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31.2% White British 1.5% White Irish 0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller 12.4% Other White 1.1% White & Black Caribbean 0.6% White & Black African 1.2% White ">(help ·info )) is a London Borough in East London which covers much of the traditional East End .

The Borough was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former Metropolitan Boroughs of Stepney
Stepney
, Poplar and Bethnal Green . The new authority's unusual name comes from an alternative title for the Tower Division ; the area of south-east Middlesex
Middlesex
, focused on (but not limited to) the area of the modern borough, which owed military service to the Tower of London
London
.

The borough lies to the east of the City of London
London
and north of the River Thames
River Thames
. It includes much of the redeveloped Docklands region of London, including West India Docks and Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
. Many of the tallest buildings in London
London
occupy the centre of the Isle of Dogs in the south of the borough. A part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is in Tower Hamlets.

The borough has a population of 272,890, which includes one of the highest Muslim
Muslim
populations in the country and has an established British Bangladeshi and Pakistani business and residential community. Tower Hamlets has the highest proportion of Muslims in England outnumbering the Christians
Christians
, and has more than 40 mosques and Islamic centres. The East London Mosque , one of the first mosques in Britain allowed to broadcast the adhan and is one of the biggest Islamic centres in Europe
Europe
. Brick Lane
Brick Lane
's restaurants, neighbouring street market and shops provide the largest range of Bengali cuisine , woodwork, carpets and clothes in Europe. The local authority is Tower Hamlets London Borough Council .

As of 2017, the councillors are: 22 Labour , 9 Independent Group, 5 Conservative , 5 People's Alliance, 3 independent, 1 Liberal Democrat .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Physical geography * 1.2 Areas within the borough

* 2 History

* 3 Politics

* 3.1 Parliament * 3.2 London
London
Assembly * 3.3 London Borough Council

* 4 Local landmarks

* 4.1 Historical landmarks * 4.2 Modern landmarks

* 5 Climate * 6 Demographics * 7 Religion * 8 Economy

* 9 Education

* 9.1 Universities * 9.2 Further education colleges * 9.3 Schools and Sixth form colleges * 9.4 Volunteering

* 10 Sports

* 10.1 Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park

* 11 Leisure

* 11.1 Parks in Tower Hamlets * 11.2 Museums

* 12 Transport

* 12.1 List of stations

* 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Sources * 16 External links

GEOGRAPHY

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
, world headquarters of numerous major banks and professional services firms

Tower Hamlets is located to east of the City of London
London
and north of the River Thames
River Thames
in East London. The London Borough of Hackney lies to the north of the borough while the River Lea
River Lea
forms the boundary with the London Borough of Newham in the east. On the other side of the Thames is The London Borough of Southwark to the southwest, The London Borough of Lewisham to the South, and The Royal Borough of Greenwich to the southeast. The River Lea
River Lea
also forms the boundary between those parts of London
London
historically in Middlesex
Middlesex
, with those formerly in Essex
Essex
.

The Isle of Dogs is formed from the lock entrances to the former West India Docks and the largest current meander of the River Thames
River Thames
and the southern part of the borough forms a part of the historic flood plain of the River Thames; and but for the Thames Barrier and other flood prevention works would be vulnerable to flooding.

The Regent\'s Canal enters the borough from Hackney to meet the River Thames at Limehouse Basin . A stretch of the Hertford Union Canal leads from the Regent's canal, at a basin in the north of Mile End to join the River Lea
River Lea
at Old Ford . A further canal, Limehouse Cut , London's oldest, leads from locks at Bromley-by-Bow to Limehouse Basin. Most of the canal tow-paths are open to both pedestrians and cyclists.

Victoria Park was formed by Act of Parliament, and administered by the LCC and its successor authority the GLC . Since the latter authority's abolition, the park has been administered by Tower Hamlets. Part of the borough is within the boundary of the Thames Gateway development area. Areas, transport, -webkit-column-width: 22em; column-width: 22em;">

* Aldgate
Aldgate
(also partly within the City of London
London
) * Bethnal Green * Blackwall * Bow * Bow Common * Bromley-by-Bow * Cambridge Heath * Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
* Docklands * East Smithfield * Fish Island * Globe Town * Hackney Wick (also partly within the London Borough of Hackney ) * Isle of Dogs * Cubitt Town * Millwall * Leamouth * Limehouse * Mile End * Old Ford * Poplar * Ratcliff * Roman Road * Shadwell * Shoreditch
Shoreditch
(mostly within the London Borough of Hackney ) * Spitalfields * Stepney
Stepney
* Wapping * Whitechapel

HISTORY

See also: East End of London
London
, of which Tower Hamlets is a main part. For more detailed local histories for each of the districts within Tower Hamlets, see the links to the individual districts, listed above this section.

The earliest apparent use of the name "Tower Hamlets" was in the sixteenth century, when the Constable of the Tower of London
London
commanded the Tower Hamlet Militia as the Lord Lieutenant of Tower Hamlets. The Hamlets of the Tower paid taxes for the militia in 1646.

The London Borough of Tower Hamlets forms the core of the East End. It lies east of the ancient walled City of London
London
and north of the River Thames
River Thames
. Use of the term "East End" in a pejorative sense began in the late 19th century, as the expansion of the population of London
London
led to extreme overcrowding throughout the area and a concentration of poor people and immigrants in the districts that made it up. These problems were exacerbated with the construction of St Katharine Docks (1827) and the central London
London
railway termini (1840–1875) that caused the clearance of former slums and rookeries , with many of the displaced people moving into the area. Over the course of a century, the East End became synonymous with poverty, overcrowding, disease and criminality.

The East End developed rapidly during the 19th century. Originally it was an area characterised by villages clustered around the City walls or along the main roads, surrounded by farmland, with marshes and small communities by the River, serving the needs of shipping and the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. Until the arrival of formal docks, shipping was required to land goods in the Pool of London
London
, but industries related to construction, repair, and victualling of ships flourished in the area from Tudor times . The area attracted large numbers of rural people looking for employment. Successive waves of foreign immigration began with Huguenot
Huguenot
refugees creating a new extramural suburb in Spitalfields in the 17th century. They were followed by Irish weavers, Ashkenazi Jews and, in the 20th century, Bangladeshis . Many of these immigrants worked in the clothing industry. The abundance of semi- and unskilled labour led to low wages and poor conditions throughout the East End. This brought the attentions of social reformers during the mid-18th century and led to the formation of unions and workers associations at the end of the century. The radicalism of the East End contributed to the formation of the Labour Party and demands for the enfranchisement of women .

Official attempts to address the overcrowded housing began at the beginning of the 20th century under the London
London
County Council . World War II devastated much of the East End, with its docks, railways and industry forming a continual target, leading to dispersal of the population to new suburbs, and new housing being built in the 1950s. During the war, in the Boroughs making up Tower Hamlets a total of 2,221 civilians were killed and 7,472 were injured, with 46,482 houses destroyed and 47,574 damaged. The closure of the last of the East End docks in the Port of London
London
in 1980 created further challenges and led to attempts at regeneration and the formation of the London
London
Docklands Development Corporation . The Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
development, improved infrastructure, and the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park mean that the East End is undergoing further change, but some of its districts continue to contain some of the worst poverty in Britain.

POLITICS

See also: Tower Hamlets local elections

PARLIAMENT

For the 2017 general election , the borough was split into two constituencies :

* Bethnal Green & Bow , represented by Rushanara Ali (Labour) * Poplar & Limehouse , represented by Jim Fitzpatrick (Labour)

The borough is a part of the London
London
constituency for election to the European Parliament
European Parliament
. Labour has dominated national elections in Tower Hamlets, although other left-wing parties have won seats including the Respect Unity coalition in 2005 in Bethnal Green one Respect and one Labour councillor defected to the Conservatives; one Liberal Democrat defected to Labour; and one Labour councillor was gained through a by-election at the expense of the Liberal Democrats.

In July 2013, the Tower Hamlets (Electoral Changes) Order 2013 was passed, reducing the size of the Council and creating new electoral wards made of single, two- and 3-member divisions.

In September 2013, Lutfur Rahman's independent group was officially renamed Tower Hamlets First . At the May 2014 election , the group made significant gains by winning 18 of the 45 seats, which reduced the previously Labour-held council to No Overall Control. Labour remains the largest group with 22 councillors (notionally down 14), while the Conservatives have 5 seats (down 6). Both the Liberal Democrats and Respect Party were wiped out at this election.

In November 2014, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that they would appoint commissioners to take over some of the council's functions, following an inspection report by Pricewaterhouse Cooper that raised several concerns over the allocation of grants. The action was supported by the Department's shadow secretary, Hillary Benn .

On 23 April 2015, the courts removed Mayor Rahman from office for electoral fraud and ordered a new election to be held. Six days later, the Electoral Commission officially withdrew Rahman's Tower Hamlets First from the electoral register, after deciding that the party did not operate a responsible financial scheme, nor ran in accordance with its initial documentation provided at registration. The decision renders the former group members as Independent councillors. On 11 June 2015, Labour candidate John Biggs was elected mayor, while a Labour win at a by-election enabled the party to regain overall control of the Council.

Since 2014, the council has embraced a policy of decentralisation by establishing neighbourhood forums in different areas. In 2014, the East Shoreditch
Shoreditch
Neighbourhood Planning Forum was set up which was followed in 2016 with the designation of Limehouse Community Forum , Isle of Dogs Neighbourhood Planning Forum and Spitalfields Neighbourhood Planning Forum .

LOCAL LANDMARKS

Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
, seen from a high-level walkway on Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge

HISTORICAL LANDMARKS

* Brick Lane
Brick Lane
* Cable Street - site of the Battle of Cable Street * Hawksmoor
Hawksmoor
's Christ Church, Spitalfields * Site of two historic Royal Mints * Tower of London
London
* Tower Bridge
Tower Bridge
* Victoria Park

MODERN LANDMARKS

The Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
complex within Docklands on the Isle of Dogs forms a group of some of the tallest buildings in Europe
Europe
. One Canada Square was the first to be constructed and is the second tallest in London. Nearby are the HSBC
HSBC
Tower , Citigroup
Citigroup
Centres and One Churchill Place , headquarters of Barclays Bank
Barclays Bank
. Within the same complex are the Heron Quays offices.

CLIMATE

The data below were taken between 1971 and 2000 at the weather station in Greenwich
Greenwich
, around 1 mile (1.6 km) south of the town hall, at Mulberry Place:

CLIMATE DATA FOR LONDON (GREENWICH )

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 14.0 (57.2) 19.7 (67.5) 21.0 (69.8) 26.9 (80.4) 31.0 (87.8) 35.0 (95) 35.5 (95.9) 37.5 (99.5) 30.0 (86) 28.8 (83.8) 19.9 (67.8) 15.0 (59) 37.5 (99.5)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 8.5 (47.3) 11.4 (52.5) 14.2 (57.6) 17.7 (63.9) 20.7 (69.3) 23.2 (73.8) 22.9 (73.2) 20.1 (68.2) 15.6 (60.1) 11.4 (52.5) 8.6 (47.5) 15.2 (59.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 2.4 (36.3) 4.1 (39.4) 5.4 (41.7) 8.4 (47.1) 11.5 (52.7) 13.9 (57) 13.7 (56.7) 11.2 (52.2) 8.3 (46.9) 5.1 (41.2) 2.8 (37) 7.5 (45.5)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −10.0 (14) −9.0 (15.8) −8.0 (17.6) −2.0 (28.4) −1.0 (30.2) 5.0 (41) 7.0 (44.6) 6.0 (42.8) 3.0 (37.4) −4.0 (24.8) −5.0 (23) −7.0 (19.4) −10.0 (14)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 51.6 (2.031) 38.2 (1.504) 40.5 (1.594) 45.0 (1.772) 46.5 (1.831) 47.3 (1.862) 41.1 (1.618) 51.6 (2.031) 50.4 (1.984) 68.8 (2.709) 58.0 (2.283) 53.0 (2.087) 591.8 (23.299)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 10.8 8.5 9.6 9.4 9.0 8.3 8.0 7.6 8.5 10.7 10.1 9.9 110.4

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 4 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 16

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 81.0 76.0 69.0 64.0 62.0 60.0 60.0 62.0 67.0 73.0 78.0 82.0 69.5

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 49.9 71.4 107.1 159.8 181.2 181.0 192.1 195.1 138.9 108.1 58.5 37.4 1,480.5

Source #1: Record highs and lows from BBC Weather , except August and February maximum from Met Office
Met Office

Source #2: All other data from Met Office
Met Office
, except for humidity and snow data which are from NOAA

CLIMATE DATA FOR LONDON (HEATHROW AIRPORT 1981−2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 8.1 (46.6) 8.4 (47.1) 11.3 (52.3) 14.2 (57.6) 17.9 (64.2) 21.0 (69.8) 23.5 (74.3) 23.2 (73.8) 19.9 (67.8) 15.5 (59.9) 11.1 (52) 8.3 (46.9) 15.2 (59.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 2.1 (35.8) 3.9 (39) 5.5 (41.9) 8.7 (47.7) 11.7 (53.1) 13.9 (57) 13.7 (56.7) 11.4 (52.5) 8.4 (47.1) 4.9 (40.8) 2.7 (36.9) 7.4 (45.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 55.2 (2.173) 40.9 (1.61) 41.6 (1.638) 43.7 (1.72) 49.4 (1.945) 45.1 (1.776) 44.5 (1.752) 49.5 (1.949) 49.1 (1.933) 68.5 (2.697) 59.0 (2.323) 55.2 (2.173) 601.7 (23.689)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 11.1 8.5 9.3 9.1 8.8 8.2 7.7 7.5 8.1 10.8 10.3 10.2 109.6

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 61.5 77.9 114.6 168.7 198.5 204.3 212.0 204.7 149.3 116.5 72.6 52.0 1,632.6

Source: Met Office
Met Office

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION CENSUS

YEAR POP. ±%

1801 130,871 —

1811 160,718 +22.8%

1821 195,941 +21.9%

1831 231,534 +18.2%

1841 275,250 +18.9%

1851 330,548 +20.1%

1861 410,101 +24.1%

1871 489,653 +19.4%

1881 569,205 +16.2%

1891 584,936 +2.8%

1901 578,143 −1.2%

1911 571,438 −1.2%

1921 529,114 −7.4%

1931 489,956 −7.4%

1941 337,774 −31.1%

1951 232,860 −31.1%

1961 195,883 −15.9%

1971 164,699 −15.9%

1981 139,989 −15.0%

1991 167,985 +20.0%

2001 196,121 +16.7%

2011 254,096 +29.6%

2014 284,015 +11.8%

Note:

By 1891, Tower Hamlets – roughly the civil parish of Stepney
Stepney
– was already one of the most populated areas in London. Throughout the 19th century, the local population increased by an average of 20% every ten years. The building of the docks intensified land use and caused the last marshy areas in the south of the parish to be drained for housing and industry. In the north of the borough employment was principally in weaving, small household industries like boot and furniture making and new industrial enterprises like Bryant and May . The availability of cheap labour drew in employers. To the south of the parish, employment was in the docks and related industries – such as chandlery and rope making.

By the middle of the century, the district of Tower Hamlets was characterised by overcrowding and poverty. The construction of the railways caused many more displaced people to settle in Tower Hamlets, and a massive influx of Eastern European Jews at the end of the 19th century added to the population. This influx peaked at the end of the century and population growth entered a long decline through to the 1960s, as they moved away eastwards to newer suburbs of London
London
in Essex
Essex
.

The metropolitan boroughs suffered very badly during World War II
World War II
, during which considerable numbers of houses were destroyed or damaged beyond use due to heavy aerial bombing . This coincided with a decline in work in the docks, and the closure of many traditional industries. The Abercrombie Plan for London
London
(1944) began an exodus from London towards the new towns .

This decline began to reverse with the establishment of the London Docklands Development Corporation bringing new industries and housing to the brownfield sites along the river. Also contributing was new immigration from Asia beginning in the 1970s. According to the 2001 census the population of the borough is approximately 196,106. According to the ONS estimate, the population is 237,900, as of 2010.

Crime in the borough increased by 3.5 percent from 2009 to 2010, according to figures from the Metropolitan Police , having decreased by 24 percent between 2003/2004 and 2007/2008.

Tower Hamlets has one of the smallest White British populations of any local authority in Britain. No ethnic group forms a majority of the population; a plurality of residents are of White ethnicity (45%) of which 31% are White British. Asians form 41% of the population, of which 32% are Bangladeshi which is the largest ethnic minority in the borough. A small proportion are of Black African and Caribbean descent (7%), with Somalis representing the second largest minority ethnic group. Those of mixed ethnic backgrounds form 4%, while other ethnic groups form 2%. The White British proportion was 31.2% in the 2011 census, falling from 42.9% in 2001.

RELIGION

East London Mosque , the first in Europe
Europe
to be allowed to use loudspeakers to broadcast the adhan Christ Church of Spitalfields The London
London
Buddhist Centre

As Tower Hamlets is considered one of the world's most racially diverse zones, it holds various places of worship . According to the 2011 census, 34.5% of the population was Muslim
Muslim
, 27.1% Christian , 1.7% Hindu , 1.1% Buddhist , 1.1% followed another religions, 19.1% were not affiliated to a religion and 15.4% did not state their religion.

Tower Hamlets has the highest proportion of Muslims in England. There are more than 40 mosques and Islamic centres in Tower Hamlets. The most famous is the East London Mosque , one of the first mosques in Britain allowed to broadcast the adhan and one of the biggest Islamic centres in Europe
Europe
. The Maryam Centre, a part of the mosque, is the biggest Islamic centre for women in Europe. Opened in 2013, it features a main prayer hall, ameliorated funeral services, education facilities, a fitness centre and support services. The East London Mosque has been visited by several notable people, including Prince Charles , Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
, many foreign government officials and world-renowned imams and Muslim
Muslim
scholars. Other notable mosques are Brick Lane
Brick Lane
Mosque , Darul Ummah Masjid , Esha Atul Islam
Islam
Mosque, Markazi Masjid, Stepney
Stepney
Shahjalal Mosque and Poplar Central Mosque.

There are 21 active churches, affiliated with the Church of England
England
, which include Christ Church of Spitalfields , St Paul\'s Church of Shadwell and St Dunstan\'s of Stepney
Stepney
and also churches of many other Christian denominations.

Other notable religious buildings include the Fieldgate Street Great Synagogue , the Congregation of Jacob Synagogue, the London
London
Buddhist Centre , the Hindu Pragati Sangha Temple, and the Gurdwara Sikh Sangat.

ECONOMY

One Canada Square , the 15th-tallest building in Europe
Europe
and currently the second tallest completed building in the United Kingdom , the tallest being The Shard The market area in Whitechapel

The borough hosts the world headquarters of many global financial businesses, employing some of the highest paid workers in London, but also has a high rates of long term illness and premature death and the 2nd highest unemployment rate in London.

Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
is home to the world or European headquarters of numerous major banks and professional services firms including Barclays
Barclays
, Citigroup
Citigroup
, Clifford Chance , Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse
, Infosys
Infosys
, Fitch Ratings , HSBC
HSBC
, J.P. Morgan , KPMG
KPMG
, MetLife , Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
, RBC , Skadden , State Street and Thomson Reuters . Savills , a top-end estate agency recommends that 'extreme luxury' and ultra-modern residential properties are to be found at Canary Riverside, West India Quay, Pan Peninsula and Neo Bankside.

The End Child Poverty coalition published that Tower Hamlets has the highest proportion of children in poverty of any local authority in the UK at 49% (and as high as 54.5% in the Bethnal Green South ward). The borough also has the 2nd highest unemployment rate in London
London
and very high rates of long term illness and premature death.

EDUCATION

See also: List of schools in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets The Blizard Building of Queen Mary University of London
London
, housing the Institute of Cell and Molecular Sciences

The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is the local education authority for state schools within the borough. In January 2008, there were 19,890 primary-school pupils and 15,262 secondary-school pupils attending state schools there. Independent-school pupils account for 2.4 per cent of schoolchildren in the borough. In 2010, 51.8 per cent of pupils achieved 5 A*–C GCSEs including Mathematics and English — the highest results in the borough's history — compared to the national average of 53.4 per cent. Seventy-four per cent achieved 5 A*–C GCSEs for all subjects (the same as the English average); the figure in 1997 was 26 per cent. The percentage of pupils on free school meals in the borough is the highest in England
England
and Wales . In 2007 the council rejected proposals to build a Goldman Sachs -sponsored academy .

Schools in the borough have high levels of racial segregation . The Times reported in 2006 that 47 per cent of secondary schools were exclusively non-white, and that 33 per cent had a white majority. About 60 per cent of pupils entering primary and secondary school are Bangladeshi. The percentage of primary-school pupils who speak English as a second language is 78. Whitechapel Idea Store.

The council runs several Idea Stores in the borough, which combine traditional library and computer services with other resources, and are designed to attract more diverse members. The flagship Whitechapel store was designed by David Adjaye and cost £16 million to build.

UNIVERSITIES

* Queen Mary University of London
London
, one of the top Universities in Europe, a member of Russell Group and a constituent college of the University of London
London
which includes Barts and The London, Queen Mary\'s School of Medicine and Dentistry * London
London
Metropolitan University * UCL School of Management, located in One Canada Square, Canary Wharf

FURTHER EDUCATION COLLEGES

* Tower Hamlets College , which in 2017 merged with Hackney Community College and Redbridge College to form New City College, the second largest college in London
London
with over 20,000 students.

SCHOOLS AND SIXTH FORM COLLEGES

* Bethnal Green Academy * Bishop Challoner Catholic Collegiate School * Bow School * Central Foundation Girls\' School * George Green\'s School * Lansbury Lawrence School * Langdon Park School * Morpeth School * Mulberry School for Girls * Oaklands School * Raine\'s Foundation School * Sir John Cass Redcoat School * St Paul\'s Way Trust School * Stepney
Stepney
Green Maths, Computing "> Mile End Stadium
Stadium

Mile End Stadium
Stadium
within Mile End Park hosts an athletics stadium and facilities for football and basketball . Two football clubs, Tower Hamlets F.C. (formerly Bethnal Green United) and Sporting Bengal United F.C. , are based there, playing in the Essex
Essex
Senior Football League .

John Orwell Sports Centre in Wapping is the base of Wapping Hockey Club . In 2014, the club secured over £300,000 of investment to designate the centre a hockey priority facility.

A leisure centre including a swimming pool at Mile End Stadium
Stadium
was completed in 2006. Other pools are located at St Georges , Limehouse and York Hall , in Bethnal Green . York Hall is also a regular venue for boxing tournaments, and in May 2007 a public spa was opened in the building's renovated Turkish baths .

KO Muay Thai Gym and Apolaki Krav Maga the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park was constructed in the Lea Valley . As such, the borough's involvement in the Olympics includes:

* A small part of the Olympic Park is in Bow , a district of the borough, which makes the borough a host borough. * The energy centre (King's Yard Energy Centre) of the Olympic Park is in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, and gives energy to all the venues, none of which are located in Tower Hamlets. * The world square and the London
London
2012 mega-store is also in the borough. The world square is for spectators, who can buy food or drink; the world's biggest McDonald's is in the world square in Tower Hamlets. * The London
London
2012 mega-store provides official gifts and souvenirs. High Street, which is the main road to the Olympic park from west and central London, combines Whitechapel Road , Mile End Road and Bow Road . * Victoria Park , in Tower Hamlets, is an important part of the Olympics because spectators without tickets can watch the games on big screens ( London
London
live 2012); that park is less than a mile away from the Olympic park. The main spectator cycle park is located in Victoria park. One of the entrances to the Olympic park is in Tower Hamlets, and is called the Victoria gate. * A few schools in Tower Hamlets have taken part in the opening and closing ceremonies of the Olympic and Paralympic games as well as all the other host boroughs. The section of the Olympic Park in Tower Hamlets will be named "Sweetwater", one of the 5 new neighbourhoods after the games. Sweetwater will cover Tower Hamlets' part of the Olympic Park near Old Ford . * The Olympic marathon was planned to run through the borough but later ran through the City and Westminster
Westminster
. However, the U-turn was located in the borough near The Tower of London
London
. * Danny Boyle , the artistic director of the London
London
2012 opening ceremony , lives in Mile End . * A large number of Tower Hamlets' residents became Olympic volunteers; Tower Hamlets ranks second, after neighbouring borough Newham , for the number of volunteers from the borough.

LEISURE

PARKS IN TOWER HAMLETS

Main article: Tower Hamlets parks and open spaces Mile End Park

There are over one hundred parks and open spaces in Tower Hamlets ranging from the large Victoria Park , to numerous small gardens and squares. The second largest, Mile End Park , separated from Victoria Park by a canal, includes The Green Bridge that carries the park across the busy Mile End Road. One of the smallest at 1.19 ha is the decorative Grove Hall Park off Fairfield Road, Bow, which was once the site of a lunatic asylum. Other parks include Altab Ali Park , Mudchute Park and Grove Hall Park .

MUSEUMS

Museum of London
London
Docklands

* Island History Trust * Museum of London
London
Docklands * Ragged School Museum * V and much of the borough is a controlled parking zone, to prevent commuter parking. Two tunnels allow cars to travel in both directions under the Thames, the Rotherhithe Tunnel from Limehouse to Rotherhithe in the London Borough of Southwark , and the Blackwall tunnel, from Blackwall to the Royal Borough of Greenwich .

The principal rail services commence in the City at Fenchurch Street , with one stop at Limehouse ; and Liverpool Street , with stops at Bethnal Green and Cambridge Heath . The East London Line passes from north to south through Tower Hamlets with stations at Whitechapel, Shadwell and Wapping. One entrance to Shoreditch
Shoreditch
High Street station is inside the Borough. And the North London
London
Line passes the very north in Tower Hamlets with one entrance to Hackney Wick inside the Borough. Two Crossrail
Crossrail
stations are currently under construction and are expected to start services in late 2018.

The Docklands Light Railway
Docklands Light Railway
was built to serve the docklands areas of the borough, with a principal terminus at Bank and Tower Gateway . An interchange at Poplar allows trains to proceed north to Stratford , south via Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
towards Lewisham , and east either via the London
London
City Airport to Woolwich Arsenal or via ExCeL London
London
to Beckton .

Three London
London
Underground services cross the district: the District and Hammersmith and City lines share track between Aldgate
Aldgate
East and Barking . The Central line has stations at Bethnal Green and Mile End - where there is an interchange to the District line. The Jubilee line has one stop at Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
.

LIST OF STATIONS

* Aldgate
Aldgate
East station * All Saints DLR station * Bethnal Green railway station * Bethnal Green tube station * Blackwall DLR station
Blackwall DLR station
* Bow Church station * Bow Road station * Bromley-by-Bow station * Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
railway station * Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
tube station * Crossharbour DLR station * Devons Road DLR station * East India DLR station * Heron Quays DLR station * Island Gardens DLR station * Langdon Park DLR station * Limehouse station (Rail and DLR) * Mile End station * Mudchute DLR station * Poplar DLR station * Shadwell railway station * Shadwell DLR station * Shoreditch
Shoreditch
High Street railway station * South Quay DLR station * Stepney
Stepney
Green tube station * Tower Hill tube station * Wapping railway station * West India Quay DLR station * Westferry DLR station * Whitechapel tube station * Whitechapel railway station

London
London
Buses Routes 8, 15, 25, 26, 35, 40, 42, 47, 48, 55, 78, 100, 106, 108, 115, 135, 205, 254, 276, 277, 309, 323, 339, 388, 425, 488, D3, D6, D7, D8, RV1 and Night Routes N8, N15, N26, N35, N55, N550 and N551.

In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, light rail, 24.0% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 7.5%; bus, minibus or coach, 7.5%; driving a car or van, 6.9%; bicycle, 4.1%; train, 3.8%; work mainly at or from home, 2.3%.

SEE ALSO

* London
London
portal

* Tower Hamlets Mediation Service

REFERENCES

* ^ 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England
England
and Wales, Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
(2012). See Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
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Wayback Machine
.. ONS . Retrieved 27 June 2014 * ^ Mohshin Habib. "UK: "The Islamic Republic of Tower Hamlets"". Gatestone Institute. * ^ "Bangla Stories". banglastories.org. * ^ Eade, John (1996). "Nationalism, Community, and the Islamization of Space in London". In Metcalf, Barbara Daly. Making Muslim
Muslim
Space in North America and Europe. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520204042 . Retrieved 19 April 2015. As one of the few mosques in Britain permitted to broadcast calls to prayer (azan), the mosque soon found itself at the centre of a public debate about “noise pollution” when local non- Muslim
Muslim
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British History Online * ^ East End 1888 William Fishman (1998) p.1 * ^ From 1801 to 1821, the population of Bethnal Green more than doubled, and by 1831 had trebled (see table in population section). These incomers were principally weavers. For further details, see Andrew August Poor Women's Lives: Gender, Work, and Poverty in Late-Victorian London
London
pp 35-6 (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999) ISBN 0-8386-3807-4 * ^ By the early 19th century, over 11,000 people were crammed into insanitary slums in an area, which took its name from the former Hospital of St Catherine that had stood on the site since the 12th century. * ^ A B The East End Alan Palmer, (John Murray, London
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. Retrieved 13 July 2011. * ^ Hill, Dave. "Britain\'s first Muslim
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. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 23 April 2015. * ^ "Electoral Commission - Media statement on removal of Tower Hamlets First from the Electoral Commission’s register of political parties". electoralcommission.org.uk. * ^ "Tower Hamlets election: Labour\'s John Biggs named mayor". BBC. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015. * ^ "London, Greater London: Average conditions". BBC Weather Website. BBC Weather . Archived from the original on 28 February 2011.

* ^ "August 2003 — Hot spell". Met Office
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. Retrieved 20 October 2013. * ^ "Heathrow Climate period: 1981−2010". Met Office
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Muslim
Space in North America and Europe. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520204042 . Retrieved 19 April 2015. The mosque committee was determined from the outset, moreover, to remind local people of the building’s religious function as loudly as possible. As one of the few mosques in Europe
Europe
permitted to broadcast calls to prayer (azan), the mosque soon found itself at the center of a public debate about “noise pollution” when local non-Muslim residents began to protest. * ^ Neighbourhood Statistics. "Tower Hamlets - Religions - 2011 Census - ONS". Neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 April 2012. * ^ Mohshin Habib. "UK: "The Islamic Republic of Tower Hamlets"". Gatestone Institute. * ^ "Bangla Stories". banglastories.org. * ^ Eade, John (1996). "Nationalism, Community, and the Islamization of Space in London". In Metcalf, Barbara Daly. Making Muslim
Muslim
Space in North America and Europe. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520204042 . Retrieved 19 April 2015. As one of the few mosques in Britain permitted to broadcast calls to prayer (azan), the mosque soon found itself at the centre of a public debate about “noise pollution” when local non- Muslim
Muslim
residents began to protest. * ^ MCR Radio * ^ "Islamic Forum of Europe". islamicforumeurope.com. * ^ http://www.mcrlive.net/images/prog2lrg.jpg * ^ Prince joins Ramadan ceremony BBC website * ^ Mosques in Tower Hamlets, muslimsinbritain.org. Retrieved 27 June 2011. * ^ Church List: Tower Hamlets The Diocese of London. Retrieved on 27 March 2009. * ^ "China to invest in Canary Wharf". China Economic Review. 31 August 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2010. * ^ "Poverty in your area". End Child Poverty. October 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014. * ^ "Poverty Indicator - Tower Hamlets". Londons Poverty Profile. * ^ See list of education authority schools.

* ^ "Pupil projections", Tower Hamlets Council . Retrieved 27 June 2011.

* See also: "DfE: Schools, Pupils and their Characteristics, January 2011", Department for Education , data released on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.

* ^ A.G. "Private schools: capital spending", The Economist
The Economist
, 22 June 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. Archived 11 July 2011.

* ^ "Secondary schools and colleges in Tower Hamlets", BBC News
BBC News
, 12 January 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. See also:

* "Guide: Secondary league tables", BBC News
BBC News
, 12 January 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * "Tower Hamlets: GCSE and A-level results for 2009-2010", The Guardian , 12 January 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * For highest results, see: "Tower Hamlets scores record GCSE results", Tower Hamlets London Borough Council , 25 August 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010. Archived 11 July 2011.

* ^ GCSE information (XLS ) (364 KB). Department for Education . Table 16. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2011. See publication page. * ^ Cavendish, Camilla. "You don\'t need the middle class". The Times . 4 March 2003. Retrieved 21 July 2011. * ^ "Attainment at age 11 by borough", londonspovertyprofile.org.uk, 13 July 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * ^ Garner, Richard. "Tower Hamlets rejects Goldman Sachs\' offer to sponsor academy", The Independent
The Independent
, 21 June 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2011.

* ^ Frean, Alexandra. "Race quotas \'needed to end divide in schools\'". The Times
The Times
. 12 October 2006. Retrieved 21 July 2011.

* See also: "Schools in the East End dividing by race". Evening Standard . 29 May 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2011.

* ^ Johnston, Ron; Burgess, Simon; Harris, Richard; Wilson, Deborah. "\'Sleep-Walking Towards Segregation?\' The Changing Ethnic Composition of English Schools, 1997-2003: An Entry Cohort Analysis". Centre for Market and Public Organisation. University of Bristol . September 2006. p. 6. * ^ "More pupils can claim free meals", BBC News
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, 11 August 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * ^ Jeffrey Schnapp ; Matthew Battles (2014). Library Beyond the Book . Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-72503-4 . * ^ Sudjic, Deyan. "Just give him some space". The Guardian
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. 6 November 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2011. * ^ "Administration and Maintenance". Idea Store . Retrieved 21 July 2011. Archived 21 July 2011. * ^ "New City College". Retrieved 30 August 2017. * ^ "Volunteer Centre Tower Hamlets". Vcth.org.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2010. * ^ Gilmour, Rod (3 March 2014) "Wapping\'s Hockey Revolution Bears Fruits as London
London
Club Goes Business Savvy". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 24 August 2014. * ^ " Spa
Spa
London, Bethnal Green - 3 bubbles", The Good Spa
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Guide. Retrieved 27 June 2011. * ^ "Muay Thai London" * ^ "Krav Maga London" * ^ "History and Background". Tower Hamlets London Borough Council . Retrieved 21 July 2011. See PDF files. * ^ "The 2012 Olympics: The greatest sideshow on Earth", The Economist , 22 July 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2011. * ^ Tower Hamlets Council. AZ of Parks. Retrieved 4 July 2014. * ^ "2011 Census: QS701EW Method of travel to work, local authorities in England
England
and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Percentages are of all residents aged 16-74 including those not in employment. Respondents could only pick one mode, specified as the journey’s longest part by distance.

SOURCES

* Cornwell, Jocelyn (1984). Hard-Earned Lives: Accounts of Health and Illness from East London, Tavistock Publications. * Dancygier, Rafaela M. (2010). Immigration and Conflict in Europe, Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. * Hill, Dave. "Tower Hamlets: politics, poverty and faith", The Guardian , 19 September 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2011.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to LONDON BOROUGH OF TOWER HAMLETS .

* Tower Hamlets