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The Info List - Lonchaeidae


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Chaetolonchaea Dasiops Earomyia Lamprolonchaea Lonchaea Neosilba Protearomyia Setisquamalonchaea Silba

The Lonchaeidae are a family of acalyptrate flies commonly known as lance flies. About 500 described species are placed into 9 genera. These are generally small but robustly built flies with blue-black or metallic bodies. They are found, mainly in wooded areas, throughout the world with the exception of polar regions and New Zealand.

Contents

1 Description 2 Biology 3 List of genera 4 Identification 5 Image gallery 6 Species lists 7 References 8 External links

Description[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera. The Lonchaeids are small flies with a black or blackish-blue body, which is often metallic, glossy, and with hyaline (lacking dark spots) wings. The head is hemispherical (shorter than high) and the lunule is well defined. The third antennal segment is usually elongated and the antennae are decumbent. Ocelli are present and the postocellar bristles are divergent. The frons is narrow in males; in females it is broad. One pair of orbital bristles is on the head. The postvertical bristles on the head are parallel or weakly divergent. Distinctive vibrissae on the head are lacking, but vibrissa-like bristles are present along the border of the mouth. A subapical bristle is absent on tibia. The wing venation is complete. The costa has two interruptions: near the humeral crossvein and before the subcostal vein. The subcostal vein varies in size. The anal vein of the wing is shortened. The abdomen is oval and rather flat, and in females has a long, sclerotized ovipositor. The ovipositor is rather long and triangular. This family is readily distinguished from the family Periscelididae by the entire subcostal vein, from the Sapromyzidae by the absence of preapical tibial bristles on at least the anterior and posterior tibia, and from Pallopteridae by the presence of a propleural bristle and the exposed frontal lunule.

Morphological details of the Lonchaeidae

The larva is amphipneustic (has only the anterior and posterior pairs of spiracles) slender tapering at the anterior, and smooth except for ventral creeping welts. The cephalopharyngeal skeleton of the larva consists of two stout untoothed mandibles, a dental sclerite, an elongate hypopharyngeal sclerite, a parastomal bar, and an anvil-shaped tentoropharyngeal sclerite. The anterior spiracles (prothoracic spiracles) each have five to ten papillae which are arranged in a fan shape. The posterior spiracles (on the anal segment) are placed on a raised, sclerotized posterior spiracular tubercle. Each spiracle has three oval, radially arranged slits and four groups of branched spiracular hairs. The pupa is enclosed within a puparium. Biology[edit]

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Lonchaea sp. oviposits into the boreholes of beetles on a fallen beech

The larvae are mostly phytophagous, feeding on already damaged plant tissues, although coprophagous, mycophagous, saprophagous, and predatory species are known. Larvae may be found under bark, in tunnels of bark beetles, in decomposing wood and other decomposing plant residue, and in dung. Larvae of some species cause formation of galls on plants (including cereals), while larvae of other species live in juicy fruits (figs, etc.). Flies are found on trunks of trees, logs, cut wood, leaves of shrubs, and in grass. Some species are agricultural pests. The polyphagous and oligophagous species of the family Tephritidae (also called fruit flies) and Lonchaeidae are the main pests of horticulture in the neotropical region. Also in the neotropics, Neosilba perezi (Romero & Ruppel), known as the cassava shoot fly, is a pest of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Dasiops passifloris McAlpine (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) infests the fruit of the corky-stemmed passion flower Passiflora pallida L. in the Americas. Species in the genus Earomyia are pests of fir and spruce trees, destroying the seeds and cones. The black fig-fly Silba adipata McAlpine is a pest of figs. Lonchaea chorea is synanthropic and may become a nuisance pest. List of genera[edit] A list of genera of Lonchaeidae with approximate number of extant species

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Lamprolonchaea smaragdi (Lonchaeinae)

Subfamily Dasiopinae

Genus Dasiops Rondani 1856, (Sometimes misspelt Dasyops) 126 species

Subfamily Lonchaeinae

Genus Chaetolonchaea Czerny 1934, 7 species Genus Earomyia Zetterstedt 1842, 22 species Genus Lamprolonchaea Bezzi 1920, (Sometimes misspelt Lamprolonchea) 19 species Genus Lonchaea Fallen 1820, 209 species Genus Neosilba McAlpine 1982, 40 species Genus Protearomyia McAlpine 1962, 6 species Genus Setisquamalonchaea Morge 1963, 4 species Genus Silba MacQuart, 1851, 89 species

Identification[edit]

Czerny, L. 1934. Lonchaeidae. In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 5, 43, 1-40.. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German). Morge, G. (1963) Die Lonchaeidae und Pallopteridae Österreichs und der Angrenzenden Gebiete. 1. Teil: Die Lonchaeidae. Naturkundliches Jahrbuch der Stadt Linz 9: 123-313. Morge,G. 1959, 1962. Monographie der palearktischen Lonchaeidae Beitr. z. Entom., vol. 2, pp. 1–92, 323-371, 909-945; vol. 12, pp. 381–434. Shtakel'berg, A. A. Family Lonchaeidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision. Séguy, E. (1934) Diptères: Brachycères. II. Muscidae acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28.BibliothequeVirtuelleNumerique pdf MacGowan, I. & Rotheray, G. (2008) British Lonchaeidae (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha, Acalyptratae). Royal Entomological Society of London Handbook 10(15). K. G. V. Smith, 1989 An introduction to the immature stages of British Flies. Diptera Larvae, with notes on eggs, puparia and pupae.Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol 10 Part 14. pdf download manual (two parts Main text and figures index)

Image gallery[edit] Images from Diptera.info Species lists[edit]

West Palaearctic including Russia Australasian/Oceanian Nearctic Japan World list

References[edit]

Genus descriptions [1] [2] - Family descriptions

External links[edit]

Lonchaeidae online - the primary site for up to date information on world Lonchaeidae

Data related to Lonchaeidae at Wikispecies

Diptera.info Images Family Lonchaeidae at EOL Images [3] Dedicated website Wing venation

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lonchaeidae.

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Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae (meniscus midges) Corethrellidae (frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae (phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae (solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae (net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae (march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae (wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae (dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae (gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae (minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae (phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae (winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae (hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae (robber flies) Bombyliidae (bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae (window flies) Therevidae (stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae (dance flies) Dolichopodidae (long-legged flies) Empididae (dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae (small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae (tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae (scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae (flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae (spear-winged flies) Platypezidae (flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae (big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae (thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae (flutter flies) Piophilidae (cheese flies) Platystomatidae (signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae (peacock flies) Ulidiidae (picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae (stilt-legged flies) Neriidae (cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae (rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae (kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae (black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae (marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae (small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae (beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae (aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae (leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae (lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae (quasimodo flies) Diastatidae (bog flies) Ephydridae (shore flies) Drosophilidae (vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae (bee lice) Canacidae (beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae (frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae (freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae (lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae (cabbage flies) Fanniidae (little house flies) Muscidae (house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae (dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae (blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae (tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae (louse flies) Mormotomyiidae (frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae (bat flies) Streblidae (bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae (timber flies) Stratiomyidae (soldier flies) Xylomyidae (wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae (snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae (water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae (awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q2113270 BugGuide: 14162 EoL: 436 EPPO: 1LONHF Fauna Europaea: 10921 Fossilworks: 139314 GBIF: 5559 iNaturalist: 322936 ITIS: 1

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