The Info List - Lon Chaney

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Leonidas Frank "Lon" Chaney (April 1, 1883 – August 26, 1930) was an American stage and film actor, make-up artist, director and screenwriter. He is regarded as one of the most versatile and powerful actors of early cinema, renowned for his characterizations of tortured, often grotesque and afflicted characters, and his groundbreaking artistry with makeup.[1] Chaney was known for his starring roles in such silent horror films as The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923) and The Phantom of the Opera (1925). His ability to transform himself using makeup techniques he developed earned him the nickname "The Man of a Thousand Faces".


1 Early life 2 Career 3 The Man of a Thousand Faces 4 Death 5 Legacy 6 Honors 7 Filmography

7.1 Short subjects 7.2 Feature films

8 References

8.1 Notes 8.2 Citations 8.3 Bibliography

9 External links

Early life[edit] Leonidas Frank Chaney was born in Colorado Springs, Colorado, to Frank H. Chaney and Emma Alice Kennedy. His father was of English and French ancestry, and his mother was of Scottish, English, and Irish descent. Chaney's maternal grandfather, Jonathan Ralston Kennedy, founded the "Colorado School for the Education of Mutes" (now, Colorado School for the Deaf
and Blind) in 1874, and Chaney's parents met there.[2] His great-grandfather was congressman John Chaney. Both of Chaney's parents were deaf, and as a child of deaf adults Chaney became skilled in pantomime. He entered a stage career in 1902, and began traveling with popular Vaudeville
and theater acts. In 1905, Chaney, then 22, met and married 16-year-old singer Cleva Creighton (Frances Cleveland Creighton) and in 1906, their only child, a son, Creighton Tull Chaney (later known as Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
Jr.) was born. The Chaneys continued touring, settling in California
in 1910.

1923 Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney

Ethel Grey Terry
Ethel Grey Terry
and Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
in The Penalty (1920)

Marital troubles developed and on April 30, 1913, Cleva went to the Majestic Theater in downtown Los Angeles, where Lon was managing the "Kolb and Dill" show, and attempted suicide by swallowing mercuric chloride.[3] The suicide attempt failed but it ruined her singing career as a result; the ensuing scandal and divorce forced Chaney out of the theater and into film. The time spent there is not clearly known, but between the years 1912 and 1917, Chaney worked under contract for Universal Studios
Universal Studios
doing bit or character parts. His skill with makeup gained him many parts in the highly competitive casting atmosphere. During this time, Chaney befriended the husband-wife director team of Joe De Grasse and Ida May Park, who gave him substantial roles in their pictures, and further encouraged him to play macabre characters. Chaney married one of his former colleagues in the Kolb and Dill company tour, a chorus girl named Hazel Hastings. Little is known of Hazel, except that her marriage to Chaney was solid. Upon marrying, the new couple gained custody of Chaney's 10-year-old son Creighton, who had resided in various homes and boarding schools since Chaney's divorce from Cleva in 1913.[4] Career[edit]

As a Chinese immigrant in Shadows (1922)

By 1917 Chaney was a prominent actor in the studio, but his salary did not reflect this status. When Chaney asked for a raise, studio executive William Sistrom replied, "You'll never be worth more than one hundred dollars a week." After leaving the studio, Chaney struggled for the first year as a character actor. It was not until 1918 when playing a substantial role in William S. Hart's picture Riddle Gawne
Riddle Gawne
that Chaney's talents as a character actor were truly recognized by the industry. In 1917 Universal presented Chaney, Dorothy Phillips, and William Stowell as a team in The Piper's Price. In succeeding films, the men alternated playing lover, villain, or other man to the beautiful Phillips. They would occasionally be joined by Claire DuBrey
Claire DuBrey
nearly making the trio a quartet of recurring actors from film to film. So successful were the films starring this group that Universal produced fourteen films from 1917 to 1919 with Chaney, Stowell, and Phillips. The films were usually directed by Joe De Grasse or his wife Ida May Park, both friends of Chaney's at Universal. When Chaney was away branching out on films such as Riddle Gawne
Riddle Gawne
and The Kaiser, Beast of Berlin, Stowell and Phillips would continue on as a duo until Chaney's return. Stowell and Phillips made The Heart of Humanity
The Heart of Humanity
(1918), bringing in Erich von Stroheim
Erich von Stroheim
for a part as the villain that could easily have been played by Chaney. Paid in Advance
Paid in Advance
(1919) was the group's last film together, for the chiseled featured Stowell was sent to Africa by Universal to scout locations for a movie. En route from one city to another, Stowell was in the caboose when it was hit by the locomotive from another train; he was killed instantly. The majority of these films are lost but a few, including Triumph and Paid in Advance survive in private collections or unrestored in European or Russian archives.[5][Note 1] In 1919, Chaney had a breakthrough performance as "The Frog" in George Loane Tucker's The Miracle Man. The film displayed not only Chaney's acting ability, but also his talent as a master of makeup. Critical praise and a gross of over $2 million put Chaney on the map as America's foremost character actor.

The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923)

Chaney exhibited great adaptability with makeup in more conventional crime and adventure films, such as The Penalty (1920), in which he played a gangster with both legs amputated. Chaney appeared in 10 films directed by Tod Browning, often portraying disguised and/or mutilated characters, including carnival knife-thrower Alonzo the Armless in The Unknown (1927) opposite Joan Crawford. In 1927, Chaney also co-starred with Conrad Nagel, Marceline Day, Henry B. Walthall and Polly Moran
Polly Moran
in the Tod Browning
Tod Browning
horror film London After Midnight, considered one of the most legendary and sought after lost films.[7] His final film role was a sound remake of his silent classic The Unholy Three (1930), his only "talkie" and the only film in which Chaney utilized his powerful and versatile voice. Chaney signed a sworn statement declaring that five of the key voices in the film (the ventriloquist, the old woman, a parrot, the dummy and the girl) were his own.[8]

The Phantom of the Opera (1925)

Makeup in the early days of cinema was almost non-existent with the exception of beards and moustaches to denote villains.[9] Most of what the Hollywood studios knew about film stemmed from their experience with theater make-up, but this did not always transfer well to the big screen, especially as the film quality increased over time. It is also worth noting that make-up departments were not yet in place during Chaney's time. Prior to the mid-20s, actors were expected to do their own make-up.[9] In absence of specialized make-up artist professions, Chaney's make-up artistry skills gave him a competitive advantage over other actors. He was the complete package. Casting crews knew that they could place him in virtually any part and he would thrive. He was a man of many make-ups. In fact, in some films this allowed him to play dual roles. An extreme case of this was the film Outside the Law (1920), where he played a character that shot and killed another character, which he also was playing.[9] As Quasimodo, the bell ringer of Notre Dame Cathedral, and Erik, the "phantom" of the Paris Opera House, Chaney created two of the most grotesquely deformed characters in film history.[10][11] However, the portrayals sought to elicit a degree of sympathy and pathos among viewers not overwhelmingly terrified or repulsed by the monstrous disfigurements of these victims of fate. In a 1925 autobiographical article for Movie magazine, Chaney wrote, "I wanted to remind people that the lowest types of humanity may have within them the capacity for supreme self-sacrifice. The dwarfed, misshapen beggar of the streets may have the noblest ideals. Most of my roles since The Hunchback, such as The Phantom of the Opera, He Who Gets Slapped, The Unholy Three, etc., have carried the theme of self-sacrifice or renunciation. These are the stories which I wish to do." Chaney referred to his expertise in both make-up and contorting his body to portray his subjects as "extraordinary characterization." Chaney's talents extended beyond the horror genre and stage makeup. He was also a highly skilled dancer, singer and comedian.

London After Midnight (1927)

Ray Bradbury
Ray Bradbury
once said of Chaney, "He was someone who acted out our psyches. He somehow got into the shadows inside our bodies; he was able to nail down some of our secret fears and put them on-screen. The history of Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
is the history of unrequited loves. He brings that part of you out into the open, because you fear that you are not loved, you fear that you never will be loved, you fear there is some part of you that's grotesque, that the world will turn away from." Chaney and his second wife Hazel led a discreet private life distant from the Hollywood social scene. Chaney did minimal promotional work for his films and for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, purposefully fostering a mysterious image, and he reportedly intentionally avoided the social scene in Hollywood.[12] In the final five years of his film career (1925–1930), Chaney worked exclusively under contract to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, giving some of his most memorable performances. His portrayal of a tough-as-nails marine drill instructor in Tell It to the Marines (1926), one of his favorite films, earned him the affection of the Marine Corps, who made him their first honorary member from the motion picture industry. He also earned the respect and admiration of numerous aspiring actors, to whom he offered mentoring assistance, and between takes on film sets he was always willing to share his professional observations with the cast and crew. During the filming of The Unknown, Joan Crawford
Joan Crawford
stated that she learned more about acting from watching Chaney work than from anyone else in her career. "It was then," she said, "I became aware for the first time of the difference between standing in front of a camera, and acting."[13]

Conducting a women's orchestra, as "Mr. Wu" (1927)

The Man of a Thousand Faces[edit]

in Oliver Twist (1922)

"Erik, The Phantom" in The Phantom of the Opera (1925)

"Hypnotist" in London After Midnight (1927)

Death[edit] During the filming of Thunder in the winter of 1929, Chaney developed pneumonia. In late 1929 he was diagnosed with bronchial lung cancer. This was exacerbated when artificial snow, made out of cornflakes, lodged in his throat during filming and quickly created a serious infection.[14] Despite aggressive treatment, his condition gradually worsened, and seven weeks after the release of the remake of The Unholy Three, he died of a throat hemorrhage on Tuesday, August 26, 1930, in Los Angeles, California.[Note 2] His funeral was held on August 28 in Glendale, California. Honorary pallbearers included Paul Bern, Hunt Stromberg, Irving Thalberg, Louis B. Mayer, Lionel Barrymore, Wallace Beery, Tod Browning, Lew Cody, and Ramon Novarro. The U.S. Marine Corps provided a chaplain and Honor Guard for his funeral. While his funeral was being conducted, all film studios and every office at MGM observed two minutes of silence in his honor.[12][15]

The unmarked crypt of Lon Chaney, in the Great Mausoleum, Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, Glendale, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County, California

Chaney was interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, next to the crypt of his father.[15] His wife Hazel was interred there upon her death in 1933. For unknown reasons, Chaney's crypt has remained unmarked.[16] Legacy[edit] In 1957, Chaney was the subject of a biopic titled Man of a Thousand Faces, and was portrayed by James Cagney.[17] The film is a largely fictionalized account, as Chaney was notoriously private and hated the Hollywood lifestyle. He never revealed personal details, about himself or his family, once stating "Between pictures, there is no Lon Chaney."[12] Chaney's son Creighton, who later changed his name to Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
Jr., became a film actor after his father's death.[18] Chaney Jr. is best remembered for roles in horror films, most notably, as the title character in The Wolf Man (1941).[19] In October 1997, both Chaneys appeared on commemorative US postage stamps as the Phantom of the Opera and the Wolf Man, with the set completed by Bela Lugosi
Bela Lugosi
as Dracula
and Boris Karloff
Boris Karloff
as Frankenstein's monster
Frankenstein's monster
and the Mummy.[20] Chaney and his son are mentioned in the Warren Zevon
Warren Zevon
song "Werewolves of London". Chaney is also the subject of the 2000 documentary feature, Lon Chaney: A Thousand Faces. The film was produced by silent film historian Kevin Brownlow and narrated by Kenneth Branagh.[21] Honors[edit]

Lon Chaney's Sierra Nevada House was his mountain retreat, near Big Pine, California

Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, located on Hollywood Boulevard.[22] In 1994, Al Hirschfeld's caricature of Chaney was featured on a commemorative United States postage stamp.[23] In 1929, Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
built a stone cabin in the remote wilderness of the eastern Sierra Nevada, near Big Pine, California, as a retreat. The cabin (designed by architect Paul Williams) still stands, and is preserved by the Inyo National Forest
Inyo National Forest
Service. Following his death, Chaney's famous makeup case was donated to the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County Museum by his widow, Hazel. The case is occasionally displayed for the public. The stage theater, at the Colorado Springs Civic Auditorium is also, named after the actor. Filmography[edit] Main article: Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
filmography Of the 157 films made by Lon Chaney, approximately 100 are lost films. Short subjects[edit]

Year Title Role Notes

1912 The Honor of the Family

Unconfirmed/disputed Lost film

1913 The Ways of Fate

Unconfirmed/disputed Lost film

1913 Suspense


1913 Poor Jake's Demise The Dude

1913 The Sea Urchin Barnacle Bill Lost film

1913 The Blood Red Tape of Charity Marx, a Gentleman Thief Lost film

1913 Shon the Piper Clansman Unconfirmed/disputed Lost film

1913 The Trap Lon Lost film

1913 The Restless Spirit The Russian Count Uncredited Lost film

1913 Almost an Actress Cameraman Lost film

1913 An Elephant on His Hands Eddie's Uncle Lost film

1913 Back to Life The Rival Lost film

1913 Red Margaret, Moonshiner Lon Alternative title: Moonshine Blood Lost film

1913 Bloodhounds of the North Mountie Lieutenant Lost film

1914 The Lie Young MacGregor Lost film

1914 The Honor of the Mounted Jacques Laquox Lost film

1914 Remember Mary Magdalen The Half-Wit Lost film

1914 Discord and Harmony Lon - the Sculptor Lost film

1914 The Menace to Carlotta Giovanni Bartholdi Writer Alternative title: Carlotta, the Bead Stringer Lost film

1914 The Embezzler J. Roger Dixon Lost film

1914 The Lamb, the Woman, the Wolf The Wolf Lost film

1914 The End of the Feud Wood Dawson Lost film

1914 The Forbidden Room John Morris Lost film

1914 The Tragedy of Whispering Creek The Greaser Writer Alternative title: The Mystery of Whispering Creek

1914 The Unlawful Trade The Cross Blood Lost film

1914 Heart Strings

Unconfirmed Alternative title: Heartstrings

1914 The Old Cobbler Wild Bill Lost film

1914 The Hopes of Blind Alley The Vendor Lost film

1914 A Ranch Romance Raphael Praz Lost film

1914 Her Grave Mistake Nunez Lost film

1914 By the Sun's Rays Frank Lawler - the Clerk

1914 The Trey o' Hearts One of Judith's Henchmen Uncredited Lost film

1914 The Oubliette Chevalier Bertrand de la Payne Alternative title: The Adventures of François Villon #1: The Oubliette

1914 A Miner's Romance John Burns Lost film

1914 Her Bounty Fred Howard Lost film

1914 The Higher Law Sir Stephen Fitz Allen Alternative title: The Adventures of François Villon #2: The Higher Law Lost film

1914 Richelieu Baradas Lost film

1914 The Pipes o' Pan Arthur Darrell Lost film

1914 Virtue Is Its Own Reward Duncan Bronson Lost film

1914 Her Life's Story Don Valesquez Lost film

1914 Lights and Shadows Bentley Lost film

1914 The Lion, the Lamb, the Man Fred Brown - the Lion Alternative title: Woman Finds Love in Untarnished Manhood Lost film

1914 A Night of Thrills The Visitor Lost film

1914 Her Escape Pete Walsh - Pauline's Brother Writer Lost film

1915 The Sin of Olga Brandt Stephen Leslie Lost film

1915 The Star of the Sea Tomasco Lost film

1915 A Small Town Girl The Procurer Lost film

1915 The Measure of a Man Lt. Jim Stuart

1915 The Threads of Fate The Count Lost film

1915 When the Gods Played a Badger Game Joe - the Property Man Lost film

1915 Such Is Life Tod Wilkes Lost film

1915 Where the Forest Ends Paul Rouchelle Lost film

1915 Outside the Gates Perez Lost film

1915 All for Peggy Seth Baldwin Lost film

1915 The Desert Breed Fred Lost film

1915 Maid of the Mist Lin - Pauline's Father Lost film

1915 The Grind Jerry Lost film

1915 The Girl of the Night

Alternative titles: What's in a Theory, Her Chance Lost film

1915 The Stool Pigeon

Director Lost film

1915 For Cash


Director Lost film

1915 An Idyll of the Hills Lafe Jameson Lost film

1915 The Stronger Mind The Crook's Pal Lost film

1915 The Oyster Dredger

Writer, director Lost film

1915 Steady Company Jimmy Ford Lost film

1915 The Violin Maker Pedro - the Violin Maker Director Lost film

1915 The Trust Jim Mason Director Alternative title: The Truce Lost film

1915 Bound on the Wheel Tom Coulahan Lost film

1915 Mountain Justice Jeffrey Kirke Lost film

1915 Quits Frenchy Lost film[24]

1915 The Chimney's Secret Charles Harding Writer, director Lost film

1915 The Pine's Revenge Black Scotty Lost film

1915 The Fascination of the Fleur de Lis Duke of Safoulrug

1915 Alas and Alack The Fisherman and Hunchback Fate

1915 A Mother's Atonement Ben Morrison

1915 Lon of Lone Mountain Lon Moore Lost film

1915 The Millionaire Paupers Martin - the Landlord

1915 Under a Shadow DeSerris Lost film

1915 Father and the Boys Tuck Bartholomew Lost film

1915 Stronger Than Death Attorney Lost film

1916 Dolly's Scoop Dan Fisher

1916 The Grip of Jealousy Silas Lacey

1916 Felix on the Job Tod

1916 Accusing Evidence

1917 The Mask of Love Marino

Feature films[edit]

Year Title Role Notes

1914 Damon and Pythias


1916 The Grip of Jealousy Silas Lacey Lost film

1916 Tangled Hearts John Hammond A few minutes of footage exist of this film.

1916 The Gilded Spider Giovanni Lost film

1916 Bobbie of the Ballet Hook Hoover Lost film

1916 The Grasp of Greed Jimmie

1916 The Mark of Cain Dick Temple Lost film

1916 If My Country Should Call Dr. George Ardrath

1916 The Place Beyond the Winds Jerry Jo

1916 The Price of Silence Edmond Stafford

1917 The Piper's Price Billy Kilmartin Lost film

1917 Hell Morgan's Girl Sleter Noble Lost film

1917 The Girl in the Checkered Coat Hector Maitland Lost film

1917 The Flashlight Henry Norton/Porter Brixton Lost film

1917 A Doll's House Nils Krogstad Lost film

1917 Fires of Rebellion Russell Hanlon Lost film

1917 The Rescue Thomas Holland Lost film

1917 Pay Me! Joe Lawson Lost film

1917 Triumph Paul Neihoff

1917 The Empty Gun Frank Lost film

1917 Bondage Seducer Uncredited

1917 Anything Once Waught Moore Lost film

1917 The Scarlet Car Paul Revere Forbes

1918 The Grand Passion Paul Argos Lost film

1918 Broadway Love Elmer Watkins

1918 The Kaiser, the Beast of Berlin Bethmann-Hollweg Lost film

1918 Fast Company Dan McCarty Lost film

1918 A Broadway Scandal "Kink" Colby Lost film

1918 Riddle Gawne Hame Bozzam

1918 That Devil, Bateese Louis Courteau Lost film

1918 The Talk
of the Town Jack Langhorne Lost film

1918 Danger, Go Slow Bud Lost film

1919 The False Faces Karl Eckstrom

1919 The Wicked Darling Stoop Connors

1919 A Man's Country "Three Card" Duncan

1919 The Miracle Man The Frog

1919 Paid in Advance Bateese Le Blanc

1919 When Bearcat Went Dry Kindard Powers

1919 Victory Ricardo

1920 Daredevil Jack Royce Rivers

1920 Treasure Island Blind Pew/Merry Lost film

1920 The Gift Supreme Merney Stagg

1920 The Penalty Blizzard

1920 Nomads of the North Raoul Challoner

1920 Outside the Law Black Mike Sylva/Ah Wing

1921 For Those We Love Trix Ulner Lost film

1921 Bits of Life Chin Chow Lost film

1921 The Ace of Hearts Farallone

1922 Voices of the City O'Rourke Released in 1921 as The Night Rose, censored and renamed Lost film

1922 The Trap Gaspard the Good Writer

1922 Flesh and Blood David Webster

1922 The Light in the Dark Tony Pantelli

1922 Oliver Twist Fagin

1922 Shadows Yen Sin, the Heathen

1922 Quincy Adams Sawyer Obadiah Strout Lost film

1922 A Blind Bargain Dr. Arthur Lamb/The Ape Man Alternative title: The Octave of Claudius Lost film

1923 All the Brothers Were Valiant Mark Shore Lost film

1923 While Paris Sleeps Henri Santodos Lost film

1923 The Shock Wilse Dilling

1923 The Hunchback of Notre Dame Quasimodo Makeup artist (uncredited)

1924 The Next Corner Juan Serafin Lost film

1924 He Who Gets Slapped Paul Beaumont/HE

1925 The Monster Dr. Ziska

1925 The Phantom of the Opera The Phantom Director, makeup artist (uncredited)

1925 The Unholy Three Echo, the Ventriloquist

1925 The Tower of Lies Jan Lost film

1926 The Blackbird The Blackbird/The Bishop Alternative title: The Black Bird

1926 The Road to Mandalay Singapore Joe

1926 Tell It to the Marines Sergeant O'Hara

1927 Mr. Wu Mr. Wu/Wu's Grandfather

1927 The Unknown Alonzo

1927 Mockery Sergei

1927 London After Midnight Professor Edward C. Burke Makeup artist (uncredited) Lost film

1928 The Big City Chuck Collins Lost film

1928 Laugh, Clown, Laugh Tito

1928 While the City Sleeps Dan Coghlan

1928 West of Zanzibar Phroso

1929 Where East is East Tiger Haynes

1929 Thunder Grumpy Anderson

1930 The Unholy Three Echo Also makeup artist (uncredited)

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ In a scene from Triumph (1917), biographer Daniel Blum described the scene as: "... Phillips has hand on Chaney's head embracing him while Stowell reads paperwork on desk."[6] ^ The New York Times
The New York Times
reported: " Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
dies after brave fight. On road to recovery, screen actor is stricken by hemorrhage of the throat. Was a master of makeup. Son of deaf and dumb Parents, He began career as property boy. Excelled in vivid personations. Acted as Pike's Peak guide. Made stage debut at 17. Appeared in slap-stick comedy. Wore straitjacket as "Hunchback." New disguise for each film. Although he was believed to be on the road to recovery, Lon Chaney, screen actor, who had been making a valiant fight against anemia and bronchial congestion, died at 12:55."[1]


^ a b "Obituary: Lon Chaney." The New York Times, August 27, 1930. Retrieved: July 21, 2007. ^ Blackmar 1912, pp. 496–498. ^ Mysteries and Scandals - Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
(Season 3, Episode 34). E!. 2000.  ^ "Mrs. Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
dies. Before her husband entered the movies she was well known In Vaudeville." The New York Times, November 1, 1933. Retrieved: July 21, 2007. ^ Internet Movie Database, IMDb.com ; film listings on Lon Chaney, William Stowell, Dorothy Phillips & Claire Dubrey ^ 'Blum 1953, p. 141 ^ Vogel 2010, p. 146. ^ Herzogenrath 2008, p. 79. ^ a b c Anderson, R. G. (1971). Faces, Forms, Films; the Artistry of Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
(pp. 1-216). Cranbury, NJ: A. S. Barnes and Co., Inc. ^ Lussier, Tim. "The Phantom of the Opera (1925)." Silents are Golden, 2000. Retrieved: May 10, 2016. ^ Dick 1997, pp. 52-55. ^ a b c Fleming 2009, p. 167. ^ LaSalle 2000, p. 120. ^ Schickel and Hurlburt 1962, p. 133, ^ a b "Funeral Service For Lon Chaney." The Telegraph, August 28, 1930, p. 5. Retrieved: January 26, 2015. ^ Riley 1993, p. 54. ^ Slide 2010, p. 217. ^ Smith 2004, pp. 9, 12. ^ Guiley 2004, p. 63. ^ Carr, Richard. "Movie monsters kick off National Stamp-collecting Month." sun-sentinel.com, October 5, 1997. Retrieved: January 26, 2015. ^ French, Phillip. "The Phantom of the Opera." theguardian.com, January 4, 2014. Retrieved: January 26, 2015. ^ "Lon Chaney." latimes.com. Retrieved: January 26, 2015. ^ Blake 1997, p. 290. ^ "Quits (1915)." silentera.com. Retrieved: January 26, 2015.


Anderson, Robert Gordon. Faces, Forms, Films: The Artistry of Lon Chaney. South Brunswick, New Jersey: A. S. Barnes, 1971. ISBN 978-0-4980-7726-5. Blackmar, Frank W., ed. Kansas: A Cyclopedia of State History, Embracing Events, Institutions, Industries, Counties, Cities, Towns, Prominent Persons, etc.. Chicago : Standard Publishing Company, 1912. Blake, Michael F. The Films of Lon Chaney. Vestal, New York: Vestal Press, 1998. ISBN 978-1-5683-3237-6. Blake, Michael F. A Thousand Faces: Lon Chaney's Unique Artistry in Motion Pictures. Vestal, New York: Vestal Press, 1997. ISBN 978-1-8795-1121-7. Blum, Daniel. Pictorial History of the Silent Screen. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1953. ISBN 978-0-4480-1477-7. Dick, Bernard F. City of Dreams: The Making and Remaking of Universal Pictures. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 1997. ISBN 978-0-8131-2016-4. Fleming, E.J. Paul Bern: The Life and Famous Death of the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Director and Husband of Harlow. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7864-3963-8. Guiley, Rosemary. The Encyclopedia of Vampires, Werewolves, and Other Monsters. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8160-4684-3. Herzogenrath, Bernd, ed. The Cinema of Tod Browning: Essays of the Macabre and Grotesque. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2008. ISBN 978-0-7864-3447-3. LaSalle, Mick. Complicated Women: Sex and Power in Pre-Code Hollywood. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, an imprint of St. Martin's Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-3122-8431-2, Riley, Philip J. MagicImage Filmbooks Presents The Wolf Man. Chesterfield, New Jersey: MagicImage Filmbooks, 1993. ISBN 978-1-8821-2721-4. Schikel, Richard and Allen Hurlburt. The Stars. New York: Bonanza Books, a division of Crown Publishers, 1962. ISBN 978-0-5170-3771-3. Slide, Anthony. Silent Players: A Biographical and Autobiographical Study of 100 Silent Film
Actors and Actresses. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8131-2249-6. Smith, Don G. Lon Chaney
Lon Chaney
Jr.: Horror Film
Star, 1906–1973. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2004. ISBN 978-0-7864-1813-8. Vogel, Michelle. Olive Borden: The Life and Films of Hollywood's 'Joy Girl'. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7864-4795-4.

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54361336 LCCN: n89639682 ISNI: 0000 0001 2133 6898 GND: 119451778 SUDOC: 059708026 BNF: cb144081625 (data) NLA: 35251541 NKC: av2009541082 BNE: XX4722