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The Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
(or Lodhi) was an Afghan[1] dynasty that ruled the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate from 1451 to 1526. It was the last dynasty of the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, and was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi
Bahlul Khan Lodi
when he replaced the Sayyid dynasty.[2][3]

Contents

1 Bahlul Lodi 2 Sikandar Lodi 3 Ibrahim Lodi 4 Fall of the empire 5 Afghan factionalism 6 Rajput
Rajput
invasions and internal rebellions 7 Battle of Panipat, 1526 8 Accession of Babur
Babur
and the Mughals 9 Mahmud Lodi 10 See also 11 Notes 12 Further reading 13 External links

Bahlul Lodi[edit] Main article: Bahlul Lodi Bahlul Khan Lodi
Bahlul Khan Lodi
(r. 1451–1489) was the nephew and son-in-law of Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, the governor of Sirhind
Sirhind
in (Punjab), India and succeeded him as the governor of Sirhind
Sirhind
during the reign of Sayyid dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
ruler Muhammad Shah. Muhammad Shah raised him to the status of an emir. He was the most powerful of the Punjab chiefs and a vigorous leader, holding together a loose confederacy of Afghan and Turkish chiefs with his strong personality.[3] He reduced the turbulent chiefs of the provinces to submission and infused some vigour into the government.[citation needed] After the last Sayyid ruler of Delhi, Ala-ud-Din Aalm Shah voluntarily abdicated in favour of him, Bahlul Khan Lodi
Bahlul Khan Lodi
ascended the throne of the Delhi
Delhi
sultanate on 19 April 1451.[4] The most important event of his reign was the conquest of Jaunpur.[citation needed] Bahlul spent most of his time in fighting against the Sharqi dynasty
Sharqi dynasty
and ultimately annexed it. He placed his eldest surviving son Barbak on the throne of Jaunpur in 1486.[citation needed] Sikandar Lodi[edit] Main article: Sikandar Lodi Sikandar Lodi
Sikandar Lodi
(r. 1489–1517) (born Nizam Khan), the second son of Bahlul, succeeded him after his death on 17 July 1489 and took up the title Sikandar Shah. He was nominated by his father to succeed him and was crowned sultan on 15 July 1489. He founded Agra
Agra
in 1504 and built mosques. He shifted the capital from Delhi
Delhi
to Agra.[5] He abolished corn duties and patronized trade and commerce. He was a poet of repute, composing under the pen-name of Gulruk. He was also patron of learning and ordered Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work in medicine to be translated into Persian.[6] He curbed the individualistic tendencies of his Pashtun nobles and compelled them to submit their accounts to state audit. He was, thus, able to infuse vigor and discipline in the administration. His greatest achievement was the conquest and annexation of Bihar.[7] Ibrahim Lodi[edit] Main article: Ibrahim Lodi

Ibrahim Lodi.

Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
(r. 1517–1526), the youngest son of Sikandar, was the last Lodi Sultan of Delhi.[8] He had the qualities of an excellent warrior, but he was rash and impolitic in his decisions and actions. His attempt at royal absolutism was premature and his policy of sheer repression unaccompanied by measures to strengthen the administration and increase the military resources was sure to prove a failure.[citation needed] Ibrahim faced numerous rebellions and kept out the opposition for almost a decade. He was engaged in warfare with the Afghans and the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
for most of his reign and died trying to keep the Lodi Dynasty from annihilation. Ibrahim was defeated in 1526 at the Battle of Panipat.[8] This marked the end of the Lodi Dynasty and the rise of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in India led by Babur
Babur
(r. 1526–1530).[9] Fall of the empire[edit] By the time Ibrahim ascended the throne, the political structure in the Lodi Dynasty had dissolved due to abandoned trade routes and the depleted treasury. The Deccan
Deccan
was a coastal trade route, but in the late fifteenth century the supply lines had collapsed. The decline and eventual failure of this specific trade route resulted in cutting off supplies from the coast to the interior, where the Lodi empire resided. The Lodi Dynasty was not able to protect itself if warfare were to break out on the trade route roads; therefore, they didn’t use those trade routes, thus their trade declined and so did their treasury leaving them vulnerable to internal political problems.[10] In order to take revenge of the insults done by Ibrahim, the governor of Lahore, Daulat Khan Lodi asked the ruler of Kabul, Babur
Babur
to invade his kingdom. Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
was thus killed in a battle with Babur. With the death of Ibrahim Lodi, the Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
also came to an end.[citation needed] Afghan factionalism[edit] Another problem Ibrahim faced when he ascended the throne in 1517 were the Pashtun nobles, some of whom supported Ibrahim's older brother, Jalaluddin, in taking up arms against his brother in the area in the east at Jaunpur. Ibrahim gathered military support and defeated his brother by the end of the year. After this incident, he arrested those Pashtun nobles who opposed him and appointed his own men as the new administrators. Other Pashtun nobles supported the governor of Bihar, Dariya Khan, against Ibrahim.[10] Another factor that caused uprisings against Ibrahim was his lack of an apparent successor. His own uncle, Alam Khan, betrayed Ibrahim by supporting the Mughal invader Babur.[8] Rajput
Rajput
invasions and internal rebellions[edit] Rana Sanga, the Hindu
Hindu
Rajput
Rajput
leader of Mewar
Mewar
(r. 1509–1526) rose to be the greatest king of Rajputana. During his rule Mewar reached the pinnacle of its glory.[citation needed] He extended his kingdom, defeated the Lodi king of Delhi
Delhi
and was acknowledged by all the Rajput
Rajput
clans as the leading prince of Rajputana. Daulat Khan, the governor of Punjab region
Punjab region
asked Babur
Babur
to invade the Lodi kingdom, with the thought of taking revenge from Ibrahim Lodi. Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
also offered his support to Babur
Babur
to defeat Ibrahim Lodi.[10] Battle of Panipat, 1526[edit] Main article: Battle of Panipat (1526) After being assured of the cooperation of Alam Khan and Daulat Khan, Governor of the Punjab, Babur
Babur
gathered his army. Upon entering the Punjab plains, Babur's chief allies, namely Langar Khan Niazi advised Babur
Babur
to engage the powerful Janjua Rajputs to join his conquest. The tribe's rebellious stance to the throne of Delhi
Delhi
was well known. Upon meeting their chiefs, Malik Hast (Asad) and Raja Sanghar Khan, Babur made mention of the Janjua's popularity as traditional rulers of their kingdom and their ancestral support for his patriarch Emir Timur during his conquest of Hind. Babur
Babur
aided them in defeating their enemies, the Gakhars in 1521, thus cementing their alliance. Babur employed them as Generals in his campaign for Delhi, the conquest of Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
and the conquest of India.[citation needed] The new usage of guns allowed small armies to make large gains on enemy territory. Small parties of skirmishers who had been dispatched simply to test enemy positions and tactics, were making inroads into India. Babur, however, had survived two revolts, one in Kandahar
Kandahar
and another in Kabul, and was careful to pacify the local population after victories, following local traditions and aiding widows and orphans.[citation needed] Despite both being Sunni Muslims, Babur
Babur
wanted Ibrahim's power and territory.[9] Babur
Babur
and his army of 24,000 men marched to the battlefield at Panipat armed with muskets and artillery. Ibrahim prepared for battle by gathering 100,000 men (well-armed but with no guns) and 1,000 elephants. Ibrahim was at a disadvantage because of his outmoded infantry and internecine rivalries. Even though he had more men, he had never fought in a war against gunpowder weapons and he did not know what to do strategically. Babur
Babur
pressed his advantage from the start and Ibrahim perished on the battlefield in April 1526, along with 20,000 of his men.[8] Accession of Babur
Babur
and the Mughals[edit] After Ibrahim's death, Babur
Babur
named himself emperor over Ibrahim’s territory, instead of placing Alam Khan (Ibrahim's uncle) on the throne. Ibrahim's death marked the end of the Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
and led to the establishment of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in India. The remaining Lodi territories were absorbed into the new Mughal Empire. Babur
Babur
continued to engage in more military campaigns.[11] Mahmud Lodi[edit] Ibrahim Lodi's brother, Mahmud Lodi, declared himself Sultan and continued to resist Mughal forces. He provided 10,000 Afghan soldiers to Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
in battle of Khanwa. After the defeat, Mahmud Lodi fled eastwards and again posed a challenge to Babur
Babur
two years later at the Battle of Ghaghra.[12] See also[edit]

Lodi (Pashtun tribe) Lodi Gardens

Notes[edit]

^ Lodi Dynasty. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 4 September 2017. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–125. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.  ^ a b Lodi dynasty ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.244 ^ Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, Part I, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN 81-219-0364-5, p.256 ^ Prof K.Ali (1950, reprint 2006)"A new history of Indo-Pakistan" Part 1, p.311 ^ Srivastava, A.L (1966). The Sultanate of Delhi
Delhi
(711 - 1526 A.D), Agra: Shiva Lal Agarwala and Company, p. 245 ^ a b c d SarDesai, D. R. (2008). India The Definitive History. Westview Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-81334-352-5.  ^ a b SarDesai, D. R. (2008). India The Definitive History. Westview Press. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-81334-352-5.  ^ a b c Richards, John F. (August 1965). "The Economic History of the Lodi Period: 1451-1526". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 8 (1). JSTOR 3596342. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ SarDesai, D. R. (2008). India The Definitive History. Westview Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-81334-352-5.  ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/358301/Mahmud-Lodi

Further reading[edit]

Desoulieres, Alain. "Mughal Diplomacy in Gujarat (1533–1534) in Correia's 'Lendas da India'". Modern Asian Studies. 22 (3): 454. JSTOR 312590. (Subscription required (help)).  Haider, Najaf (1996). "Precious Metal Flows and Currency Circulation in the Mughal Empire". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 39 (3): 298–364. doi:10.1163/1568520962601180. JSTOR 3632649. (Subscription required (help)).  Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (2000). "A Note on the Rise of Surat in the Sixteenth Century". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 43 (1): 23–33. doi:10.1163/156852000511222. JSTOR 3632771. (Subscription required (help)).  Ud-Din, Hameed (January–March 1962). "Historians of Afghan Rule in India". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 82 (1): 44–51. JSTOR 595978. (Subscription required (help)). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lodi dynasty.

A History of Sind, Volume II, Translated from Persian Books by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, chpt. 68 Coin Gallery - Lodhi Dynasty

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Key figures

Bahlul Lodi Sher Shah Suri Mirwais Hotak Ahmad Shah Khan Ahmad Shah Durrani Dost Mohammad Khan Malalai of Maiwand Saidu Baba Abdur Rahman Khan Mahmud Tarzi Soraya Tarzi Amanullah Khan Mohammed Nadir Shah Mullah Powindah Sartor Faqir Umra Khan Mirzali Khan Bacha Khan Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai Wali Khan Zahir Shah Daoud Khan Abdul Ahad Mohmand Mohammad Najibullah Ghulam Ishaq Khan Mohammed Omar Hamid Karzai Asfandyar Wali Khan Zalmay Khalilzad Mohammad Ashraf Ghani Abdur Rab Nishtar Abdul Waheed Kakar Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) Karnal Sher Khan Malala Yousafzai

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Poets

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Pashtun nationalism Pashtunistan Afghan (ethnonym) Durand Line Bannu Resolution Khudai Khidmatgar Kalabagh Dam Taliban Names of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Anti-Pashtun sentiment

Battles and conflicts

First Battle of Panipat Battle of Gulnabad Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Attock Battle of Multan Battle of Shopian Battle of Nowshera Battle of Jamrud Siege of Malakand Anglo- Afghan Wars Battle of Maiwand Tirah Campaign Battle of Saragarhi Soviet– Afghan War War in Afghanistan (2001–2014) War in North-West Pakistan War in Afghanista

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