Lo Manthang was the walled capital of the Kingdom of Lo from its
founding in 1380 by Ame Pal who oversaw construction of the city wall
and many of the still-standing structures. After the Shahs of
Nepal out of numerous petty kingdoms in the 18th
century, Lo became a dependency but kept its hereditary rulers. This
arrangement continued as long as
Nepal remained a kingdom, until
republican government began in 2008 and
Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista
Jigme Dorje Palbar Bista (c.
1933–2016) lost his title. His protector King Gyanendra suffered
the same fate, however the
Raja or gyelpo of Mustang was 25th in a
direct line of rulers dating back to 1380 A.D. Gyanendra was only the
eleventh Shah ruler since
Prithvi Narayan Shah
Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered Kathmandu in
Lo Manthang is a Village Development Committee in
Dhawalagiri Zone of northern Nepal. The 1991 Nepal
census counted 876 people living in 178 households. The population
includes ethnic Lhobas.
Lo is the culturally and linguistically Tibetan northern two-thirds of
Mustang District, while the southern third is called Thak, the
Thakali people who speak a different language and have a
synthesis of Tibetan and Nepalese culture.
Recently a series of at least twelve caves were discovered north of
Annapurna and near the village, decorated with ancient Buddhist
paintings and set in sheer cliffs at 14,000 feet (4,300 m)
elevation. The paintings show Newari influence, dating to
approximately the 13th century, and also contain Tibetan scripts
executed in ink, silver and gold and pre-
Christian era pottery
shards. Explorers found stupas, decorative art and paintings
depicting various forms of the Buddha, often with disciples,
supplicants and attendants, with some mural paintings showing
sub-tropical themes containing palm trees, billowing Indian textiles
2 Tourism and access
4 See also
7 External links
Upper Mustang § Transport
Lo Manthang is 20 kilometres (12 mi) by unpaved road from a
border crossing into
Zhongba County of Shigatse Prefecture, TAR. This
road continues about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from the border to
China National Highway 219, which follows the valley of the Yarlung
Nepal is building a road north along the Kaligandaki River, to within
9 kilometres (6 mi) of
Lo Manthang as of 2010. There are also
scheduled flights from Kathmandu to
Jomsom Airport, 50 kilometres
(31 mi) south of China .
Tourism and access
The village is noted for its tall white washed mud brick walls, gompas
and the Raja's or Royal or King's Palace, a nine-cornered, five story
structure built around 1400. There are four major temples: Jampa
Lhakhang or Jampa Gompa, the oldest, built in the early 15th century
and also known as the "God house"; Thubchen Gompa, a huge, red
assembly hall and gompa built in the late 15th century and located
just southwest of Jampa Gompa; Chodey Gompa, now the main city gompa;
and the Choprang Gompa, which is popularly known as the "New
Even though foreign visitors have been allowed in the kingdom since
1992, tourism to
Upper Mustang remains limited, with just over 2000
foreign tourists in 2008.
The Nepalese Department of Immigration requires foreign visitors to
obtain a special permit, which costs $50 per day per person, and
liaison (guide) to protect local tradition from outside influence as
well as to protect their environment.
The Royal Palace in Lo Manthang
The settlement of Lo Manthang
Nepal Tourism Center, Upper Mustang
Kali Gandaki Gorge
Kali Gandaki River
^ Peissel, Michel (1992) . Mustang - A Lost Tibetan Kingdom (2nd
ed.). Book Faith India, Delhi. pp. 227–31.
^ China View news
Nepal Census 2001". Nepal's Village Development Committees. Digital
Himalaya. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 15
November 2009. .
^ a b c d e Gopal Sharma, Explorers find ancient caves and paintings
in Nepal, Reuters, May 3, 2007, Accessed October 28, 2012
^ Mustang: The Forbidden Kingdom Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback
Machine., Royal Mountain Travel, 2004, Accessed May 3, 2007.
Upper Mustang Trek Archived 2013-06-02 at the Wayback Machine., Osho
World Adventure Pvt. Ltd., Accessed June 2, 2013.
Nepal Trekking Permit Fees Archived 2013-07-15 at the Wayback
Machine., TAAN Nepal, Accessed June 2, 2013.
Maïe Kitamura, La cité fortifiée de Lo Manthang, Mustang, Nord du
Népal. Paris, Éditions Recherches, 2011. 214 plans & drawings,
photography. ISBN 978-2-86222-077-2. 
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lo Manthang.
UN map of the municipalities of Mustang District
The Himalayan Cultural Conservation Campaign Nepal
Restoring a temple on Nova (series)
Lo-manthang Photo Gallery