^ "MTS". London
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Stock
Stock
Exchange Group. Retrieved 2 February 2017.  ^ "FTSE Russell". FTSE Russell.  ^ "The London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange: About the main market". londonstockexchange.com.  ^ CC&G - London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange Group. Retrieved 26 August 2015. ^ Monte Titoli London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange Group. Retrieved 26 August 2015. ^ Leo King (14 February 2011). " London
London
Stock
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Exchange finished the switch to Linux". Computerworld UK.  ^ Ajay Shah (4 July 2009). "Microsoft inside the exchange". Blogspot.  ^ " London
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Stock
Stock
Exchange to replace Tradelect with Millennium". London: ComputerWeekly.com. 4 September 2009.  ^ Rowena Mason (10 September 2008). "Seven-hour LSE blackout caused by double glitch". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ " London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange trading hit by technical glitch". BBC News. 26 November 2009.  ^ David M. Williams (8 October 2009). " London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange gets the facts and dumps Windows for Linux". ITWire.  ^ " London
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Stock
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Exchange Rejects .NET For Open Source". Slashdot. 6 October 2009.  ^ Stafford, Philip (14 February 2011). "LSE moves to faster UK trading system". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 5 May 2016.  ^ " Investor Relations". London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange Group. Retrieved 5 May 2016.  ^ "2000: Leading stock exchanges plan merger". 3 May 2000 – via news.bbc.co.uk.  ^ Patrick, M.; Lucchetti, A.; Reilly, D.; Taylor, E. (11 April 2006). "Nasdaq Acquires 15% of LSE". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ " Scottish Widows
Scottish Widows
says has sold 2.7 mln LSE shares at 1,175 pence". Forbes. 12 April 2006. Archived from the original on 5 March 2007.  ^ Ortega, E. (11 April 2006). "Nasdaq Buys 15 Percent Stake in LSE for $782 Million". Bloomberg News.  ^ MacDonald, A.; Lucchetti, A. (4 May 2006). "In LSE Stakes, Nasdaq Advances, Euronext
Euronext
Falls". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ Lucchetti, A.; MacDonald, A. (11 May 2006). "Nasdaq Lifts Its LSE Stake to 24%". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ Goldsmith, B.; Elliott, M. (19 May 2006). "Nasdaq raises LSE stake, making rival bids harder". Reuters.  ^ Lucchetti, A.; MacDonald, A. (20 November 2006). "Nasdaq Makes Bid to Buy Rest of London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ "LSE rejects £2.7bn Nasdaq offer". BBC News. 20 November 2006.  ^ "Nasdaq fails in takeover bid for London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange". International Herald Tribune. 11 February 2007.  ^ "Statement re lapse of Nasdaq's offer". londonstockexchange.com. 10 February 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2008.  ^ "Sale Update". reuters.co.uk. 20 August 2007. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007.  ^ Magnusson, N.; McSheehy, W. (20 September 2007). "Dubai to Buy Stakes in Nasdaq, LSE; Strikes OMX Deal". bloomberg.com.  ^ "LSE agrees merger with TMX of Canada". BBC News. 9 February 2011.  ^ "Announcement re LSEG/ TMX Group
TMX Group
merger – London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange". Londonstockexchangegroup.com. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

Michie, R. C. (1999). The London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829508-1. 

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