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Local government hierarchy in the Philippines. The dashed lines emanating from the president means that the president only exercises general supervision on local government.

Map of the Philippines
Philippines
showing provinces

Officially local government in the Philippines, often called local government units or LGUs, are divided into three levels – provinces and independent cities; component cities and municipalities; and barangays. In one area, above provinces and independent cities, is an autonomous region, the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. Below barangays in some cities and municipalities are sitios and puroks. All of these, with the exception of sitios and puroks, elect their own executives and legislatures. Sitios and puroks are often led by elected barangay councilors. Provinces and independent cities are organized into national government regions but those are administrative regions and not separately governed areas with their own elected governments. According to the Constitution of the Philippines, the local governments "shall enjoy local autonomy", and in which the Philippine president exercises "general supervision". Congress enacted the Local Government Code of the Philippines
Philippines
in 1991 to "provide for a more responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of decentralization with effective mechanisms of recall, initiative, and referendum, allocate among the different local government units their powers, responsibilities, and resources, and provide for the qualifications, election, appointment and removal, term, salaries, powers and functions and duties of local officials, and all other matters relating to the organization and operation of local units."[1]

Contents

1 Levels of local government

1.1 Autonomous Regions 1.2 Provinces 1.3 Cities and municipalities 1.4 Barangays

2 Offices

2.1 Legislatures 2.2 Elected officials 2.3 Offices that are common to municipalities, cities and provinces

3 Responsibilities 4 Creation and modification of local governments 5 See also 6 References

Levels of local government[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of the Philippines Autonomous Regions[edit] Main article: Regions of the Philippines Autonomous regions have more powers than other local governments. The constitution limits the creation of autonomous regions to Muslim Mindanao and the Cordilleras but only one autonomous region exists: the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Muslim Mindanao
(ARMM). In 2001, a plebiscite in the ARMM confirmed the previous composition of the autonomous region and added Basilan
Basilan
(except for the city of Isabela) and Marawi City in Lanao del Sur. Isabela City remains a part of the province of Basilan
Basilan
despite rejecting inclusion in the ARMM. A Cordillera Autonomous Region has never been formed because no plebiscite has received the required support. An autonomous region is governed by the regional governor and a legislature such as the ARMM Regional Legislative
Legislative
Assembly. Provinces[edit] Main article: Provinces of the Philippines Outside the lone autonomous region, the provinces are the highest-level local government. The provinces are organized into component cities and municipalities. A province is governed by the governor and a legislature known as the Sangguniang Panlalawigan. Cities and municipalities[edit] Main articles: Cities of the Philippines
Philippines
and Municipalities of the Philippines Municipal government
Municipal government
in the Philippines
Philippines
is divided into three – independent cities, component cities, and municipalities (sometimes referred to as towns). Several cities across the country are "independent cities" which means that they are not governed by a province, even though like Iloilo City
Iloilo City
the provincial capitol might be in the city. Independent city residents do not vote for nor hold provincial offices. Far more cities are component cities and are a part of a province. Municipalities are always a part of a province except for Pateros which was separated from Rizal
Rizal
to form Metro Manila. Cities and municipalities are governed by mayors and legislatures, which are called the Sangguniang Panlungsod
Sangguniang Panlungsod
in cities and the Sangguniang Bayan
Sangguniang Bayan
in municipalities. Barangays[edit] Main article: Barangay Every city and municipality in the Philippines
Philippines
is divided into barangays, the smallest of the Local Government Units. Barangays can be further divided into sitios and puroks but those divisions do not have leaders elected in formal elections supervised by the national government. A barangay's executive is the Punong Barangay
Barangay
or barangay captain and its legislature is the Sangguniang Barangay, composed of barangay captain, the Barangay
Barangay
Kagawads (barangay councilors) and the SK chairman. The SK chairman
SK chairman
also leads a separate assembly for youth, the Sangguniang Kabataan
Sangguniang Kabataan
or SK. Offices[edit] Local governments have two branches: executive and legislative. All courts in the Philippines
Philippines
are under the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Philippines
and therefore there are no local-government controlled judicial branches. Nor do local governments have any prosecutors or public defenders, as those are under the jurisdiction of the national government. The executive branch is composed of the regional governor for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, governor for the provinces, mayor for the cities and municipalities, and the barangay captain for the barangays.[2] Legislatures[edit] The legislatures review the ordinances and resolutions enacted by the legislatures below. Aside from regular and ex-officio members, the legislatures above the barangay level also have three sectoral representatives, one each from women, agricultural or industrial workers, and other sectors.[2]

Level of government Legislature Composition[2] Head

Autonomous region Regional Legislative
Legislative
Assembly[a]

total of 24 members:[3]

Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao
Maguindanao
(excluding Cotabato City), Sulu: 6 each, 3 elected from each assembly district Basilan
Basilan
(except Isabela City), Tawi-Tawi: 3 each, elected at-large

Sectoral representatives

Assembly speaker

Province Sangguniang Panlalawigan[b]

varies, as of 2016:[3]

Cavite
Cavite
and Cebu: 14 SP members, 2 elected from each district Batangas, Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
and Pangasinan:[c] 12 SP members, 2 elected from each district All other provinces of the first and second income classes:[d] 10 SP members, with seat distribution among districts varying.[e] Provinces of the third and fourth income classes:[f] 8 SP members, with seat distribution among districts varying.[e] Provinces of the fifth and sixth income classes: 6 SP members, 3 per district

President of the provincial chapter of the Liga ng mga Barangay President of the provincial chapter of the League of Councilors President of the provincial federation of the Sangguniang Kabataan Sectoral representatives

Vice governor

City Sangguniang Panlungsod[g]

varies, as of 2016:[3]

Manila
Manila
and Quezon City: 36 councilors, 6 elected from each district Davao City: 24 councilors, 8 elected from each district Antipolo, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu
Cebu
City, Makati, Muntinlupa, Parañaque, Taguig, Zamboanga City: 16 councilors, 8 elected from each district Bacoor, Calbayog, San Jose del Monte, and all other cities in Metro Manila: 12 councilors, 6 elected from each district Samal, Sorsogon City: 12 councilors, 4 elected from each district Bacolod, Baguio, Batangas
Batangas
City, Biñan, Dasmariñas, General Santos, Iligan, Iloilo City, Imus, Lapu-Lapu, Lipa, San Fernando (La Union), Tuguegarao: 12 councilors, elected at-large All other cities: 10 councilors, elected at-large

President of the city chapter of the Liga ng mga Barangay President of the city federation of the Sangguniang Kabataan Sectoral representatives

Vice mayor

Municipality Sangguniang Bayan

varies, as of 2016:[3]

Pateros, Metro Manila: 12 councilors, 6 elected from each district All other municipalities: 8 councilors, elected at-large

President of the municipal chapter of the Liga ng mga Barangay President of the municipal federation of the Sangguniang Kabataan Sectoral representatives

Vice mayor

Barangay Sangguniang Barangay

7 members elected at-large Sangguniang Kabataan
Sangguniang Kabataan
chairperson

Barangay
Barangay
captain

Sangguniang Kabataan

7 members elected at-large

Sangguniang Kabataan
Sangguniang Kabataan
chairperson

^ The boundaries of ARMM assembly districts are coterminous with the existing congressional districts, except for the 1st Assembly District of Maguindanao
Maguindanao
(which excludes Cotabato City
Cotabato City
and the Lone Assembly District of Basilan
Basilan
(which excludes Isabela City). ^ Provinces that comprise a single congressional district are divided into two SP districts. For provinces comprising multiple congressional districts, boundaries of SP and congressional districts are coterminous, with the exception of the following: • Independent cities which are not allowed by law to participate in electing provincial officials are excluded from SP districts. • The cities of Biñan
Biñan
and San Jose del Monte, despite forming their separate congressional districts, remain part of the 1st SP district of Laguna and the 4th SP district of Bulacan. ^ Dagupan
Dagupan
is excluded from the 4th SP district of Pangasinan. ^ Independent cities excluded from provincial elections: • Naga from Camarines Sur—3rd • Santiago from Isabela—4th • Tacloban
Tacloban
from Leyte—1st • Ormoc
Ormoc
from Leyte—4th • Cotabato City
Cotabato City
from Maguindanao—1st • Puerto Princesa
Puerto Princesa
from Palawan—3rd • Angeles from Pampanga—1st • General Santos
General Santos
from South Cotabato—1st. ^ a b The manner of seat distribution varies, per Republic Act No. 7166:[4] • For provinces comprising multiple congressional districts and need no boundary adjustments due to independent cities being excluded: each district receives the same number of members first, then any remainder will get assigned to the districts with higher population counts. • For provinces comprising multiple congressional districts but have district boundary adjustments: seats are distributed according to the population size of each SP district after factoring out the independent cities. • For provinces comprising a single congressional district: seats are usually distributed equally between the two SP districts drawn by COMELEC, although proportional allocation exists in cases where geography and circumstance have resulted in grossly uneven SP district population distributions (e.g. Benguet's and Sarangani's SP districts). ^ Butuan
Butuan
is excluded from the 1st SP district of Agusan del Norte. ^ The number of city council members and districts varies per city, as determined by different statutes. For cities comprising multiple congressional districts, boundaries of city council districts are coterminous with congressional districts, with the exception of the Legislative
Legislative
district of Taguig-Pateros which encompasses the 2nd SP district of Taguig
Taguig
and the 1st and 2nd SB districts of Pateros. By law, some cities that are not divided into multiple congressional districts are specifically divided into two (Bacoor, Calbayog, Las Piñas, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Pasay, Pasig, San Juan, San Jose del Monte, Valenzuela) or three (Samal, Sorsogon City) city council districts.

Elected officials[edit] All elected officials have 3-year terms, and can only serve a maximum of three consecutive terms before being ineligible for reelection.[5]

LGU Official Minimum age (18 is the voting age[6])

Autonomous region Regional governor 35 years old on election day[7]

Regional vice governor Same as regional governor

Regional legislative assembly member 21 years old on election day[7]

Provinces Governor 23 years old on election day[5]

Vice governor Same as governor

Sangguniang Panlalawigan member Same as governor

Highly urbanized cities Mayor Same as governor

Vice mayor Same as governor

Sangguniang Panlungsod
Sangguniang Panlungsod
member (Councilor) Same as governor

Independent component and component cities Mayor 21 years old on election day

Vice mayor Same as independent component and component city mayor[5]

Sangguniang Panlungsod
Sangguniang Panlungsod
member (Councilor) Same as independent component and component city mayor

Municipalities Mayor Same as independent component and component city mayor

Vice mayor Same as independent component and component city mayor

Sangguniang Bayan
Sangguniang Bayan
member (Councilor) Same as independent component and component city mayor

Barangay Barangay
Barangay
captain 18 years old on election day

Barangay
Barangay
kagawad Same as barangay captain

Sangguniang Kabataan
Sangguniang Kabataan
chairperson 15 to 21 years old on election day*

Sangguniang Kabataan
Sangguniang Kabataan
member Same as Sangguniang Kabataan
Sangguniang Kabataan
chairperson*

*a Sangguniang Kabataan
Sangguniang Kabataan
official who has surpassed 21 years of age while in office is allowed to serve for the rest of the term.[2] Offices that are common to municipalities, cities and provinces[edit] There are 21 offices in a government, whether it is municipal, city or provincial. There are some mandatory and optional offices to the government.

Office Head Municipality City Province

Office of the Secretary to the Sanggunian Secretary to the Sanggunian √ √ √

Treasurer's Office Treasurer √ √ √

Assessor's Office Assessor √ √ √

Accounting Office Accountant √ √ √

Budget Office Budget Officer √ √ √

Planning and Development Office Planning and Development Coordinator √ √ √

Engineer's Office Engineer √ √ √

Health Office Health Officer √ √ √

Office of the Civil Registry Civil Registrar √ √ X

Office of the Administrator Administrator √ √ √

Office of the Legal Services Legal Officer ? √ √

Office of Agricultural Services/Office of the Agriculturist Agriculturist ? ? √

(Office of) Social Welfare and Development Office Social Welfare and Development Officer √ √ √

(Office of) Environment and Natural Resources Office Environment and Natural Resources Officer ? ? ?

Office of Architectural Planning and Design Architect ? ? ?

Office of Public Information Information Officer ? ? ?

Office for the Development of Cooperatives/Cooperatives Development Office Cooperatives Officer X ? ?

Population Office Population Officer ? ? ?

Veterinary Office/Office of Veterinary Services Veterinarian X √ √

(Office of) Public Safety Office Public Safety Officer ? ? ?

(Office of) General Services Office General Services Officer X √ √

Legend: √ - Mandatory ? - Optional X - Not Applicable Source: Local Government Code of 1991[8] Responsibilities[edit] Among the social services and facilities that local government should provide, as stipulated in Section 17 of the Local Government Code, are the following:

facilities and research services for agriculture and fishery activities, which include seedling nurseries, demonstration farms, and irrigation systems; health services, which include access to primary health care, maternal and child care, and medicines, medical supplies and equipment; social welfare services, which include programs and projects for women, children, elderly, and persons with disabilities, as well as vagrants, beggars, street children, juvenile delinquents, and victims of drug abuse; information services, which include job placement information systems and a public library; a solid waste disposal system or environmental management system; municipal/city/provincial buildings, cultural centers, public parks, playgrounds, and sports facilities and equipment; infrastructure facilities such as roads, bridges, school buildings, health clinics, fish ports, water supply systems, seawalls, dikes, drainage and sewerage, and traffic signals and road signs; public markets, slaughterhouses, and other local enterprises; public cemetery; tourism facilities and other tourist attractions; and sites for police and fire stations and substations and municipal jail.

Creation and modification of local governments[edit] As a matter of principle, higher legislative entities have the power to create, divide, merge, abolish, or substantially alter boundaries of any lower-level local government through a law or ordinance, all subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite to be conducted by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) in the local government unit or units directly affected.[2] The Local Government Code has also set requisites for creating local government units.[2] A summary can be found in the table below:

Local government Area Population Income Legislative
Legislative
bodies that can create, merge, abolish or substantially alter the boundaries of the LGU

Province 2,000 square kilometers* 250,000* P20 million for the last two (2) consecutive years based on 1991 constant prices

Congress^

City 100 square kilometers* 150,000* P100 million for the last two (2) consecutive years based on 2000 constant prices[9]

Congress^

Municipality 50 square kilometers 25,000 P2.5 million for the last two (2) consecutive years based on 1991 constant prices

Congress ARMM Regional Assembly

Barangay None 5,000 ( Metro Manila
Metro Manila
and highly urbanized cities) 2,000 (rest of the country) None

Congress ARMM Regional Assembly Sangguniang Panlalawigan, with recommendation from the concerned Sangguniang Bayan(s) required Sangguniang Panlungsod

*either area or population; meeting only one of these requirements is sufficient ^The ARMM Regional Assembly was conferred by Congress (through Article VI, Section 19 of Republic Act 9054[7]) the power to create or modify lower-level LGUs under its jurisdiction, including provinces and cities. However, the Supreme Court's decision on the unconstitutionality of the now-defunct province of Shariff Kabunsuan[10] has effectively confined the regional assembly's powers to creating or modifying only municipalities and barangays. See also[edit]

List of primary local government units of the Philippines

References[edit]

^ "The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". www.gov.ph. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2015-11-12.  ^ a b c d e f Local Government Code of the Philippines, Book
Book
III Archived 2014-10-31 at the Wayback Machine., Department of Interior and Local Government official website. ^ a b c d Commission on Elections (18 August 2015). "COMELEC Resolution No. 9982". Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
- Commission on Elections. Retrieved 23 May 2017.  ^ Congress of the Philippines
Philippines
(26 November 1991). "Republic Act No. 7166 - An Act Providing for Synchronized National and Local Elections and for Electoral. Reforms, Authorizing Appropriations Therefor, And For Other Purposes". Retrieved 23 May 2017.  ^ a b c Local Government Code, Book
Book
I Archived 2008-05-08 at the Wayback Machine., Department of Interior and Local Government
Department of Interior and Local Government
official website. ^ Quismundo, Terra (29 May 2007). "Election law must prevail over culture, says Abalos". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 27 March 2009.  ^ a b c Republic Act 9054 ^ "Local Government Code of 1991 ( Book
Book
III: Local Government Units)". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved November 6, 2010.  ^ Republic Act 9009, Chanrobles Law Library. ^ Creation of the province of Shariff Kabunsuan
Shariff Kabunsuan
voided Archived 2009-04-01 at the Wayback Machine.

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