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London
London
County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London
County of London
throughout its existence from 1889 to 1965, and the first London-wide general municipal authority to be directly elected. It covered the area today known as Inner London
Inner London
and was replaced by the Greater London
Greater London
Council. The LCC was the largest, most significant and most ambitious English municipal authority of its day.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Powers and duties

2.1 Housing reform 2.2 Street re-naming 2.3 World War II
World War II
era

3 Headquarters

3.1 Spring Gardens 3.2 Search for a new site 3.3 County Hall, Lambeth

4 Politics

4.1 Elections to the London
London
County Council 4.2 Political control 4.3 Leaders of the London
London
County Council 4.4 Chairmen of the London
London
County Council

4.4.1 Chairman and vice chairman 4.4.2 Deputy chairman

5 Abolition 6 See also 7 References

History[edit]

The First Meeting of the London
London
County Council in the County Hall Spring Gardens, 1889 by Henry Jamyn Brooks

By the 19th century the City of London Corporation
City of London Corporation
covered only a small fraction of metropolitan London. From 1855 the Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) had certain powers across the metropolis, but it was appointed rather than elected. Many powers remained in the hands of traditional bodies such as parishes and the counties of Middlesex, Surrey
Surrey
and Kent. The creation of the LCC in 1889, as part of the Local Government Act 1888, was forced by a succession of scandals involving the MBW, and was also prompted by a general desire to create a competent government for the city, capable of strategising and delivering services effectively.[2] While the Conservative government of the day would have preferred not to create a single body covering the whole of London, their electoral pact with Liberal Unionists
Liberal Unionists
led them to this policy. It was established as a provisional council on 31 January 1889 and came into its powers on 21 March 1889.[3] Shortly after its creation a Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London
County of London
considered the means for amalgamation with the City of London. Although this was not achieved, it led to the creation of 28 metropolitan boroughs as lower tier authorities to replace the various local vestries and boards in 1900; they assumed some powers of the LCC and shared others. Powers and duties[edit] The LCC inherited the powers of its predecessor the MBW, but had wider authority over matters such as education, city planning and council housing. It took over the functions of the London School Board
London School Board
in 1903, and Dr C W Kimmins was appointed chief inspector of the education department in 1904. From 1899 the Council progressively acquired and operated the tramways in the county, which it electrified from 1903. By 1933, when the LCC Tramways were taken over by the London
London
Passenger Transport Board, it was the largest tram operator in the United Kingdom, with more than 167 miles (269 km) of route and over 1,700 tramcars. Housing reform[edit] One of the LCC's most important roles during the late 19th and early 20th century, was in the management of the expanding city and the re-development of its growing slums.[4] In the Victorian era, new housing had been intentionally urban and large-scale tenement buildings dominated. Beginning in the 1930s, the LCC incentivised an increase in more suburban housing styles. A less-dense style of development, focusing on single family homes, was popular among London housing developers because it was believed that this would satisfy the working classes and provide insurance, "against Bolshevism," to quote one parliamentary secretary. The LCC set the standard for new construction at 12 houses per acre of land at a time when some London areas had as many as 80 housing units per acre. The passage of the Housing of the Working Classes Act in 1885 gave the LCC the power to compel the sale of land for housing development, a power that was vital to the systematic rehousing that began under the council's early Progressive leadership.[4] The Totterdown Fields
Totterdown Fields
development at Tooting
Tooting
was the first large suburban-style development to be built under LCC authority, in 1903, and was quickly followed by developments at Roehampton, Bellingham, and Becontree. By 1938, 76,877 units of housing had been built under the auspices of the LCC in the city and its periphery, an astonishing number given the previous pace of development.[5] Many of these new housing developments were genuinely working-class, though the poorest could rarely afford even subsidised rents. They relied on an expanding London Underground
London Underground
network that ferried workers en masse to places of employment in the city centre. These housing developments were broadly successful, and they resisted the slummification that blighted so many Victorian tenement developments. The success of these commuter developments constructed by the LCC in the periphery of the city is, "one of the more remarkable achievements in London
London
government, and contributed much to the marked improvement of conditions between the wars for the capital's working classes."[4] Street re-naming[edit] The LCC undertook between 1857 and 1929 to standardise and clarify street names across London. Many streets in different areas of the city had similar or identical names, and the rise of the car as a primary mode of transportation in the city made these names unworkable. In an extreme case, there were more than 60 streets called "Cross Street" spread across the city when the LCC began its process of systematic renaming. These were given names from an approved list that was maintained by the LCC, containing only "suitably English" names. If street names were deemed un-English, they were also slated for change; Zulu Crescent in Battersea, for instance, became St. Ann's Terrace in 1912.[6] World War II
World War II
era[edit] By 1939, the council had the following powers and duties:[7]

Category Powers and duties Notes

Public Assistance

Adoption of children Welfare of blind persons Assistance with formation of building societies and co-operatives Assistance with emigration Domicilary and institutional relief Casual wards Training centres Provision of smallholdings Classes and relief works for the unemployed Appointment of old age pension committee

Many of these powers were acquired in 1930 when the Local Government Act 1929 abolished the Metropolitan Asylums Board and the poor law boards of guardians.

Aldwych, constructed as a slum clearance project in 1905

Lambeth
Lambeth
Bridge, built by the LCC in 1932

The headquarters of the London Fire Brigade
London Fire Brigade
on Albert Embankment, opened in 1937

A pond on Hampstead Heath, the largest open space maintained by the council

Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts built by the LCC in 1898

L.C.C. Tram Car No. 106

The Geffrye Museum

Plaque marking the opening of the Blackwall Tunnel
Blackwall Tunnel
in 1897

Health Services, Housing and Sanitation

By-laws and regulations† Prevention of spread of animal diseases† District medical service Main drainage Hospitals and ambulances Large housing schemes (inside and outside the county)† Redevelopment† School medical service Care of "mentally defective" and "mentally disordered" Midwives Registration and inspection of nursing homes† Open spaces† Overcrowding survey Prevention of river pollution Residential treatment of tuberculosis Clearance of unhealthy areas† Treatment of venereal disease†

Medical and ambulance services passed to the National Health Service in 1948.

Regulation and Licensing

Licensing of boxing matches Building regulation Dangerous and neglected structures† By-laws for good rule and government† Storage, registration and inspection of celluloid† Licensing of cinemas and theatres (other than those under the Lord Chamberlain) Testing of gas and electricity meters† Registration of employment agencies† Safeguarding of children and young people in employment† Registration and inspection of explosives† Inspection of fertilsers and foodstuffs† Registration of land charges† Registration and inspection of massage establishments† Music and dancing licences Licensing and inspection of petroleum† Licensing of racecourses Clearance of unhealthy areas† Treatment of venereal disease† Shop hours and closing† Prevention of smoke nuisance† Registration of theatrical employers† Town planning† Registration of war and blind charities† Weights and measures† Protection of wild birds

Protective Services

Supervision of adoption Provision of ambulances (street accidents)† Protection of children† Costs of Central Criminal Court and quarter sessions London
London
Fire Brigade Fire regulations Coroners and inquests† Remand homes Thames flood prevention

Education and Museums

Protection of ancient monuments† Elementary schools Special
Special
schools Nursery schools Secondary schools Technical and art schools Training colleges Scholarships Grants to educational institutions Fleet Street Museum Geffrye Museum Horniman Museum

The council received powers to provide technical education in 1892. On the abolition of the London School Board
London School Board
the LCC became the local education authority with responsibility for elementary and secondary schools on 1 May 1904.

Transport

Provision of aerodromes† Bridges† Maintenance of Thames Embankment River Ferries Motor vehicle registration Driver licensing Street improvements† Street naming and numbering Subways† Tunnels

Until 1933 the council provided a network of tramway services in the county. This passed to the London
London
Passenger Transport Board.

† Denotes a power administered by the City of London
City of London
Corporation within the City. Headquarters[edit] Spring Gardens[edit]

Spring Gardens

The LCC initially used the Spring Gardens
Spring Gardens
headquarters inherited from the Metropolitan Board of Works. The building had been designed by Frederick Marrable, the MBW's superintending architect, and dated from 1860.[8] Opinions on the merits of the building varied: the Survey of London
London
described it as "well balanced" while the architectural correspondent of The Times
The Times
was less enthusiastic. He summarised the building as "...of the Palladian
Palladian
type of four storeys with two orders, Ionic above and Corinthian below as if its designer had looked rather hastily at the banqueting house of Inigo Jones."[8][9] The most impressive feature was the curving or elliptical spiral staircase leading to the principal floor. The original board room was too small to accommodate meetings of the new council, and it was soon replaced by a horseshoe-shaped council chamber.[8][9] Search for a new site[edit] By 1893 it was clear that the Spring Gardens
Spring Gardens
building was too small for the increased work of the LCC. Seven additional buildings within a quarter of a mile of the County Hall had been acquired, and it was estimated that they would need to take over an average of two more houses annually.[10] The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir William Harcourt, offered the council a site at Parliament Street, Westminster for three quarters of a million pounds. Another site subsequently became available between The Strand and The Embankment, when the Official Receiver took over the partially completed premises of the failed Liberator Building Society.[11] The council's Establishment Committee recommended the purchase of the Parliament Street lot, as it would be a prominent site opposite the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
and next to the principal government offices.[10] Following a debate of the whole council, the committee's recommendation was rejected on financial grounds and as it was felt that the headquarters should not be in the privileged West End.[10] The matter remained unresolved, and in 1900 a special committee was formed by the council to seek out a suitable site. In July 1902 they presented their report, recommending a 3.35-acre (13,600 m2) site in the Adelphi. Entry roads to the proposed county hall would be made from The Strand and The Embankment.[12] The council rejected the recommendations in October 1902, and a suggestion was made that the committee seek a site south of the Thames, adjacent to Westminster Bridge.[13] County Hall, Lambeth[edit]

County Hall from the north bank of the Thames

Main article: County Hall, London In April 1905 the council finally agreed to seek powers to buy three adjoining plots of land on the eastern side of Westminster Bridge
Westminster Bridge
as a site for a single headquarters. The debate in the council chamber was somewhat heated with one councillor objecting to the purchase as it was "on the wrong side of the river ... in a very squalid neighbourhood ... and quite unworthy of the dignity of a body like the council". Leading member of the council, John Burns
John Burns
countered that it "would brighten up a dull place, sweeten a sour spot and for the first time bring the south of London
London
into a dignified and beautiful frontage on the River Thames."[14] The necessary powers were obtained under the London
London
County Council (Money) Act 1906, and a competition to design the new building was organised.[15] There were approximately 100 entries, and the winner was the twenty-nine-year-old Ralph Knott. Construction began in 1911, and the first section was opened in 1922, with the original building completed in 1933. Extensions continued to be made throughout the council's existence.[9][16]

Politics[edit] Elections to the London
London
County Council[edit]

Electioneering poster, 1907

The county was divided into electoral divisions, which had the same boundaries as the parliamentary constituencies. Initially, each division returned two councillors, with the exception of the City of London, which returned four.[17] Under the Representation of the People Act 1948 this was altered, with three councillors being returned for each division.[18] Elections of all councillors were held every three years, although they were cancelled during the First and Second World Wars. In addition to the elected councillors the council also contained one county alderman for every six councillors. Aldermen were elected by halves by the council for six-year terms at the first meeting following the election. Political control[edit] Initially, it had been hoped by many that elections to the LCC would be conducted on a non-partisan basis, but in the council two political groups formed. The majority group in 1889 was the Progressives, who were unofficially allied with the Liberal Party in national politics. Those who allied with the Conservative Party formed the Moderate group. In 1906, the Moderates became known as the Municipal Reform Party.

King George VI & Queen Elizabeth commemorative ceramic mug, May 1937, J. & G. Meakin for London
London
County Council.

The LCC was elected every three years. The Progressives were in control continuously from 1889 until 1907, when they lost power to the Municipal Reformers. Municipal Reform control lasted until 1934 when Labour won power, which they kept until the LCC was abolished. The following is a summary of the council composition following each election.[19] The figures shown are the number of councillors plus aldermen. For instance 13 + 2 indicates 13 councillors and 2 aldermen.

Overall control Mod./M.R./Cons. Labour Prog./Lib. Others

1961 Labour 42 + 7 84 +14 – –

1958 Labour 25 + 7 101 + 14 – –

1955 Labour 52 + 8 74 + 13 – –

1952 Labour 37 + 6 92 + 15 – –

1949 Labour 64 + 5 64 + 16 1 + 0 –

1946 Labour 30 + 6 90 + 14 2 + 0 2 + 0

1937 Labour 49 + 8 75 + 12 – –

1934 Labour 55 + 9 69 + 11 – –

1931 Municipal Reform 83 + 13 35 + 6 6 + 0 0 + 1

1928 Municipal Reform 77 + 12 42 + 6 5 + 1 0 + 1

1925 Municipal Reform 83 + 13 35 + 6 6 + 0 –

1922 Municipal Reform 82 + 12 16 + 3 26 + 5 –

1919 Municipal Reform 68 + 12 15 + 2 40 + 6 1 + 0

1913 Municipal Reform 67 + 15 2 + 0 49 + 4 –

1910 Municipal Reform 60 + 17 3 + 0 55 + 2 –

1907 Municipal Reform 79 + 11 1 + 0 37 + 8 1 + 0

1904 Progressive 35 + 6 – 82 + 13 1 + 0

1901 Progressive 32 + 6 0 + 1 86 + 12 –

1898 Progressive 48 + 8 0 + 1 70 + 10 –

1895 Progressive 59 + 7 – 59 + 12 –

1892 Progressive 35 + 2 – 83 + 17 –

1889 Progressive 46 + 1 – 72 + 18 –

Leaders of the London
London
County Council[edit] The post of Leader was only officially recognised in 1933. This table gives the Leaders of the majority parties on the council before this time, although in the first term this had little relevance in terms of the leadership of the Council.

Council Chamber of the LCC, from the majority benches

Sir Thomas Farrer (21 March 1889 – 27 March 1890) James Stuart (27 March 1890 – 9 March 1892) Charles Harrison (9 March 1892 – 10 March 1898) Thomas McKinnon Wood
Thomas McKinnon Wood
(10 March 1898 – 8 March 1907) Richard Robinson (8 March 1907 – 11 March 1908) Hon. William Peel (11 March 1908 – 8 March 1910) William Hayes Fisher
William Hayes Fisher
(8 March 1910 – 19 December 1911) Cyril Jackson (19 December 1911 – 16 March 1915) Ronald Collet Norman
Ronald Collet Norman
(16 March 1915 – 1 March 1918) George Hume
George Hume
(knighted 1924) (1 March 1918 – 11 March 1925) Sir William Ray (11 March 1925 – 9 March 1934) Herbert Morrison (9 March 1934 – 27 May 1940) Lord Latham (27 May 1940 – 29 July 1947) Sir Isaac Hayward (29 July 1947 – 31 March 1965)

Chairmen of the London
London
County Council[edit]

Lord Rosebery, first chairman of the London
London
County Council

Main article: List of chairmen of the London
London
County Council Chairman and vice chairman[edit] The county council was required by statute to appoint a chairman and a vice chairman at its annual meeting. Both of these positions were generally filled by members of the majority party. The chairman chaired meetings of the council, and was the county's civic leader, filling a similar role to the mayor of a borough or city. The vice chairman performed these functions in his absence. The first chairman was the Earl of Rosebery, and the last chairman was Arthur Wicks. The chairmanship was a prestigious office, second only to that of lord lieutenant. The incumbent chairmen were honoured with knighthoods on the occasions of the coronations of Edward VII and Elizabeth II, and the laying of the foundation stone of County Hall.[20][21][22] As part of the celebrations of the silver jubilee of George V in 1935 it was announced that the chairman would in future be entitled to use the style "right honourable", an honour already enjoyed by the Lord Mayor of London.[23] Deputy chairman[edit] The council's standing orders also provided for the post of deputy chairman. Until 1895 the holder of this office was in charge of the organisation of the council's activities, and was paid a salary. This was seen as a conflict of interest by the Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London
County of London
when they reported in 1894, and in 1895 a county clerk was added to the council staff to perform these duties.[24][25] The deputy chairmanship then became purely ceremonial, and was filled by nominees of the opposition party on the council.

Abolition[edit] After World War II
World War II
it became evident that the London
London
County Council was too small to cope with the greater demands being placed on local government by the new Welfare State.[26] In 1957 a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London
Greater London
was set up under Sir Edwin Herbert to examine the issues and make recommendations. The Commission deliberated for three years and in 1960 it recommended a major restructuring of local government in London. This included the abolition of all existing local authorities with the exception of the City of London
City of London
Corporation; a Greater London Council
Greater London Council
was to be established and 32 new London
London
boroughs with populations of 100,000 to 250,000 were to be set up. The new boroughs would split the responsibility for government functions with the Greater London Council.[27] The Royal Commission's report led to the Bill for the London Government Act 1963,[28] and when this was introduced into Parliament it initially faced considerable opposition.[29][30][31] The Bill passed into law with some minor amendments. An Inner London
Inner London
Education Authority was set up for education to be overseen on a broad county level. The first elections for the new Greater London Council
Greater London Council
were held on 9 April 1964. The London
London
County Council ran concurrently for a year with the new Greater London Council
Greater London Council
to ensure a seamless transition, and the LCC was finally abolished on 1 April 1965. The Royal Commission commented that "nobody studying London
London
Government can fail to be deeply impressed with the achievements of the London
London
County Council. It has given the Administrative County of London
County of London
a strong and able form of government which makes its standing very high among the municipal governments of the world."[27] See also[edit]

Coat of arms of London
London
County Council London
London
County Council Tramways List of members of London
London
County Council 1889–1919 List of members of London
London
County Council 1919–1937 List of members of London
London
County Council 1937–1949 London
London
Metropolitan Archives

References[edit]

^ Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London
London
County Council (1889–1965), (1989) ^ Szreter, Simon (May 2002). "A central role for local government? The example of late Victorian Britain". History & Policy. History & Policy. Retrieved 9 December 2010.  ^ Albert Emil Davies (1937). The London
London
County Council 1889–1931: A Historical Sketch. Fabian Society.  ^ a b c Roy Porter (1994). London: A Social History. Harvard University Press.  ^ W. Ashworth (1954). The Genesis of Modern British Town Planning: A Study in Economic and Social History of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Routledge.  ^ "Old and New Street Names". History & Policy. The Hunt House London. December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.  ^ "Powers and Duties of the L.C.C.". The Times. 21 March 1939. p. vi.  ^ a b c "Old County Hall (including site of Berkeley House)". Survey of London: volume 20: St Martin-in-the-Fields, pt III: Trafalgar Square & Neighbourhood. British History Online. 1940. Retrieved 21 August 2009.  ^ a b c "Homes of the Council. Spring Gardens
Spring Gardens
and County Hall". The Times. 21 March 1939. p. vi.  ^ a b c "The London
London
County Council". The Times. 15 July 1893. pp. 13–14.  ^ "Proposed London
London
County Council Buildings". The Times. 28 June 1893. p. 4.  ^ "Proposed New London
London
County Hall". The Times. 21 July 1902. p. 3.  ^ " London
London
County Hall". The Times. 22 October 1902. p. 10.  ^ " London
London
County Council. The New County Hall". The Times. 19 April 1905. p. 12.  ^ " London
London
County Council (Money) Bill". Hansard
Hansard
1803–2005. parliament of the United Kingdom. 9 July 1906. Retrieved 21 August 2009.  ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus (1952). London
London
except the Cities of London
London
and Westminster. The Buildings of England. Penguin. p. 274.  ^ Local Government Act 1888, S.40(4) ^ 1948 c.65, s.59 ^ Saint, Andrew (1989). Politics and the People of London: The London County Council, 1889–1965. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 3. ISBN 1-85285-029-9.  ^ "The Coronation Honours". The Times. 26 June 1902. p. 5.  ^ "No. 28589". The London
London
Gazette. 12 March 1912. p. 1827.  ^ "L.C.C. Chairman Knighted". The Times. 7 July 1953. p. 6.  ^ "Royal Guests of L.C.C. The Queen At The County Hall, Honour For Chairman". The Times. 1 June 1935. p. 16.  ^ " London
London
Amalgamation – The Commissioners' Report". The Times. 1 October 1894. pp. 13–14.  ^ "The London
London
County Council Clerkship". The Times. 14 December 1895. p. 5.  ^ London
London
County Council – 'Exploring 20th Century London ^ a b London
London
County Council – London
London
Metropolitan Archives Collections Catalogue – City of London
City of London
website ^ London Government Act 1963
London Government Act 1963
– The British Government's Legislation website ^ "LOCAL GOVERNMENT BILL". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Lords. March 14, 1962. col. 278–291.  ^ "LOCAL GOVERNMENT BILL". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. February 20, 1963. col. 278–518.  ^ "LOCAL GOVERNMENT BILL". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). House of Commons. December 11, 1962. col. 278–291. 

New creation County council 1889–1965 Succeeded by Greater London
Greater London
Council

v t e

London
London
County Council

Chairmen Members 1889-1919 Members 1919-1937 Members 1937-1949 Members 1949-1965 Tramways Coat of Arms County Hall

v t e

Former county councils of England

Avon Bedfordshire Berkshire Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely Cheshire Cleveland Cornwall Cumberland Durham East Riding East Suffolk Greater Manchester Hereford and Worcester Herefordshire Holland Humberside Huntingdon and Peterborough Huntingdonshire Isle of Ely Isle of Wight Kesteven Lindsey London Merseyside Middlesex North Riding Northumberland Rutland Shropshire Soke of Peterborough South Yorkshire Tyne and Wear West Midlands Westmorland West Riding West Suffolk West Yorkshire Wiltshire

v t e

Governance of Greater London

City of London London

Regional

Greater London
Greater London
Authority London
London
Assembly Mayor of London London
London
Councils

Boroughs

Barking and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Ceremonial

Lord Mayor of the City of London Lord Lieutenant of Greater London High Sheriff of Greater London

Historical

Metropolitan Board of Works
Metropolitan Board of Works
(MBW) 1855–1889 London
London
County Council (LCC) 1889–1965 Greater London Council
Greater London Council
(GLC) 1965–1986 Leaders Sheriffs of the City of London

v t e

History of London

Evolution

Londinium Lundenwic City of London City of Westminster Middlesex County of London Greater London Timeline

Periods

Roman London Anglo-Saxon London Norman and Medieval London Tudor London Stuart London 18th-century London 19th-century London 1900–39 The Blitz 1945–2000 21st century

Events

Peasants' Revolt Black Death Great Plague Great Fire 1854 cholera outbreak Great Stink Great Exhibition 1908 Franco-British Exhibition The Battle of Cable Street Festival of Britain Great Smog Swinging London London
London
Plan 1966 FIFA World Cup Final 7/7 bombings Olympic Games (1908 1948 2012) 2012 Summer Paralympics Grenfell Tower fire

Government

Metropolitan Board of Works London
London
County Council Greater London
Greater London
Council Greater London
Greater London
Authority London
London
Assembly Mayor of London London
London
independence

Services

Bow Street Runners Metropolitan Police Service London
London
Ambulance Service London
London
Fire Brigade Port of London
London
Authority London
London
sewerage system London
London
Underground

City of London

City of London
City of London
Corporation Lord Mayor of the City of London Wards of the City of London Guildhall Livery Companies Lord Mayor's Show City of London
City of London
Police Bank of England

Structures

St Paul's Cathedral Tower of London Palace of Whitehall Westminster Hall London
London
Bridge Tower Bridge Westminster Abbey Big Ben The Monument Fortifications

Category

Wikimedia Commons has media related to London
London
County Council.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141507734 LCCN: n50041721 SUDOC: 1021644

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